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Full text of "Journal of botany, British and foreign."

*"? * J t 






THE 



JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



) 




BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 



JAMES BEITTEN, F. L. S., 

Senior Assistant, Department of Botany, British Museum (Natural History), 

South Kensington, 






VOL. XXXI. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES AND WOODCUTS. 



Mo. Bot. Garden, 



1894 



LONDON: 



WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN 



1893. 



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NOTICE. 






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THE 



JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 



ON CYC AS TAIWANIANA, sp.nov., AND C. SEEMAXNJ A.Br. 

By W. Carruthebs, F.R.S. 

(Plates 330, 331). 

The characters employed in grouping the Afferent species of 
the eenus Cvcas are not altogether satisfactory. No doubt this is 
dtfo Te absence of complete materials or *^a^^^ 
suecies either in cultivation or m herbaria. 1 he portions oi ttie 
Ets necessarily best known are the leaves; they have been 
Employed a e s SS a a bJis of classification, the ch^^«g 

?.* j • s or ^ ie more or less flat nature oi tne 

Sen": Tut irfiS n tiia t in the most characteristic revolute 
spSs (C. reVoluta L.) there are plants with flat margins shows 
that this can be of little value, while the revolute species from India 

C ii^Dyer) has its affinities with the C. cireinaUs and the 
Australian species,and not with C. revoluta or C inernas. Neither can 
Ue presence of tomentum on the spadices be of much value, as 

t? P deneuds in several species on the age of the spadix. It 
Invars to me looking at the materials existing in the Herbarium 
ofthe British Museum, and at the published figures and descrip- 
?inn<, that the form of the barren expansion in the female spadices 
ii Jnnn t n the present state of our knowledge, better characters 
7or ' gro P ^ tt? any hitherto suggested. Three types are 



present : 

~ " Where 



teeth on t™u^ -rg^ of the rhomb, the terminal one 
being usually much larger. To this group belong C. curutaks, U 
LUnm.hiL C. Seenuinni, the Australian species, &c. _ ■ 

Second Where the lamina is longer than broad, and is deeply 
cut along the sides into spiny teeth. To this belong C raoluta 
Linn., C. inenms Lour., and C. Taiwamana here described. 

Third Where the lamina is broader than long, and the spiny 
teeth are' borne chiefly on the upper margin To this group 
belong the species discovered and figured by W. Gnffith,-C. pec- 
ZataGvi&.,C.JeuIdndavaGvm.,l\macrocarpaGnS. The materials 

for the history of this group are still very imperfect. 

In the herbarium of. Dr. Hance, which was some years ago 



Journal or Botany.—Vol. 31. [January, 1893.] 



B 



2 ON CYCAS TAIWANIANA AND C. SEEMANNI A, Br. 

acquired by the British Museum, there is part of a leaf and three 
foliar spadiees of a Cycas from the Island of Formosa. It belongs 
to the group of G. retoltitu, though the barren lamina approaches 
the species of the first group. It may be thus described : 

Cycas Taiwaniana, sp. nov. — Leaf with numerous erecto- 
patent subopposite segments, springing from a terete rachis ; petiole 
unknown ; segments flat, linear-lanceolate (5 to 7 in. long, rather 
more than £ in. broad), decreasing below to a base about half the 
width of the segment, decurrent, but scarcely turned upwards on 
the rachis, shining, paler on the under surface. Male cone 
unknown. Female spadiees nearly glabrous, loug, with slender 
stipes ; fruit (3 or 4) borne above the middle ; lamina nearly as 
broad as long, deeply cut on both sides into linear acuminate 
spines of the same substance as the lamina; terminal spine some- 
what longer, broad and serrate. 

The specific name is from Tai-wan, the native name of 
Formosa. No more definite information is contained on the label 
than that the specimens were collected in the island of Formosa by 
Mr. Swinhoe, and sent to Dr. Hance in the autumn of 1867, from 
whose herbarium, as I have said, came the specimen in the British 
Museum on which the species is founded. 

In the Flora Vitietm* Dr. Seemann described a Cycas which he 
found in the Fiji Islands, and referred to ('. eircinaUH L. A. Braun 
subsequently pointed out characters by which he separated it from 
C. circinalis L. and named it O. Stent ttnni. Baron von Mueller has 
described the plant at length. Dr. Masters having lately given the 
Botanical Department a series of photographs of the plant, it 
seemed to the Editor desirable to g.ve an illustration of this line 
Cycad, discovered by and named after the founder of this Journal. 
It has a stem thirty feet high. In the specimen figured from the 
photograph, an adventitious bud, developed two-thirds up the stem, 
has maintained its connection with the stem and developed into a 
branch. The stem is marked by alternate constrictions and 
enlargements, canned by the alternation of the fruiting spadiees and 
the normal leaves. The scars left by the spadiees are smaller, 
and these being food-consuming organs, the stem is constricted 
where they have been borne. The petiole is unarmed, and the 
numerous segments (50 to 70) are papyraceous, spreading and 
curved ; they gradually decrease from a little above the constricted 
base and end in a long acuminate apex. The male cone is two 
leet long, and the scales have a short, acute, ascending apex on the 
upper par of the ^one. The female spadix bears from six to eight 
nuts ; it has a d.lated, subtriangular apex, with small spines along 
the upper margins and a terminal one scarcely larger than the 
other. It was found m Viti-Levu and Ovalau by Dr Seemann. 

In the Museum Herbarium there are specimens of a Cycad from 
the Tonga Islands collected by Banks and Solander in Cant. Cook's 
first voyage, which was referred by Dr. Seemann with his Fijian 
plant to L cuci,»,hs L. It differs in the texture and form of the 
segments of the leaves and the presence of a large terminal spine 
on the spadix ; hut until more materials are obtained from the Tonga, 



KEY TO BRITISH RUBI. 3 



Fiji, New Caledonia and neighbouring islands, it is undesirable to 
add new names to the genus, as they may represent only unim- 
portant geographical modifications. 



Explanations of Plates. 



Tab. 330. — Cycas Seemanni A. Br. Representing the general aspect of the 
plant, the male and the female fruiting heads, with a single spadix, all somewhat 
reduced in size from photographs. 

Tab. 331. — Cycas Taiwaniana, from specimen in the British Museum. 



AN ESSAY AT A KEY TO BRITISH RUBI. 

By the Rev. W. Moyle Rogers, F.L.S. 

(Continued from vol. xxx., p. 341.) 

Group 8. Bellardiani (= Glandulosi Focke). — 57. mostly 
prostrate and roundish, rooting, often glaucous. All the stems densely 
clothed with stalked glands, bristles, aeicles and prickles of various 

sizes. Prickles more frequently weak than in the Radul.e and the 
Koehleriani; often subulate. Pan. racemose or with racemose 
lateral branches at the base. All the Its. distinctly stalked. Stipules 
filiform. Stain, rather frequently falling short of the s'ylts, or 
barely equalling them. 

Usually rather small low-growing plants. 

A. Stalked glands very unequal ; some of those on the pan. 
longer than the diameter of the ped. : — (74) viridis ; (75) Vuro- 

trigum ; (76) divejciramm ; (77) saxkolus ; (78) Bdlardi ; (79) serpens ; 

(80) kirtm and vars. All nearly allied plants. 

B. Stalked glands short; those on the pan. hidden in the dense 
hair or felt ( fc< sunken"), or at least shorter than the diameter of 
the ped. : — (81) tercticauli*; (82) f oigoclados and vars. 

74. R. viridis Kalt. Journ. Bot. 1890 f pp.. 134, 16(5. R. in- 
ctdtus Wirtg. Syn. B. (J. p. 369. — St,, petioles, pan.-rachides and 
ped. all thickly clothed with very unequal prickles, aeicles, bristles 
and stalked glands, usually densely hairy, more rarely almost 
glabrous. St. long, prostrate, roundish or bluntly angular. 
Prickles mostly short and declining, conical, broad based. L. 
chiefly 5-nate-pedate. Lts. pale green, shining above, more or less 
hairy on both sides, rather coarsely and irregularly but not deeply 
dentate-serrate; term, roundish or broadly ovate-cuspidate or 
elliptic-acuminate from a slightly emarginate base, often with 1 or 2 
lobate dentitions above the middle (usually on one side only). 
Ban. usually rather long and lax, pyramidal, with straight rachis and 
numerous nearly patent few-flowered branches, clothed like the st. 
except in having still slenderer aciculate prickles. Sep. attenuate- 
acuminate, purple with stalked glands, patent in fr. Bet. very long 
and narrow, pointed and cuneate-based, white or slightly pinkish. 
Stam. white (or reddening later), usually far surpass. ng the styles. 

In several counties (N, & 8 f ). 

9 2 



4 



KKY TO BRITISH RUBI 



When growing in woods, very similar to R. pallidas W. & N., but 
readily distinguished from it by its more unequal prickles, acicles 



and stalked glands and less diffusely branched pan., and al:,~ 
usually by its rounder, less acuminate, less deeply toothed and less 
cordate-based terra. It. In open sunny places the plant becomes 
much stouter, its 1. lose their soft hairs, and its broadly pyramidal 
and nearly naked panicles are enormous. It then recalls the next 
species and rosaceus. 

75. R. Durotrigum E. P. Murray, Joum. Bot. 1892, p. 15.— 
St. prostrate, bluntly angular, apparently quite glabrous, yellowish 
on the under side, bright red above, densely clothed with slender acicles, 
bristles and stalked glands of all sizes. Prickles also remarkably 
crowded, very long-based, very slender, declining, falcate and defiexed. 

L. 5-nate-pedate to 8-nate, subpersistent. Us. green, subalabrous, 
acutely doubly incise-serrate, acuminate; term, broadly roundish- 
ovate or slightly obovate, with long, gradually acuminate point and 
subcordate base. Pan. lax, xcith flexuose hairy rachis (armed like tbe 
st.) and crowded tilt r a-aAlla ry rounded top ; its lower 1. 5-nate. Dors 
R. Durotrigum seems nearly allied to the open-ground states of 
R. viruhs (not yet found in Dors.), but it differs from them by its 
slenderer and far more crowded and still more unequal prickles and 
acicles and various gland-tipped organs,— the prickles also beino- 
onger-based and more variable in direction; by the far less hairy 
Its., with their longer points and deeply incise-serrate acute tooth- 
ing ; by the more interrupted pan. and flexuose and still more 
strongly armed rachis ; and by the small pinkish pet. Its sen are 
attenuate and patent as in viridis, or somewhat loosely reflexed in 
V ut % seem more hirsute, and so perhaps rather less con- 
spicuously glandular. Its stam. are usually shorter and its styles 

wSf T f, y ° Dger ' ^^ a PP are »tly somewhat variable in 
length in both species. Its ultra-axillary branches are also usually 

ZJ 17? oge t hei A and its lower branches more disfcanfc fro™ 

1 XJ?l "° m €ach ° 1 th , er ' S ° ( fc °S ether with the flexuose rachis) 
fu riridt PaD ' ^ E a le8S markedl y Pyramidal outline than 

distm'c/TocS, ° nl l ^ D ° rS 'i th ^ gh in at least «■»•• or four 
distinct localities and in considerable quantity, and showing no 

noticeable variation under changed conditions of shade and sofl. 



and pod armerr^^r MU r~ St -' P etioles > Pan-rachides 
a r»f P 7 T »nd clothed much as in R. viridis. St. long pro.- 

hats dZT;:Z dlS ' l i 1£ rather T Uy SCattered -d cfusCd 
X;»f:i " ' ^-. 3 i; nate -P edate ' ™*% 8-nate. Lts. 



it 



simple in the 8 Inate 1 W i "^ Cr ° W<ted teeth > which are nearl y 
simple in tne d-nate 1. but become more compound in the 5-nate • 

term, obovate-acuminate or cusDidate «™ m ,-«o+i /» , ', 

«,.„,.,„/,„, „*,., . ^ u »piaaie-acuminate, uith narrowed and 

abZ TL ,/ tman » U,nr tn r aU bnSe - Fan - ™>>.l »%*% narrowing 
\oZTJl7T CUOUSl !(- C ^ d> ^ 1 vltra-aJary fc^ with many 

ess^e tern fl thTS^T^ ^-^ered branches and sub* 
•essiie term, fl., the slightly flexuose rachis and the ped. more or 
less felted above, densely hairy, uith many „, *C TcZate 



KEY TO BRITISH RUBI, 



5 



» 

prickles and crowded unequal acicles and stalked glands. Sep. 
triangular-ovate with very long points, externally green, aciculate 
and glandular, clasping fr. Ret. small (scarcely exceeding stam.), 
oblong, distant, white. Stam. white, exceeding greenish styles. 
Woods and bushy places (Glost., Heref., Dev.). 

A distinct-looking plant; when fresh appearing just inter- 
mediate between R. longithyrsiger and R. viridis, and frequently 
growing with the former, though not observed by me with the 

latter. 

77. K. saxicolus P. J. Modi.— "St. angular, nearly glabrous. 
L. mostly 5-nate. Lts. with short soft hairs beneath, shining, espe- 
cially on the nerves ; term, broadly ovate, pointed. Inflorescence 
often elongated, lax; branches often with aggregated ped., densely 
patent-hairy, furnished with crowded glands, bristles and acicles. 
Sep. patent in fr. Pet. narrow, white." The foregoing is a 
translation of Dr. Focke's recently published description of tins 
species. Speaking of its distribution in Germany, he adds, " The 
typical form is rare; but similar forms, approaching R. viruhs, 
hirtus or Koehleri, are very common." Plants from Oxf., Suss, and 
Monm. that he has thus named for me have brownish polished st., 
with very unequal broad-based prickles and acicles and com- 
paratively few stalked glands, I. greyish green beneath, remarkably 
hairy pan.-rachis with most of the unequal-stalked glawls hidden in the 

hair the pan. branches crowded above into a rather narrow, 
rounded, cylindrical top, with short, distant, few-flowered branches 
below, and very small pinkish pet. 

There is so much difference of opinion amongst us in England as 
to the distinctive characters of the three next "species," that it 
seems desirable for me in their case to give a translation of 
Dr. Focke's descriptions. 

78 R. Bellardi W. & N. ?, R. dentatm Blox. " {R. glandnlosm 
and R. h,,bridus autor. mult.).— St. only indistinctly angled near 
the top, glaucous, sparsely hairy, densely clad with unequal weak 
prickles, glandular bristles and stalked glands. L. 3-nate. Lts. 
almost equal in size, light green, rather evenly and finely serrate green 
and hairy on both sides ; term, elliptic, with a lanceolate or linear- 
lanceolate mucronate point. Inflorescence short ; the lower branch- 
lets erect-patent, usually 3-flowered; the ^ upper straggling, 1- 
flowered- rachides and ped. hairy, with hne acicles, red with 
numerous unequal-stalked glands and glandular bristles. Sep. em- 
bracing the youwi fr. after flowering. Pet. narrow, spathulate, white. 
Stam. fully as high as the styles. Drupelets glabrous. Fr. small, 
aromatic." " In very few brambles," Dr. Focke adds, " is the form 
bo constant as in R. BeUardU " (the spelling preferred by him) ; 
" hence it can readily be recognized everywhere, although the 
characters otherwise afford no distinct means of differentiation from 
the forms of the R. hirtus group. On cool, wooded soils, especially 

in springy ground." 

Prof. Babington's fuller description in Brit. Rubi, down to the 
middle of p. 248, agrees admirably with this ; as both do with 
Welsh specimens of mine, which Dr. Focke refers here as " quite 



C) KEY TO BRITISH RUBI. 



typical/' The 3-nate 1., with large, nearly equal, finely serrate 
Its., and the very short patent-branched, few-flowered pan,, are the 
most characteristic features. 

79. E. serpens Weihe. — "Differs from 2?. Bellardii chiefly in the 
shape of the 1. Stalked glands many, but mostly not, or but little, 
exceeding the felted hairs of the pan.-rachis; a few longer. Ped. 
long, finely aciculate. Stam. scarcely exceeding the styles. L. of 
the barren st. 3-nate and 5-nate-j^date. Lts. green and hairy on 
both sides, unequally serrate ; tenn. 3-5 times longer than its stalk, 
ovate, cordate-ovate or oUomj obovate with emanjinate base, cuspidate. 

Rather polymorphic ; chiefly distinguishable by the short stalk of 
the term. It." Mostly confined to wooded hills. Found iu great 
quantity on the hills above Tintern, Monm., by Rev. A. Ley, a 
small prostrate plant with very long Its. and a markedly flexuose 
short pan. 

80. R. hirtus W. & K.— " St. prostrate from a low base, more 
rarely climbing, roundish, only indistinctly angled near the top, 
more or less hairy, densely covered with stalked (/lands, glandular 
bristles toid acicles. L. principally 3-nate ; in strong shoots mixed 
with 5-nate ones. Lts. coarsely and (in their upper part) often un- 
equally serrate, dark green and with strigulose hairs above, paler, 
densely hairy on the nerves beneath ; term. 3-4 times as long as its 
stalk, generally broadly elliptic from a rounded base, gradually 
narrowed to a short point, in other respects not unfrequently 
varying in shape. Flowering branches not seldom sessile, many- 
flowered; the normal ones, on the branches of the 2-year-old st., 
of moderate size, leafy below ; rachides of the inflorescence violet or 
red-brown with stalked glands and many long glandular bristles. 
Sep. erect after flowering. Pet. oblong, white. Stam. numerous, 
rather exceeding the styles. Fr. globular, with small drupelets. 
Very polymorphic and widely distributed . . . the type does not 
occur in the W. German ranges and Switzerland, but countless 
indefinable vars. and closely related forms are to be found." 

If we compare with this closing remark what Dr. Focke says on 
this species in Ins paper in Journ, Bot. 1890, p. 134, we shall not 
wonder at the difficulty which the plant as an aggregate causes us 
in England. We have, however, two marked forms which are some- 
what widely distributed, and seem worth distinguishing as vars. :- 



otundift 



R. amictus P. J. Muell. 



Engl. Bot. Suppl. to 3rd ed. pp. 117, 118.— St. deeply striate, hair,, 
and (as are the many unequal declining prickles and acicles) yellowish ; 
acicles and crowded stalked glands mostly very short. Lts. Ten, 

tin,, and ultimately glabraus-lookiny beneath, though still clothed with 
minute wh.te hairs ; term, roundish elliptic, with sliort point. Pan.- 

Irmn fn~ h i ^ \T s hair and exceedingly mixed brownish 
. rmat re, the largest pr.ckles being remarkably long and slender ; 

with ft PPer * brai u heS ° ffeen haviu g W divaricate ped. Sep 
form in ?hM-?' ^T^ ly i>?fr* A "constant and abundant 

fwilihn and ,^y »"dg<» in the Teign Valley, S. Dev. 

here bo h pan and Its. are often enormous), and in parts of N. 

IW. Apparently very locnl mother counties. 



KEY TO BRITISH RUBI. 



7 



c. II. Kaltenbachii Metsch. — St. more angular and deeply striate, 
with fewer hairs and acieles, many stalked glands and subulate 
declining prickles. L. more frequently 5-nate. Lts. narrower, 
idwvate-acxuninate, almost simply dentate-serrate, but with the larger 
teeth patent or recurred. Fan. lar<»e, pyramidal, drooping, with 

several many-flowered branches below mostly erect-patent, but 
sometimes patent or even divaricate; the upper branches 1- or few- 
flowered with many simple floral 1. ; the rachis and peil. dark with 
purplish black, stalked glands. Usually a handsome plant with showy 

11. (Glost., Somers.). 

R. p>endulinus P. J. Muell. (Journ. But. 1886, p. 284) and R. 

velatus Lefr. (B. E. C. Rep. 1888, p. 211; 1889, p, 254) would 
perhaps be best kept out of our list for the present. The former 
seems hardly to differ from R. Bellardi except by its red styles, 
hairy carpels and 3-5-nate 1. The latter is nearer to R. hirtus, and 
(as represented by the Eev. A. Ley's Lyonshall specimen) has obo- 
vate Its. and a long, leafy, cylindrical pan. with pseudo-umbellate 
side branches and small pet. 

B. Stalked glands of the pan. sunken, or at least shorter than 
the diameter of the ped. 

81. R. tereticaulis P. J. Muell., B. E. C. Rep. 1888, p. 212; 

Engl. BoL, Suppl. 3rd ed., p. 113. — St. roundish, densely hairy, 
with many (mostly short) stalked glands and very slender, unequal, 
acicalate prickles and acieles. L. 3-5-nate. Lts. acutely serrate, 
green and hairy on both sides; term, broadly elliptic or obovate, 
"acuminate, from nearly entire or subcordate base. Pan. either 
simply racemose or pseudo-umbellate-racemose below; the some- 

what flejcuose rachis and ped. densely felted and hairy with sunken 

blackish stalked glands, more rarely with appressed felt overtopped by 
the short stalked glands; long gland- tipped bristles and prickles very 
few or absent. Sep. only rareiy patent or ascending, usually loosely 
rejiexed even in fr. "Stain, generally rather shorter than the 
styles, longer in flat-country forms." Heathland nr. Sprowston, 

Norf. ; in considerable quantity. 

At first sight very like R. hirtus, but distinguished from it 
without difficulty by the far more hairy st., with its very slender 
aciculate prickles, and by the sunken, blackish, stalked glands on 
the pan. 

82. R. oigocladus Muell. & Lefv. ? 11 fuseo-ater Angl. auct. 
(in part). "Near R. omalodontos Mull/' Ft. Plym.; B. E. L. 
Rep. 1891, p. 332.— S*. stout, roundish, deeply striate, glaucous, 

thinly clothed with very short hair and fairly many very short acieles and 
stalked glands. Prickles declining, much compressed ; a few rather 
large. L. mostly 5-nate-pedate, Lts. rather thick, thinly hairy on 
both sides, grey-green beneath, finely serrate, all usually obovate- 
cuspidate ; term, broadly obovate-truncate with cuspidate or shortly 
cuspidate-acuminate point, from narrow, emarginate or subcordate 
base. Pan. often long; the ultra-axillary part either wholly 
racemose with subsessile term. fl. and long-pedicelled lateral fl., or 
with a few 2-3-flowered branches at the base of the racemose top ; 



8 KEY TO BRITISH RUBI. 

the axillary branches distant, long, chiefly racemose ; all the 
ruchides and fed. grey-felted and hairy, with abundant sunken glands, 

an occasional stalked gland about equalling the hair, and rarely a 
gland-tipped acicle or two; the prickles mostly few, slender, 
declining. Sep. rather long-pointed, ashy grey, loosely reflexed infr. 
Pet. rather large, obovate. Stam. exceeding the styles. Woods 
(Heref. and neighbouring counties ; Dev.). 

Strongly recalling R. mucronatus, but with much hairier st. and 
pan., and totally different armature. 

b. R. Briggsii Blox. R. emersistylus P. J. Muell. ? Journ. Bot. 
1869, p. 33 ; 1878, pp. 175, 176.— L. chiefly 8-nate, with lateral 
Its. gibbous and lobed below. Lts. finely but rather more doubly 
serrate, rounder and more acuminate; term, long-stalked, roundish 
ovate, acuminate, with deeply cordate base; lateral very similar. Pan. 
more branched and more leafy above, with roundish Its. like those 
of the st. Sep. mostly clasping in fr. Henfield, Suss.; Bickleigh 
Vale, Dev. Latterly regarded by Mr. Briggs as possibly only a 
very strongly marked abnormal form. 

c. R. Bagnalli Blox. Journ. Bot. 1878, pp. 175, 176.— Very like 
var. b., but with somewhat slenderer and more declining subulate 
prickles, a good many 5-nate-pedate I. with all the Its. remarkably 
similar, thinner and less hairy ; and a narrower pan., which is less 
leafy above and has rather distant, erect-patent, small-flowered 
branches. In several places in Warw. 

These singular vars. seem (as Mr. Baker suggested in Journ. 
Bot. 1886, p. 75) to connect this group with R. dumetorum W. & N. 

Group 9. Cjesii (= corylifolii Focke). — St. creeping or 
climbing from a low arch, glaucous, roundish or slightly angular, 
with many rooting branches in autumn. Prickles mostly slender, 
often only aciculate. Intermediate acicles and stalked glands 
usually few (except in some dumetorum forms) ; sometimes absent. 
Lts. broad ; fat. hardly stalked. Stipules more or less broadened in 
the middle. Pan. usually rather short ; its prickles mainly acicu- 
late ; its fi. large and its fr. often abortive, or maturing only a few 
large drupelets. Flowering early and late. 

If we except some of the plants that go to make up the 
aggregate R. dumetorum (a link between the other Cjesii and the 
two preceding groups), this is a very natural group of closely 
allied forms,— all the more difficult to distinguish from each other 
for that reason, as Prof. Babington has pointed out. Whether the 
intermediate plants included under R. dumetorum are best placed 
here (as by Focke, who combines with them our corylifolians), or 
reckoned with the glandulose brambles, as apparently suggested by 
Mr. Warren (now Lord de Tabley) in his paper in Joum. Bot. 1870, 
or are better separated from each other and divided between the 
koEHLERum and C^sn (as by Babington), is of course open to 
question. I can only say that the arrangement I have chosen 
chiefly as will be seen, on Mr. Warren's lines) appears to me on 
the whole the most natural and most convenient. 

Chiefly found in hedges and waste places and on walls. Espe- 
cially abundant on clay and chalk soils, where, with R. rusticaL, 



KEY TO BRITISH RUBI. 



9 



they usually prevail to the exclusion of most other species. Much 
rarer on gravel and sand. 

83. R. dumetorum W. & N. JoUrn. Bot. 1870, pp. 149-154, 169 
_176. — St. usually somewhat angular and hairy, with numerous mi- 
equal (mostly strong) prickles and some (often many) acicles and 
stalked glands. L. chiefly 5-nate-pedate. Lts. thick, acutely and 
often doubly serrate, green on both sides, paler and softly pubescent 
or felted beneath, more or less acuminate aud imbricate ; has. sub- 
sessile. Pan. compound ; rachis felted and hairy, usually very 

Strongly armed with unequal prickles, acicles and stalked glands. Sep. 

grey-felted, usually erect in Jr., but sometimes only patent or loosely 
reflexed. Pet. large, roundish, hardly clawed, usually overlapping. 
Stam. exceeding styles. 

Separated from species of the Koehleriani and Bellardiani by 
the subsessile bas. Its., large roundish pet. and large drupelets, and 
generally by a somewhat caesian aspect. Distinguished from other 
Gje.su pretty readily by the far more glandular aud aciculate st. and 
pan.-rachis, and further to some extent by the more regular and 
more compound pan. ; but, it must be owned, the difficulty of deter- 
mination is sometimes serious enough, and is liable to be not a 
little aggravated by the freedom with which many of the forms 

hybridise. _ „ . 

The following appear to be the best marked of the Jinghsii 

forms or vars. of this species : — . , 

a. R. ferox Weihe. R. horridus Schultz.— St. subglabrous, with 
a good many acicles and stalked glauds (mostly short). Frictcies 

very crowded on mature St., straight, much compressed, short-based, witn 
lowi slender points. L. almost wholly 5-nate, broad. Term. it. 
roundish obovate-acuminate, long-stalked, with truncate-emargmateor 
entire base. Pan. usually short, and chiefly contracted into a rather 
broad rounded top, armed like the st. Sep. ovate, suddenly contracted 
into a long point, clasping in fr., grey-felted with white margin. 
Pet usually pink. St. aud pan. remarkably variable in stoutness 
and in the amount of armature at different stages of the same 
plant; but when quite mature stouter and with more densely 
crowded prickles than in any other form. Widely but somewhat 

thinly ^UJ fu ' Um ( Lin ai.)_Very like R.ferox, but with prickles 

Uss croivded, more unequal and longer bused, the term. It. less roundish 
and more shortly stalked, and so all the Its. more frequently 
imbricate ; while the pan. is usually " long, W* nearly to the top, 
xoith very short axillary, few-flowered, subracemose branches, often 
springing from every axil of the shoot." The sep. also are ulti- 
vmteh, relieved (though usually erect for a time) and the pet. white. 
Widely distributed, and locally abundant. R. interna Blox. seems 
to be a small strongly armed state of this. 

c. pilosus W. & J&.—AU the stems hniry and strongly armed. 
Prickles subpatent, from compressed bases, long, rather slender, 
passing gradually into crowded acicles and stalked glands. Pau. 
leafy nearly to the top ; axillary branches longer and more distant 
than in dioersifolim, corymbose, many-flowered. Sep. loosely 



10 THE MYCETOZOA OF SOUTH BEDS AND NORTH HEKTS. 

clasping or erect-patent. " The only member of the group with 
distinctly set3se-hauy st. M Laie. aui Warw. Apparently nearest 
to dicers if alius, but unknown to me. 

d. li. scabrosu* (P. J. Muell.). R. tuherculatus Bab. — St* bluntly 
angular, striate, slightly hairy, with fewer and inconspicuous aeicles 
a)id stalked glands. Prickles less unequal, with stouter cushion like 
bases. L. 3-5-nate-pedate, doubly dentate-serrate. Term* It. 
roundish elliptic with rather short point ; bas. (of 3-nate 1.) bilobate. 
Pan. with corymbose- truncate ultra-axillary top and few-flowered 
ascending axillary branches. Sep. loosely clasping. Pet. pinkish. 
Apparently somewhat widely distributed, but variable. 

e. concilium Baker. — St. rather slender, striate, with few hairs 
and very scattered armature ; the long prickles and larger aeicles with 

broad compressed bases, the stalked glands and small aeicles few. 

L. chiefly 3-nate. Lts. dark green above, much paler beneath, 
usually smaller and more finely and regularly serrate than in the other 
forms 4 ; term, roundish ovate or somewhat obovate-rhomboidal 
with very slender cuspidate-acuminate point. Pan. elongate, con- 
siderably glandular, rather closely felted, with narrow ultra-axillary 
top and long distant patent-erect branches below. Sep. patent or 
loosely reflexed.^ Pet. smaller, pinkish. Smaller, neater, more 
felted and less prickly than dicersifolius ; approaching much nearer 

to corylifolius, thoi 

prickles. Prickles all remarkably patent and Its. concave. A well- 
marked form, at all events as it occurs in Derb. Chiefly northern, 
so far as I have been able to observe. 

- 

(To be continued.) 



The MYCETOZOA of SOUTH BEDS and NORTH HERTS. 

By James Saunders. 

In continuation of the papers on the flora of South Beds which 
have appeared in this Journal at intervals for the last ten years, 
the following list of Mycetozoa is given as a first instalment. The 
species observed in the contiguous portions of Hertfordshire are 
also enumerated. Some hundreds of specimens have been collected, 
and a stdl larger number have been observed in the field, but only 
two or three stations at most are given for each county for the 



ubiquitous forms. 



The list contains some noteworthy species. The first place may be 
accorded to thmdrwdermd Mdnun, which is a new British record : 
but perhaps there is more interest attached to the finding of the 
Plasmodium stage of BadJ.ania iuaurata, the discovery of which was 
a, desideratum.* It was first noticed by my son Edgar in February, 

Berkelevas fcw &! ° f B «*hami« pallida Berk, is referred to by Rev. m7j. 

Mvt J ltn s Z 1-Ti ?,o° tlC ?^ y ^ dham at East Ber S holt - ^ March, 1861 
K ^cdtc on n,™ m'Z V'^u K » mi ™tian of the type specimen in the 

Cuaey \ h * ^ 8pecieS aS ****& in*™** of 



MYCETOZOA Ob' SOUTH BEOS AND NORTH HERTS. 



11 



1892, 011 decayed brandies in Caddington Wood. The Plasmodium 
3 pale yellow', sometimes showing a greenish hue when creeping 
iver a lichen-covered surface. It occurs in anastomosing veins, 
which often assume a fan-shape at the extremities. On several 
occasions the plasmodium crept into the interstices of the rotten 
wood, remaining there for several days before its final emergence, 
prior to the formation of its sporangia. So deceptive was this 
habit, with the fact that slimy refuse remained on the spot it had 
formerly occupied, that Mr. Lister as well as myself supposed that 
our specimens were dead. Another interesting record is that of 
Phymmm calidrU, which fully confirms Mr. Lister's former determi- 
nation of this species as British, from the very scanty material to 

which he previously had access. _ 

All the twenty-seven forms enumerated for Heath near Leigh ton 
were collected by Miss L. Bassett and Miss G. Lister. These 
gatherings include the rare British species Badhamia rubujinosa and 
lUicularla llozeana. The species in the following list marked C. C. 
were collected by Mr. C. Crouch, whose accurate and persistent 
observations have added largely to our knowledge both of the 
flowering and flowerless plants of B. Beds. The Hertfordshire 
species marked A. E.G. have been obtained by Mr. A. E. Oibbs, 
F.L.S.; those marked H.E.S. by Mr. H. E. Seebohm Nor 
should I omit to notice the efforts of my son who has not only 
been successful in our joint excursions, but also in those he has 
taken independently. «' Common " applies to both counties ; when 
no time of fruiting is named, the whole year is intended. 

As a guarantee of accuracy in naming, it need only be said that 
all specimens on which a record is based have been examined by 
Mr. A. Lister, or by his daughter, Miss G. Lister, to both of whom 
my thanks are due for their valuable assistance. Mr. Lister has 
also kindly read this paper in MS., and has added one or two 
localities. Voucher specimens of most of the rarer forms have 
been prepared for the British Museum Herbarium. 

Cemtium h>/dnoides A. & S. Hitchin, Herts. 

Pln/sarumbuaophaum (Fr.). Common. 

P. nutans Pers. (Tilmadoche nutans Host.). Luton Hoo, Beds , 

Hitchin and Caddington, Herts. ' 

P. riride Pers. (Tilnvuloche mutabdis Rost.). Heath, btopsley, 

Luton Hoo, Beds; Kensworth, Herts. 

P. comprmum A. & S. Luton Hoo ; Hitchin (stalked and 
plasmodiocarp forms from dirty white Plasmodium H. Eh ). 

P. ealidrU List. Very rare. (See Journ. hot. 1891, 258). 
Pulloxhill, Beds. Fruiting in summer. 

Crate, turn ruh,are Ditin. Heath, Stopsley, Pepperstock, Beds., 
Hitchin, Herts. 'Fruiting in summer and autumn. 

C. leucocepiudum (Pers.) Rost. Pepperstock, Totternhoe, Beds. 

Fruiting in autumn. 

LKKarpu* fmyili* (Dicks.) Rost. Heath, Ampthill, and Pepper- 
stock Woods. Fruiting in summer and autumn. 

mZ septic* (Link) Ginel. Kitchen End (C, C . Luton Hoo, 

]>eds. 



12 THE MYCETOZOA OF SOUTH BEDS AND NORTH HERTS. 

Badhamia panicea (Fr.) Host. Luton Hoo ; Hitckin. Fruiting 
in summer. 

B. hyalina (Pers.) Berk. Heatk, Caddington, Beds. Fruiting 
in summer and winter. 

B. utricnlaris (Bull.) Berk, (plasmodium full yellow). Heatk, 
Caddington. 

B. rubiginosa (Cliev.) Eost. Heatk. Fruiting in winter. 

B. inaurata Curr. (plasmodium pale yellow). Caddington, rare. 
Fruiting in winter. 

Didymium microcarpon (Fr.) Bost. Kitcken End (C. C). Fruiting 
in autumn. 

1). squamulosum (A. & S.) Fr. Sundon, Luton Hoo, Kitcken 
End(C.C.), Beds; Hitckin (H.E.S.), Ayers End (A. E.G.), Herts. 
Fruiting in summer and autumn. 

D. farinacmm. Sckrad. Heatk. Fruiting in summer and winter. 

D. pertusuni Berk. Clopkill, Beds. Fruiting in autumn. 



lifforme (Pers.) Bost. Heatk, Luton; Hitckin. 



Fruiting in autumn and winter. 

C. testacewn (Sckrad.) Rost. (first British record). Stopsley, 
Beds. Fruiting in summer. 

C. radiatum (Linn.) Rost. Heatk, Pepperstock. Fruiting in 
winter. 

Lepidoderma tigrinum (Sckrad.) Rost. Heatk. Fruiting in winter. 
Stemonites fusca Roth. Heatk, Luton Hoo, Sundon, Beds ; 
Kens worth, Herts. 

& ferrwjinea (Ehrh.). Ckalton, Pepperstock, Kitcken End. 
Fruiting in summer. 

Comatrichia typhina (Rotk.) Rost. Luton Hoo, Stopsley; 
Hitckin (H. E. S.). Fruiting in summer and autumn. 

C. Friesiana De Bary. Heath, Leagrave, Pepperstock; Ayers 
End (A. E. G.). Fruiting in summer and autumn. 

^ Lamproderma physaroides (A. & S.) Rost. Heatk. Fruiting in 
winter. 

L. irideum (Cke.) Mass. Hitckin. 

Enerthmema papillatmn (Pers.) Rost. Caddington, Luton Hoo. 
Fruiting in summer. 

Tubulina cylindrica (Bull.) DC. Kitcken End (C. C). Fruiting 
in summer. 

Enteridium olivaveum (Ekr.). Heatk. Fruiting in winter. 
Dictydium cemuum (Pers.) Nees. Luton Hoo, Ckalton. Fruiting 
in summer and autumn. 

Cribmria aurantiaea Schrad. and C. anfillacea Pers. (plasmodium 

slate coloured). Heath, Luton Hoo. Fruiting in spring and summer. 

Hrticularia lycoperdon Bull. Luton Hoo. Fruiting in summer. 

H.Rozeana Rost. (See Jouni. Bot. 1891,263). Heath. Fruiting 
in spring. 

Trichvi faUax Pers. Heath, Sundon, near Luton, Luton Hoo. 
T.fraqtlu (bow.) Rost. Heath, Pepperstock; Bricket Wood, 
Ayers End ( A. E. G.), Herts. Fruiting in autumn. 
T. scabra Rost. Sewell, Beds. Fruiting in autumn. 
1. varut Pers. Heath, near Luton, Leagrave. Fruiting in 



TWO NEW BRITISH RUBT. 1^ 

autumn. — v. nigripfs. Wheatliampstead, Herts- Fruiting in 
SVn i\'contorta (Dit.) Rost. Rare. Caddington, Beds. Fruiting 



in spring. 



x . atfinis De Bary. Heath, Snndon, near Lnton ; Wheatliamp- 
stead, Harpenden, Kensworth, Ayers End (A. E. (*.)• Fruiting in 

8VT1 T g Jackii Rost. Heath, Pepperstock, near Luton ; Bricket and 
Zoucnes Woods, Herts. Fruiting in autumn and winter. 

Prototrichia jiagellifer (B. & Br.) Rost. Heath. Fruiting m 

W1D Hnniarcyria rubiformis (Pers.) Rost. Kitchen End (CO.), 
Barton Springs, Beds. Fruiting in spring and autumn. — Var. 
Neesiana. Barton Springs. Fruiting m autumn. 

II, intorta List. Hitchin. 

B. clavata (Pers.) Rost. Wheatliampstead. Fruiting in spring. 

Arcyria pnvicea Pers. Common. Fruiting in autumn. 

A. cinerea (Bull.) Schum. Luton Hoo, Stopsley. Fruiting m 

Tk«^ Pers. Heath, Barton Springs, Caddington, Beds ; 

Kensworth, Herts. Fruiting in autumn. Vrmthui in 

A. nutans (Bull.) Grev. Caddington, Luton Hoo. Fruiting in 



summer. 



Heath, Fruiting in winter. 



Lycogala epidendrum (Buxb.). Luton Hoo, Kitchen End (C. C), 
Sharpenoe, Beds. Fruiting in summer. 

The following Mycetozoa were observed in the New Forest, 
Hants, August, 1892*: 

Physarum hucophaum Fr. 

Stemonitis ferruyinea Elirh. var. microspora. 

S. splendms var. confluent. 

Dictydium cernuum (Pers.) Nees. 

Arcyria nutans (Bull.) Grev. 

Trichia fallax Pers. 

Lycor/ala epidendrum Buxb. 

The Hants notes having been made after a long period of dry 
weather will account for the fewness of the species. The list 
would doubtless be largely extended if a visit to the same locality 
It tade* the autunUr winter The most noteworthy record 
is that of Stewonitis splendens, on which see note by Mr. A. Lister 
in Joum. Bot. 1891, 262. 



TWO NEW BRITISH RUBI. 
By the Rev. Augustin Ley, M.A. . 



Rubus acutifrons, n. sp. — Iltf 



Club Reports, 1890, p. 294; 1891. pp. 331, 888; sub nomine A. 
Lintoni Focke.— Stem, when growing in open woods, forming a low 



■^ TWO NEW BRITISH RUBI. 

arch, angular throughout, striate, reddish or brownish green in ex- 
posure ; not pruinose, slightly hairy, with few or many stalked 
glands, and many short, tubercular based acicles. Prickles many, 
the larger nearly equal, mostly but not always confined to the 
angles, deflexed, from long compressed dilated bases. Leaves fiat, 
qmnate-pedate, occasionally ternate, opaque, thin, nearly naked 
above, green and thinly hairy, not felted beneath. Leaflets not 
imbricate the basal oval, intermediate obovate-acuminate, terminal 
broadly elliptic or subrotund, often irregularly but deeply incise- 
lobate in the upper half, with long acuminate point. Ordinary 
serrations rather shallow, nearly simple, with acute forward- 
pomtmg teeth. Petioles with many slender acicles and stalked 
glands, few slender declining prickles, and short, hair. Stipules 
snort, linear, fringed with stalked glands. Panicle long, com- 
pound very lax but with the flowers remarkably aggregated ; lower 
branches racemose-corymbose, intermediate cymose or pseudo- 
umbellate ; corymbose above. .Rachis wavy, with many slender 
deflexed prickles, stalked glands and patent hairs, especially in the 
upper part; slightly felted, but not grey with felt. Sepals ovate 
cuspidate-acummate, clothed and coloured like the rachis dark 
with pale margins, strongly ascending after the petals fall. ' Petals 
rather small obovate, pinkish ; stamens white, exceeding the green 
styles. Fruit well formed, round, acid. g 

li <ahi tat. -Woods. Not noticed in hedges, or in the open 
w ? 7 'v /^'^-RfS's Wood, Sellack ; Coldborough Parle 

f IT }u ?* *' , HaU £ h W °° d ' Mordifor d ; Belmont Woods, Here- 
f< rd. All these localities are in Herefordshire, and lie within a 
radius of ten or twelve miles; the plant is abundant, and retains 

now for a fit erS WeU m 6aCh ° f thCm - l W had [t Ullde ' observation 
now lor five seasons. 

From the above description it will be seen that this plant 
approaches li LuUoni Focke, especially in the shape of the leaves 
?i%* g a » du ^ clothing of the rachis. I considered t to be / .' 

Ckb Renor^ Kli^S *!?* V ™ a a reference to the Change 

Sis o?f n P ion ^TlL ° W H? Pr °f' Bablu g ton *"*% concurred in 
t ns opinion The resemblance, however, is mainly superficial and 

h stem thl dlffe T C r' e8pecia11 ? in the ^and^clothtng of 
the stem, the qumate leaves, and the uniformly much more largely 

developed panicle, justify the adoption of a new name g * 

of lRQ9 n !r °f i b r 8 Vla y> submitted to Dr. Focke in the autumn 

kmrllv fl llnw^ fr + ° m h , im the fo,Iowi «g remarks, which he has 
kindly allowed me to make public :— 

known L^T^T agree3 Very wel1 indeed with * plant I have 

^petals I lee f^? T? BeSideS the difference ° f ^our in 
for? th- 1' I know H le f St + ai l preciabl8 difference. I think, there. 

un.ler n. Bettkri ■ k, t ;.T V' I me "tioned it (p. 3G1) 

•uS L , Sf u£ ZZil-z ery local and little linow ' - fo ™' 

w.l 1 not be adviX ZSf. I" h , ™? more C .' JM '»' <*«:<». it 



will™* ^advisable to make „ se „f „,{, ZZ. 



plant to It 



TWO NEW BRITISH RTJBI. 



15 

Rubus ochrodermis, n. sp.— Brf*reHce$: Botanical Exchange 
Club Eeports, 1889, pp. 257, 258; 1890, p. 294; 1891, p. 330. 
Stem extensively creeping when unsupported, thick at the base, 
often branching, ochreous, becoming dark brown-red in exposure, 
bluntly angular, striate, hairless or nearly so. Prickles many, un- 
equal, not confined to the angles, the largest i inch long, declining, 
slightly deflexed towards the end of the stem, from rather broad 
bases, rather blunt, soon losing their points, and appearing on the 
old stems as pointless tubercles ; passing into unequal, mostly 
eglandular acicles and minute bristles; all these organs being of an 
ochreous yellow. Leaves nearly always ternate, very rarely quinate- 
pedate; lateral leaflets roundly obovate-nmcronate, gibbous below, 
and occasionally lobed, their petiolules very short, nearly patent, or 
rarely even divaricate ; terminal rather long-petioled, roundly 
obovate-mucronate. All the leaflets nearly equal in size, flat, 
green on both sides, veins prominent below. Upper surface with 
a few scattered hairs ; under with thin, harsh, curling hair ; serra- 
tion nearly simple, irregular, the larger teeth inclining backwards. 
Petioles bearing deflexed slender prickles, mixed with a few acicles, 
stalked glands and hairs. Stipules short, linear-lanceolate, fringed 
with hair and stalked glands. Panicle elongate, racemose or sub- 
racemose above, with more or less ascending peduncles in the ultra- 
axillary part, and long ascending racemose branches below. Leaves 
ternate or single, much like those of the stem but more coarsely 
serrate. Eachis and peduncles slender, felted, with short hairs, 
crowded stalked glands mostly no longer than the hairs, and very 
slender aciculate prickles and unequal acicles, which are nearly 
patent above, but lower down become strongly declining as well as 
stouter, and occasionally even deflexed. Sepals reflexed in flower 
and fruit, ovate, shortly pointed, green externally, bearing a few 
acicles and plentiful stalked glands, conspicuously grey-felted 
internally. Petals white or pinkish, narrow, small. Stamens 
white, at length red-based, longer than the greenish white styles. 

Habitat.— Woods ; not observed in hedges or in the open country. 
Localities.— Woods near Dinmore station; Haugh Wood, Mordi- 
ford- Wareham Wood, near Hereford. These stations all lie in 
Herefordshire, and within a radius of ten miles. Wood border at 
Llowes, Radnorshire. This station lies some eighteen miles to the 
we«t of the Herefordshire stations. In foliage and inflorescence 
bearing some resemblance to U. mucronatns Blox.. hut distinct and 
pecul ar in the armature of its stem, in which it comes nearest to 
R scabrosus Mull. I have not noticed this armature to be subject 
to any variation. Queried by Dr. Focke in 1885 [in lit.), " viucro- 
natus Blox., I think " ; but upon insufficient and too advanced 
specimens. Upon a series of specimens submitted to him in the 
autumn of 1892, he notes, " A remarkable form, unknown to me." 

Other opinions upon our plant can be been at the places 
referred to above ; but after watching it in the growing state for 
seven or eight seasons, I can say with some confidence that it 
cannot without violence be brought under any of the plants whose 
names have been as yet suggested for it. 



16 FURTHER NOTES ON HIERACIA. 

I wish, in conclusion, to acknowledge the great assistance which 
I have received from the Rev. W. Moyle Eogers in drawing up the 
above descriptions. 



FURTHER NOTES ON HIERACIA NEW TO BRITAIN. 

By Frederick J. Hanbury, F.L.S. 

(Concluded from vol. xxx., p. 370.) 

H. anglicum Fr. x hypoch^roides Gibs. — Occurs over a very 
small area of rocks on two of the limestone scars in the neighbour- 
hood of Settle ; the areas are so limited that it would be imprudent 
to publish their exact position. I first received dried specimens 
from the Misses Thompson, who have thoroughly worked up the 
Hieracium flora of the district, with the request that I would name 
them. The examples sent were so different to anything I had seen 
before, that I took the earliest opportunity of investigating the 
locality in their company, and studying the plant amid its natural 
surroundings. Exactly intermediate in nearly every character 
between the supposed parents, typical plants of which grew all 
about the rocks, we felt no doubt that we had found a hybrid, and 
its restricted distribution strongly favoured this view, in which 'both 
the Rev. E. S. Marshall and Mr. J. C. Meivill fully concur. Of 
more robust habit and with larger heads than fujpoclueroides, it 
strongly resembles that species in its pure yellow styles, tioccose- 
margined and comparatively short blunt phyllaries, its straight 
bifurcate manner of branching red stem, and beautifully spotted 
leaves, which are purpled beneath, whilst their ovate subacute 
shape and shaggy petioles are just those of the anylicum type. 
There is one rather large and broadly clasping stem-leaf, the heads 
are very tn.ncate at the base, and the ligules slightly pilose before 
expansion. 

H. commutatum Beck, x Eupatorium Griseb. (?). — I have not 
personally seen the above in the fresh state, but, judging from the 
fine series of specimens recently given me by the Rev. Aucrustin 
Ley, have little doubt but that this determination will prove °to be 
correct. Here are Mr. Ley's own notes :— " An interesting form of 
Hieracutm grew on a hedgebank near Forfantan Station, Brecon- 
shire, at about 1000 ft. above sea-level." Typical H. boreale 
was growing in abundance along with it, and H. corymbosum, 
also in abundance within a few hundred yards. Our plant 
occupied some twenty yards of the hedgebanks, and there were 
many hundred specimens. It appeared distinct from both, yet 

™Jf'? e | a i? a,lC l Wiai l boih » especially with H. boreale, seemed 
unmistakable From hormU it differed in the more rigid leaves 
broader in their centre, and tapering gradually at both end l\ 
he point of the leaf acute, the sides with finely pointed spine-like 
serrations, venation much marked on the under side, and slightly 
in the stem which was less hairy. From eorymbomm, in the darker 
colouring of the whole plant, in the stiff whitish hairs of the stem 



FURTHER NOTES ON HIERACIA. 17 

and the dark green involucre; the branches of the panicle less 
spreading; the height of the plant was about 2-3 ft., while that of 
H. corymbosum was 1-2 ft. From the above it will be seen that the 
plant was fairly intermediate between H. boreale&nA H. corymbosum, 
bearing the stem, inflorescence and involucre of the former, and 
leaves approaching the latter. It is suggested that it is a hybrid 
between the two." 

To the above remarks I would only add that there is no question 
whatever as to its connection with H. commutatum Beck. {H. 
boreale), whilst the absence of crowding in the leaves, their harsher 
texture, prominent veining, and the less broadly heart-shaped 
character of those in the upper portion appear to me very dis- 
tinctive. The phyllaries, too, are rather longer and more acute, 
and, as far as I can judge from dried specimens, the styles are less 
livid, and the ligules of a deeper yellow than in H. commutatum. 
I am only sorry that Mr. Ley did not dry good specimens of the 
two supposed parents, but this he can probably do another season ; 
the extraordinary range of variation in both species renders the 
acquisition of this additional evidence most desirable. 

I will conlcude this paper with brief references to several well- 
marked plants which require further investigation before it would 
be wise to give new names, distinguishing them by letters only. 
They are worthy of the closest attention, and to most, I cannot 
doubt, it will ultimately be found necessary to give specific or 
varietal rank. For some I had already provided names, intending 
to publish them among the foregoing. The prolonged frost of last 
winter, however, destroyed many of my most recently collected 
plants. Hieracia as a rule are hardy enough, but being recently 
moved and not having developed sufficiently long rootlets they were 
lifted out of the ground and killed, thus stopping for the present all 
further opportunity of studying their habits and of comparing with 
other species grown under similar conditions. As they were 
collected from widely separated districts, I must rely on the kind- 
ness of correspondents to replace some of my lost forms. 

a. I am indebted to the Kev. H. E. Fox for the only specimens 
I possess of a plant, sent in August, 1890, from Dollywaggon 
Pikes, Cumberland. The notes I made on receiving the fresh 
specimens are insufficient to enable me to give a full description at 
present, but the following characters will serve to distinguish it 
pending further particulars. Stem from 15 to 20 inches high, 
both radical and cauline leaves rather anglicum-like, though the 
latter are stalked ; but differing entirely from that species in the 
inflorescence. The heads, 3 to 7 or more in number, are borne on 
slender, arcuate, densely setose and sparingly floccose peduncles, 
the involucre is almost black with setae, the phyllaries long and 
very acute. The ligules are quite glabrous. In the stronger 
plants the radical leaves are coarsely and acutely toothed at the 
base, like those of the variety acutifolium of H. anglicnm Fr. The 
main stem, whilst appearing glabrous, or nearly so, to the naked 
eye, is scabrid with minute rough bristles and setae, and sparingly 
floccose. 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 31. [Jan. 1893.] c 



18 



FURTHER NOTES ON HIERACIA. 



b. A very interesting plant, found by Mr. H. C. Hart and 
myself in July, 1891, on the grassy banks of the Carrick Eiver, Co. 
Donegal, scarcely above sea level. It appears to be intermediate 
in general character between the scapigera and vulgata. Height 
about 15 to 20 inches, heads 1 to 3, rather large, radical leaves 
few, broadly-ovate, subacute, very wide towards £the truncate base, 
and abruptly narrowed to a long petiole, almost entire. Stem 
leaves usually two, shortly stalked, of the same form and equally 
abruptly narrowed as in the case of the radical leaves. All 
bright green and glabrous above, rather glaucous and with few long 
simple hairs below. Styles pure yellow. Ligules glabrous. In- 
volucre truncate. I have seen no other form at all like this, and 
had hoped to have watched its development under cultivation and 
completed its description, but the destruction of my roots necessi- 
tates the postponement for the present of further information. 

c. A plant belonging to the vulgata discovered in July, 1888, by 
Dr. F. Buchanan White on trap rocks at St. Cyrus, Kincardine. It 
is about twenty inches in height, and in foliage resembles H. vul- 
gatum Fr. The heads, however, are so extraordinarily cuneate at 
the base, and the phyllaries so abnormally long, narrow and very 
acute, overtopping the young buds to the extent of making them 
appear nearly double their true length, that it is very doubtful if it 
can be placed to that species at all. Dr. White made no further 
description than that the styles were yellow, and he has not yet 
had the opportunity of revisiting the spot. I sent it to Dr. 
Lindeberg, who wrote :—" Forma sane miraculosa, ab omnibus 
Bieracns luculenter diversa phyllariis longissimis, forma anthelae 
folusque caulinis basi incisis, etc. Observatione maxime dignum!" 

A A plant found by Dr. White at Loch Lubnaig, Perthshire, 
on the 27th August, 1891. Excepting that the involucres are very 
sparingly floccose, it agrees well with H. tmncatum Lindeb. As 
tne stems were broken off from near the base, it is impossible 
to say from our present specimens whether the root-leaves have 
tne semi-persistent character of those of H. trnncatum or not. 
ihe plant should be carefully collected again, 
oliff ' t k eautlfu l and distinctive form, occurring on the precipitous 
aT^A a « ^ ? lyn ' Carn arvon. I had fully intended to have 
r~ ed tow Plant unc ier the name of H. orimeles, but have 
recently come to realize that it is closely allied to, if not identical 
wnn, the Braemar form alluded to in the earlier part of this paper 
™?« mos l n i des - la North Wales the plant grows luxuriantly 
d?twT + £ h ? me ; *"> flowers in most °ases being perfectly 

aron3 t Ugh * few of the st y lose fo ™ oc ™ r . and these first 
* e ! f £ suspicion as to its connection with the Scotch speci- 

E; Jr U l the r discovery that some of Mr. Beeby's Shetland 

siSr to thnL ?' ihQ J°? ° f Cliva Hil1 ' uear Brae ' ™ ^rtainly 
that thpre f T Wal6S ' S reatl y strengthens the supposition 
Briain ll°f f ?f m occurring over a large portion of Great 

the Tain JL«? T^I ^f, n ° W thafc this mus t be separated from 
the lam plant, and, should further investigation prove it to belong 



FURTHER NOTES ON HIERACIA. 19 



H 



but if not, the name suggested above would be suitable. 

Since the publication of the name H. caniceps in the last 
(December) number of this Journal, I find that Norrlin has 
forestalled me in the use of this term. I therefore suggest 
Hieracium rivale as a suitable substitute, having nearly always 
found the species by small rocky streams. I may here mention, as 
a coincidence, that Norrlin described a Hieracium under the name 
Hieracium proximum, a few weeks after my description of that 
species had appeared. I have also to thank a correspondent for 
pointing out a material correction needed in my description of H. 
euprepes. I there spoke of the peduncles as " divaricate. 1 ' They 
are remarkably upright, and form a very acute angle with the axis 
in the Scotch specimens, but in some of the robust and dwarf 
Welsh plants, a drawing of one of which I had before me when 
writing, they are widely spreading. The close upright panicle, 

however, is the more usual form. 

This brings me to the end of a paper, the volume of which has 
considerably exceeded my first intentions. To many who have not 
made this genus a special study, the number of new forms 
described may seem excessive. If, however, the careful work Mr. 
Backhouse accomplished single-handed in a few years, and over 
very restricted areas of the British Islands, be compared with 
similar work done by a large number of our best critical botanists 
over much wider areas and during quite as many years, it will not 
appear surprising that a large number of new forms have been 
found. As stated early in this paper, I have endeavoured to 
restrict the number as far as I honestly can, and I need scarcely 
say that even with this large accession of new names, I have many 
individual specimens for which it is still difficult to find a resting- 
place. This will always be the case in a genus where finality is an 
impossibility. It must not be inferred, however, from such an 
admission, that there do not exist well-defined types, often 
scattered over wide geographical areas separated from each other 
by hundreds of miles of lowland country, yet constant in their 
characters and recognizable at a glance wherever they are met 
with. The experience of all true workers at a genus like Hieracium 
proves such an inference to be quite untenable. Our experience in 
this country differs in no respect from that of our confreres abroad, 
who have made this and other large critical genera a lifelong study. 

I would only add, in conclusion, that I hope shortly to be able 
to send to the Botanical Department of the Natural History 
Museum at South Kensington a fairly complete set of our Hieracia, 
embracing nearly all the forms described in this and previous 
papers. It has been impossible to comply with the numerous 
requests for specimens that I have received. For the work that 
lies before me in the completion of my monograph, it is essential 
that I should retain as large and representative series as possible. 
To the list of kind friends enumerated at the beginning of this 
™™r T wish in add the name of Dr. W. A. Shoolbred, and to 



ank all for their continued help during the 



c2 



20 



SHORT NOTES. 

Do Natural Hybrids exist ? — I had overlooked the fact of Mr. 
C. B. Clarke's having again referred to the hybrid question in the 
Journal for last November (p. 322), in his paper on Holoschcenus 
Link. His first objection I deny ; experimental proof has been 
furnished, in many cases. His second objection carries very much 
more weight ; but the question of what a subspecies is (supposing 
" subspecies " to be more than an expression) complicates that 
part of the subject, and one hardly knows what one has to meet. 
I should not, for example, describe as a hybrid the offspring of a 
species and of a variety of that species. As bearing on this matter, 
I may perhaps be allowed to mention a striking object-lesson. 
While the Eev. E. F. Linton was staying with me last August, we 
found growing upon a railway-bank near Witley, Surrey, several 
plants intermediate between Verbaseum nigrum and V. Thapsus; 
these two species occurring at the same spot. Now, I had carefully 
searched this same locality in vain for such intermediates in 1890, 
and am certain that they did not then exist. He would be a 
bold man who should make out the two supposed parents to 
be "subspecies v of one aggregate ; and I do not think that any 
unprejudiced person could doubt that the intermediate was the 
product of fertilisation between them. Why not, then, call them 
(what in point of fact they are) hybrids ? Similarly, I had 
allowed Epilobium lanceolatum and E. roseum (besides various other 
species) to spread rather freely in my garden. This summer there 
appeared for the first time two or three specimens which blended 
their characters. These 1 cannot regard as anything else than E. 
lanceolatum x roseum; there is no other reasonable way of account- 
ing for the phenomena. Had I found the plants in a wild condition, 
the evidence would doubtless have been less satisfactory; but I 
should have felt justified, by a somewhat intimate acquaintance 
with the two species, in naming them as above. I may add that 
the true species always retain their individuality, and can, when 
once known, be distinguished at a glance. — Edward S. Marshall. 

Salix Moorei, Loncl. Cat., in Forfarshire. — In connection with 
Messrs. Linton's paper on Scottish willows (Joum. Bot. 1892, 
358), I may mention that a small plant which I collected in 
Glen Fiagh, in 1888, has proved to be the above (8. herbacea x 
nigricans). It bears a considerable resemblance to S. Qrahami, 
which is planted close to it, but shows just those differences which 
one would expect from the substitution of 8. nigricans for 8. phyli- 
cifoham the parentage.— Edward S. Marshall. 

Carex rhynchophysa in Ireland.— Mr. E. Lloyd Praeger has 

been fortunate enough to add this well-marked species to our 
llora ; he found it last August in County Armagh. A description 
and plate will appear in our next number. 

Asplenium lanceolatum in Kerry. — I came across a fair 

maount of this fern last summer, not far from the village of Camp, 



SHORT NOTES. 21 

Tralee Bay, the locality being about a mile from the sea. This is 
most probably an addition to the Flora of Kerry ; for though the 
fern is recorded in the Supplement to the Cybele Hibernica as grow- 
ing on two old castles near Cahirciveen, a search on one of these 
castles last summer failed to discover the plant, while Mr. A. G. 
More tells me he has seen no previous Kerry specimens. It grew 
intermingled with A. Adiantum-nigrum. A. lanceolatwn seems 
unaccountably rare in Ireland, its only other recorded locality 
being about Kinsale, Co. Cork. — R. W. Scully. 



Surrey Plants. 



W 



Rubi," published in the Journal (1891, p. 341), R. Drejeri Jens, is 
recorded on the authority of the Rev. W. Moyle Rogers. This was 
at a time when little was known of Drejeri in this country, and a 
good description was not available. Mr. Rogers has since informed 
me that the plant in question must certainly go to 2L fuscus 
W. & N. Readers are requested to make this correction in their 
copies of the Journal. — James W. White. 

Shropshire Rubi. — Little has been done at the brambles of this 
county since Leighton worked at them ; consequently, with the 
advance made since his day in the knowledge of the genus, there is 
room for making some improvement on the list in his Flora. In a 
w e wood, called Vale3 Wood, near Ruyton XI Towns, I found 
over a dozen different Rubi, including R. opacus Focke, growing 
very fine from 3-7 ft. high ; R. erythrinus, Genev., R. pyramidalis 
Kalt., R. Hystrix Weihe, R. Newbouldii Bab. (fide Rev. W. Moyle 
Rogers), and R. pulcherrimus Neum., all new to the county. This 
wood is on the slope of a red sandstone hill called The Cliff. In 
the same wood was a small amount of R. carpinifolius W. & N., 
w r hich I mention because R. carpinifolius Blox. has been often mis- 
taken for Weihe and Nees' plant ; and I understand that Leighton 
was in frequent communication with Bloxam over Rubi, when pre- 
paring the county Flora. For a similar reason I may state that I 
found R. villicaulis Koehl., near Crosemere ; the plant so named in 
the Flora having probably been R. j)yramidalis Kalt. The Mere 
district does not seem to be at all rich in brambles, except in one 
spot, a sandy piece of waste land between Crosemere and Sweat- 
mere, where besides R. villicaulis, R. plicatus, R. Jisstts, and some 
others flourished, including a plant allied to R. anglosaxonicus 
Gelert, for which I have no name. — Edward F. Linton. 

The supposed Asplenium acutum from the Mourne Moun- 
tains. — The recent paper on the botany of these mountains 
referred to at p. 31, contains the following interesting note: — 
"Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum var. y. acutum Bory. — In a dark cave 
among the mountains of Mourne (Sherard, Herb. Oxon. ; also Ran 
Synopsis (Filix minor longijulia, &c). We are glad to be able to 
correct an error of long standing in regard to this fern. The plant 
which was collected by Sherard in the Mourne Mountains in 1694, 
and of which fronds are preserved in the Herbarium Sloaneanum in 
the British Museum, and the Sherardian herbarium at Oxford, was 
not an Asplenium, but a beautifully-divided plumose barren form 



22 SHORT NOTES. 



of Athymon Filix-fcemina, closely resembling the form known to 
pteridologists as Kalothrix. The frond in Herb. Sloaneanum (vol. 
100, p. 52) [sent by Sherard] is figured in Plukenet's Phytographia 
(p. [t.] 282, fig. 3), and described by Petiver in his Almagestum 
(p. 250), the locality of West Indies, which is given on the page 
mentioned, being corrected in the Mantissa (p. 78, para. 4) to * ex 
Hibernia.' Eay (Hlstoria Plantarum, vol. iii., p. 79, 1704) gives 
the mountains of Mourne, in Co. Down, as the place where the 
specimen above mentioned was obtained, Plukenet's figure and 
description being quoted. In the third edition of Ray's Synopsis 
(1724) the editor, Dillenius, suggests (p. 127) that the fern may be 
a cave-grown form of Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum. This view is 
endorsed by Newman, who says (British Ferns, ed. 1844, p. 259): 
* Sprengel, Willdenow and Sadler, all of them give an Asplenium 
acutum, which I think must be identical with Ray's Filix minor 
longifolia: With regard to the specimen in the Sherardian 
herbarium at Oxford, Mr. G. C. Druce kindly informs us that it is 
labelled, < gathered in ye mountains of Mourne in ye county of 
Down.' On this label (?in Ray's handwriting) is written : ■ This 
is a very rare and elegant plant and deserves a proper name.' 
Accompanying it is a nature-printed sheet from the same speci- 
mens, and probably of nearly contemporaneous date. Sibthorp, 
when professor at Oxford (1784-1795), labelled this specimen 
Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum L. The British Museum specimen, 
which R. LI. P. [Mr. Praeger] has examined, is practically 
identical with the Kalothrix form of Athyrium Filix-famina, and with 
the Oxford specimen. Professor Vines writes us : * I have compared 
the enclosed (a cultivated frond of Kalothrix) with the Sherardian 
specimen from the Mourne Mountains, and have no hesitation in 
saying that they are identical, excepting the differences that are to 
be referred to the fact that one plant is wild and the other culti- 
vated. The Sherardian specimen is certainly ■ Kalothrix,' i. e., a 



HlERACIUM 



Filix-fi 



— ^ ■ ■ — — — ww — »w - w m w w w w — — — mm — wr ■ mm ■ w>» ■%» » w W W w V ^m mW V-* V * WW \y V-T JH % 

367). — This form should, in my opinion, be treated as a separate 
species. My cultivated specimens remain practically indistinguish- 
able from the wild ones, out differ very materially from Perthshire 
H. Sommerfeltii, grown side by side with them, and from Linde- 
berg's types. When the hawkweeds of the granitic hills of Scotland 
have been thoroughly examined (which is at present very far from 
being the case), I have little doubt that this plant will be found 
in various parts of the country.— Edward S. Marshall. 

Lagurus ovatus in Jersey (Journ. Bot. 1892, 877). — I 

notice tintLagurtu ovatus is recorded as an addition to the Jersey 
Flora. I found it in the same locality in 1877, and recorded it in 
bounce Gossip Subsequently 1 found that it owed its origin to the 
misplaced zeal of a botanist who scattered seed of this pretty 
Guernsey grass on the sands near St. Ouen's bay. There was a 
good patch of it when I saw it, which was, I believe, the year after 
the seed had been sown.— G. Claridge Druce. 



SEEDLINGS. 32 



New "Wilts Plants. — The following additions to the Flora of 
Wilts have been verified. I am responsible for the localities 



against which no name is placed : 

New for the County. — Geraniiun collinum, established at 2, near 
Devizes, liev. A. C. Smith. Rub its adscitus, 11, East Knoyle ; Pyrus 
communis, 5, Grimstead ; 11, East Knoyle. Senecio aquaticus b. 
pinnatifidus, 5, Clarendon. Carduus crispus var. litigiosus, 10, 
Whaddon. Campanula rapunculoides established at 8, Codford, for 
upwards of twenty years ; origin unknown ; F. 0. Earney. Cal- 
luna Erica a. glabrata, 5, Grimstead, Earney; b. incana, 5, Grim- 
stead, Earney. Gentiana Pneumonanthe, 6, Pitton, Miss Henderson. 
G. germanica, 11, Mere Down, Rev. E. H. Linton. Mentha sativa 
a. rivalis, 2, S. Wraxall, G. C. Druce; 8, Heytesbury. b. pahuh^a, 

5, Grimstead. M. gmtilis, 5, Landford. Melissa officinalis estab- 
lished at 5, Whiteparish. Salix Smithiana, 2, Clyffe Pypard. Rev. 
E.H. Goddard; 5, Grimstead; 7, Durnford ; 10, Broad Chalke ; 
11, E. Knowle. Epipactis media, 5, Grimstead, Henderson. J uncus 
compressus, 8, Codford, Earney. Agropyron repens b. barbata, 4, Ham 
and Chilton Foliat, Druce. Pilularia globulifera, 5, Hamptworth. 

New for Wilts, North. — Fumaria densiflora, 4, near Chilton 
Foliat, Druce. Myosotis repens, 4, Chilton Foliat, Druce. M. 
a?*vensis b. umbrosa, 2, Bishopstone, Druce. 

Netvfor Wilts, South. — Nasturtium sylvestre, 10, Britford, Earney. 
Medicago deniicidata, 5, Farley, Henderson (in confirmation of Top. 
Bot.). Vicia Bobartii, 10, Alderbury. Rosa splmrica, 6, Claren- 
don ; 9, Semley, Rev. W. M. Rogers. Bartsia Odontites a. vema, 

6, Milford; 7, Stratford, b. serotina, 5, Grimstead; 6, Ford; 7, 
Durnford; 10, Bishopstone; 11, E* Knoyle. Betula pubescens, 5, 
Grimstead; Whiteparish. Scirpus fiuitayis, 5, Hamptworth. lam 
specially indebted to Mr. J. G. Baker, Mr. Arthur Bennett, and 
the Eev. W. Moyle Sogers, for critical help in naming. — Edward 
J. Tatum. 

Rosa involuta Sm., in Somerset. — In June last I fortunately 
found two bushes of this rose, which I had never gathered before, 
in a field-hedge not far from Dulverton. It is believed that the 
plant had not been previously observed in the county of Somerset, 
although recorded in Topographical Botany for both divisions of 
Devonshire. — James W- White. 



SEEDLINGS. 




A Contribution to our Knowledge of Seedlings. By the Eight Hon. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., &c. London: 1892. Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. 8vo, Vol. L, pp. viii, 608 ; Vol. 
IL, pp. 646. With 684 figures in the text. Price £1 16s. 

We have our u Genera Plan tar urn," our Prodromi, and many 
monographs besides, but these deal only with the plant that has 
reached maturity. There are also divers works and papers more or 



24 SEEDLINGS. 

less devoted to the subject of germination and seedlings, or which 
include descriptions of individual cases or mention some particular 
phase of the subject ; but hitherto we have had no general 
systematic account of the early stages in the life of flowering 
plants. Such, however, is Sir John Lubbock's recently published 
book on seedlings. Following an introduction of about 80 pages 
are nearly 1200 containing descriptions of the seedlings, and often 
also of the seeds and germination of species from almost every 
natural Order included in Bentham and Hooker's great work, the 
arrangement of which the author has adopted. A copious biblio- 
graphy occupies 40 pages, and to complete the whole is a full index 
of all the species referred to in the text. 

To botanists who frequent the Linnean Society or read its 
Journal, the introduction will already be familiar. It consists in 
fact of several of the author's papers already published by the 
Society, now revised and arranged in one chapter, and a very 
interesting one it makes. In it Sir John discusses at some length 
the form and size of cotyledons and attempts to explain their great 
variety by corresponding variations in the shape of the seed, or diffi- 
culties in the way of escape during germination. 

Some may question the value of these explanations, at any rate 
as regards the general principle that the form of the cotyledon is 
determined by the form of the seed and its arrangement or position 
therein, but the fact remains that there is a striking difference between 
the cotyledons and not only the adult leaves of the plant, but in many 
cases also those immediately following the seed-leaves, and so 
extended a series of observations bearing on the subject cannot but 
be welcome. The forms of cotyledons are, as Klebs observes, and 
as anyone may see by glancing through the present work, on the 
whole much simpler than those of the later leaves, and Klebs 
suggests that while in some cases perhaps they retain the form 
characteristic of the species in bygone ages, a more generally 
applicable explanation is that applied by Goebel to stipules, namely, 
that they are " simplified by arrest." When, however, we consider 
the multifarious duties of the cotyledon, sometimes serving merely 
as a storehouse of food-material for the growing seedling, some- 
times as an organ for bringing into solution and absorbing the 
highly condensed and often comparatively insoluble food-stuff of the 
endosperm and carrying over the same to the seedling stem, and 
then often, even after performing these functions, actively makin 



its way out of the seed and playing quite a different part as a 
chlorophyll-containing assimilatory leaf, and in exceptional cases 
like btreptocarpus , Cyclamen, and many of the Onagrariea, assuming 
the size, form and importance of an ordinary foliage-leaf— when we 
take all this into consideration, we must surely admit that the 
cotyledon is something more than a relic of bygone ages, and 
represents a highly complicated rather than a « structure simplified 
by arrest, and can hardly be regarded merely as " a survival of the 
universal foliage of deciduous trees in older geological days, ere 
time had differentiated them into their present varied forms." Sir 
John does at any rate show evidence that in certain cases certain 



SEEDLINGS. 



25 



causes and effects are co-related ; that, for instance, an emarginate 
or lobed cotyledon is often coincident with a smaller or greater in- 
growth at the chalaza ; that narrow cotyledons are often present, 
where for some reason there is not an easy exit from the seed ; and 
that if they had broadened out in the ample space afforded them 
in the endosperm, they would probably have never got free, but 
been torn from the axis, as does actually happen in a species of 
J.nona figured on p. 104. Even supposing that many of the 
theories were not wonderfully suggestive, and that every explana- 
tion were untenable, we should still have about a thousand pages 
chock-full of condensed descriptions drawn up from actual obser- 
vation of the seeds, germination and early stages of growth of 
plants of almost every Order obtainable, accompanied in many 
cases by careful drawings of living specimens. 

We can only refer briefly to a few of the points of interest in 
which the book abounds. Preceding the description of species of 
each family is an introductory chapter, in which are described the 
forms of fruit, seed and embryo occurring therein, and also of the 
cotyledons observed among the seedlings. Where possible, both 
seeds and seedlings are classified under the prevalent types, the 
shape of the cotyledons usually forming the basis. This classifi- 
cation, as Sir John himself admits, does not always follow generally 
acknowledged lines of affinity. Species of the same genus turn up 
in different groups, while one group will contain species widely 
scattered through the Order, as, for instance, the broad and entire 
type of cotyledon of the Cruciferae, to which the following conform, 
representing three of the five series, or seven of the ten tribes into 
which Bentham and Hooker divide the Order : — Mathiola incana, 
Qheiranthits Cheiri, Alyssitm maritimum, Hesperis nivea, Cpnrinyia 
perfoliata, Qamelina sativa, Bucutella didi/ma, Lepidium graminifolium 



Mth 



(foli 



type with broad and emarginate cotyledons is " almost as widely 
distributed throughout the Order." 

Fundamental differences sometimes occur, even between species 
of a genus. Thus there is a striking contrast between cotyledons 
of a hypogseal and epigaeal nature : m the former they are fleshy, 
colourless, and fill the seed in which they remain, serving merely 
as a store of food for the developing seedling, while in the latter 
they escape from the seed-coats, often grow considerably, become 
green, and look and behave like an ordinary leaf. Clematis recta, 
however, is described as an exception, not only in its genus but in 
the whole family of Ranunculaceffl, in that its cotyledons are sub- 
terranean and never leave the seed. In Anacardiaceae there are two 
leading types : seedlings with aerial and seedlings with sub- 
terranean cotyledons ; Rhus Thunberyiana is a good example of the 
latter, and Rhm typhina of the former. The same is noticed 
among the Phaseoleas, where the genera Plutseolus and Enjthrina 
both supply species illustrative of each class ; but here the aerial 
cotyledons are not strictly foliaceous, remaining pale and fleshy and 
often turned to one side of the stem. The horse-chestnut is in- 



26 



SEEDLINGS. 



teresting in this respect. As a rule, when the cotyledons remain 
in the seed, the hypocotyl is undeveloped and the seed remains 



on or beneath the soil 



the first few leaves are reduced 



; moreover, 

to scales, and it is not until the stem has reached a fair height that 
spreading foliage-leaves are produced. In the horse-chestnut, 
however, the hypocotyl grows considerably, carrying up the seeds 
from which the fleshy cotyledons do not escape, while the first pair 
of leaves are digitately five-foliolate, though it is hard to say 
whether, as Sir John suggests, the growth of the hypocotyl is 
necessitated by the high development of the first leaves, or 
whether the high development results from the elevated position in 
the light and air. 

Many 
described. 



other peculiarities in germination are figured or 
A sketch of Medicago orbicularis shows nine seedlings 



emerging from a single twisted indehiscent pod, and twelve to sixteen 

seedlings from one fruit are not in- 
frequent ; the competition must be 
equally severe in Tetragonia, where 
the fruit also fails to burst, and the 
seedlings have severally to make their 
exit through thin places at its apex. 
In Hedysarum also the seeds remain 
in the segments of the fruit till 
germination, when the radicle pierces 
the lower valve, while the upper is 
raised by growth of the hypocotyl and 
cotyledons. In the Brazil nut {Ber- 
tholletia excelsa) and the nearly allied 
Lecythis Zabucajo, there is some doubt 
as to the nature of the fleshy undivided 
mass which fills the large seed ; from 
a comparison with other genera its 
homology with the hypocotyl is in- 
ferred, the plumule being borne at one 
end and the radicle at the other ; the 
germination is also peculiar in that 
the plumule and radicle emerge re- 
spectively from opposite ends of the 
seed. In ValerianeaB and Dipsaceae, 
where the solitary seed never leaves 
the fruit, the latter is pinned to the 
soil during germination by growth of 
the radicle through the epigynous in- 
volucel ; a further purchase is often 

c , . „ procured by a swelling in the hypo- 

j } fZT'x 3 GenW cot y l (* fi g* 1>. *«*> however, in 

. . Scabiosa caucasica, seems to have lost 

its function, as it also penetrates the membranous involucel. The 
peg which keeps the fruit beneath the soil in Scabiosa aiistralis 
vividly recalls that described by M. Flahault in" several Cucur- 
bitacese, and figured by Darwin in the Movements of Plants (p. 102, 




Via. 1. 



SEEDLINGS. 



27 



fig. 62). Dipsacus ferox has a very similar fruit, 
but no hypocotyledonary peg ; and it was found 
that 98 to 100 per cent, of the seedlings carry up 
the fruit in germination (fig 2). 

A subject full of interest is the growth of the 
cotyledons after emerging from the seed. Often 
they remain small and insignificant and soon 
perish ; in other cases they may grow con- 
siderably, as for instance in Crucifers like the 
radish or cabbage, but still retain more or less of 
their original shape, and show not the slightest 
relation to the form or appearance of the later 
leaves. In some Cucurbitacese and a number of 
Cruciferse, the cotyledons, though entire in the 
seed, become subsequently emarginate; this is F g 

apparently sometimes due to a group of water ?wm«iw ferox. 
stomata at the apex, which causes there a retar- Germination. x3. 
dation of growth compared with that of the base 
and sides. This is the case in Sisymbrium officinale and also in 
Galium Aparine (fig. 3) and G. saccharatum. 





B 




Fig. 3. 
Galium Aparine. A, young seedling. B, a few days older, x 2. 

Very rare are cases like Gunner a chilemis and Loam, where the 
cotyledons, though totally different in form, possess in the one case 
the pubescence and ciliation, in the other the stinging hairs so 
characteristic of the leaves ; the stellate scales of gUagnus and 
Hippophae appear directly above the cotyledons, and in Eleaynw 

awjustifolia invade their petioles. In Sarraceniacea* the cotyledons 



28 



SEEDLINGS 



* 

after germination increase greatly in length in proportion to their 
width, while the reverse obtains in some Crucifers ; in the Crassu- 
laceae they persist for some time, attaining" a considerable size, and 
are also succulent like the leaves. In some species of Elaocarpus 
(Tiliaceae) the cotyledons grow considerably ; thus, in E. oblongus 
they are about 6 cm. long and 2-5 cm. wide near the base, larger 
in fact than the leaf following ; they are also very persistent, like 
the true leaves, which they resemble in appearance. 

But the most interesting and peculiar case of subsequent growth 
is that which obtains in several genera of Onagrariese, especially 
Clarkia (fig. 4), Eucharidium , and some species of Oenothera, 




Fig. 4. 
Clarkia inte»n P etala, Seedling 17 days old. x 2. The original cotyledon is 

easily distinguished at the apex of the subsequent £owth. 

H^JSL int ? r T ] ™? f owth supervenes at the base of the ordinal 

kSZ^^tu"* b r nWB i? ttrifid up on a 8tructure ma *y time 

3Lvt^Vn d - reC f mg 1 T form and appearance the 
at Te ane* of t\ gmal cot y ledon rem *ins almost unchanged 
sLrated P bvf ,n \"7 gr ° Wth ' from which ifc is sometimes 
Enc faig STSa. *£*£ IW,eS aff ° rds an isolated 
or sometimes g tlnoeSZons wf^**^,' ° ne ° f a the H '° 
altered, and forms thefflSL^rSd'K JnT Tl .T^ 
Cyclamen behaves in the same wav wlX Mi 1 v g ? I* I ° 

the well-known, fleshy, per S ^ootstcl 'Xln^T^ 



SEEDLINGS. 



29 



exceptional cases an after- 
growth brings out a rela- 
tion not previously manifest 
between the seed-leaves and 
those which follow ; fre- 
quently, however, there is 
a gradation from the coty- 
ledon to the leaf shape ulti- 
mately assumed, as e.g., in 
species of Clematis, Ranun- 



culus, Passifl 



(fe. 5), 



especially where the latter 
is divided or compound ; 
but sometimes there is an 
abrupt transition to the 
normal leaf, even where 
this is of a highly complex 
character, as seen in the 
figure of Acacia Burkittii, 
where the" leaves imme- 
diately following the coty- 
ledons are bipinnate ; in 
other Acacias the first 
leaves are similarly com- 
pound, while the later are 
reduced to phyllodes. 

Finally, we may call 
attention to the marked 
difference between the coty- 
ledons and first leaves re- 

our 
the 



spectively in two of 
species of Primula, 
common Primrose (Jp. vul- 
garis) (fig/6), and the Bard- 
field Oxlip (P. elatior) (fig. 



7). 



These few examples 



must suffice to give an idea 
of the scope of the book and 
the amount of information 
' it includes. Though to 
some extent a book of refe- 
rence, a look through its 



pages will prove 
interest, while 



of deep 
careful 



study will bring to light 
many relations hitherto 
unnoticed ; the most hur- 
ried observer must fain 
admit that cotyledons and 
their ways are very won- 
derful, while the anxious 




Fig. 5. 
Passiflora ccerulea. Seedling, one-third nat. size. 




Fig. 7. 

Primula elatior. 
Seedling, nat. size. 



Fig. 6. 

Primula vulgaris. 

Seeciling, nat. size. 



80 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

student will welcome, perhaps not a solution, — that, we fear, is 
still a great way off, — yet a solid contribution towards the means 
for solution of the problem involved in the form of the seed-leaves 
and its relation to those which follow. 

A. B. Rendle. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 

Annals of Botany (Dec). — 0- A. Barber, ' Nematophycus Storriei,' 
sp. n. (2 plates). — B. M. Davis, i Development of frond of Champia 
par vtila from the Carpospore ■ (1 plate). — K. Goebel, ' The simplest 
form of Moss 1 (1 plate.) — T. Johnson, * Stenogramme interrupta* 
(1 plate). — W. B. Hemsley, c A drift-seed (Ipomcea tuberosa) ' (1 plate). 
\jtnf* — L- E^era, ■ Cause of physiological action at a distance.' — P. 

Groom, * Thorns of Randia dumetorwn. 1 — Id., ■ Monstrous flower of 
Nelumbium.' — Id., ■ Embryo of Petrosavia. 1 — J. C. Willis, ■ Distri- 
bution of seed in Claytonia.' 

Bot. Centralblatt. (Nos. 48-49). — W. Scharf, ' Beitrage zur 
Anatomie der Hypoxideen ' (No. 50). — F. Hock, ■ Begleitpflanzen 
der Buche ' (No. 51). — A. Harsgirg, * Neue biologische Mit- 
theilungen.' (No. 52). — T. Loesener, ' Zur Mateangelegenheit.' 



Yatabe, sp. n. 



Magazine (Tokio). — (Nov. 10). Millettia purpurea 



Bot. Notiser (haft. 6). — B. Jonsson, 'Inre blodning hos vaxten.' 
— E. Sernander, ■ Ytterligare nagra ord om substratets hetydelse 
for lafvarne.' — N. C. Kindberg, Timmia arctica, sp. n. 

Bot. Zeitung (Nov. 25, Dec. 18). — H. Behsteiner, 'Zur Entwick- 
lungsgeschichte der Frucht-korper einiger Gastromyceten.' 

Gardeners' Chronicle (Dec. 10). — Costus tinifolius N. E. Br., n. sp. 
(Dec. 17). Disa Stairsii Kranzlin, sp. n. — (Dec. 24). Asystasia 
varia N. E. Br., sp.n. 

Irish Naturalist (Dec. 1). — G. E. Barrett-Hamilton & C. B. 
Moffatt, ' Characteristic Plants of Wexford.' 

Jownal de Botanique (Dec. 1). — N. Karksakoff, 'Quelques 
remarques sur le genre Myriotrichia.' — (Dec. 15). H. Hua, ' Poly- 
gonatum et Auliconema.' — Hue, 'Lichens de Canisy.' — (Dec. 15). 
De Lagerheim & N. Patouillard, ' Sirobasidium, nouveau genre 
d' Hym6nomycetes het6robasidies.' 

Journ. R. Microscopical Soc. — W. West, ' Algae of English Lake 
District ■ (2 plates). 

Midland Naturalist (Dec). — W. Mathews, 'County Botany of 
Worcester' (cont.). 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift. (Dec.).— P. Ascherson, ■ Zur Geschichte 
der Einwanderung von Galinsoga parviflora.' — E. v. Halacsy 
1 Beitrage zur Flora der Balkanhalbinsel ' (Ranunculus Thasius, 
sp.n.), (concl.).— A. v. Degen, ' Campanula lanata Friv.' — L. 
Adamovic, ■ Beitrage zur Flora von Sudostserbien.' 



The 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 



)f American Folk-lore a long and interesting list of 



ar 



OBITUARY. 81 



American plant-names, compiled from various trustworthy sources 
by Mrs. Fannie D. Bergen. It is intended as a preliminary to a 
complete collection of these names, which it is hoped may do for 



done for Great Britain. 



>/ 



Messrs. A. Stewart and R. Lloyd Praeger have published in 
the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (3rd Series, ii., No. 2) 
a full and interesting " Report on the Botany of the Mourne Moun- 
tains, Co. Down,'' from which we make an extract on p. 21. The 

nomenclature is somewhat odd: e.g., " Lepidium smithii (Linn.) 
Hook." 

The price of the Kew Bulletin has been raised to fourpence 
monthly. The contents of the November number are entirely 
economic. 

A new magazine, to be devoted entirely to Orchids, is announced 
to appear on the 1st of January. There are already a large 
number of Sunday newspapers, but a Sunday periodical of this 
class is a novelty, and, as it seems to us, an undesirable one. The 
Orchid Review, as it is to be called, will be under the editorship of 
Messrs. R. A. Rolfe and F. Leslie. Mr. Rolfe's connection with 
Kew will be of great advantage to the new venture, and the 
11 Decades of Orchids/' which have appeared somewhat out of place 
in the Kew Btdletin, will no doubt form an important and appro- 
priate feature of The Orchid Review. 

A new monthly magazine, to be called Erythea, will begin with 
the new year. It will be under the direction of members of the 
Botanical Department of the University of California, the editor 
being Mr. Willis L. Jepson. 

We observe in Grevillea a note that u the statements respecting 
[its] proprietorship that have appeared in the Journal of Botany 
and elsewhere are entirely imaginary and incorrect." The point is 
one of the very slightest importance, but, so far as we are con- 
cerned, our information that Grevillea had become the property of 
Mr. Batters was derived from Mr. Batters himself, who might very 
reasonably have been supposed to speak with authority on the 
matter. 



OBITUARY. 

We greatly regret to record the death of Christopher Parker 
Smith, an authority of prominence in the study of British Musci- 
nea, especially Hepatica. He was born at Brighton on the 13th 
October, 1835, and began to work at botanical subjects (at first 
flowering plants) in 1858, the year of his marriage. About 
twelve years after this date he acquired the herbarium of the late 
Mr. E. Jenner, A.L.S., and particularly after this time devoted 
himself with enthusiasm to botanical pursuits. His vigour and 
energy as a collector brought him into communication and corres- 



82 



OBITUAKY 



pondence with many contemporary British botanists ; and he 
enjoyed the friendship of Mr. Mitten, Mr. West of Bradford, and 
the late Mr. G. Davies, with whose work he was in fullest 
sympathy, and of whom he gave some account in this Journal for 
1892 (p. 288). His friendship for Mr. Davies was in fact no 
ordinary one, and the death of this enthusiastic fellow-worker 
made a very visible impression on him. Mr. Smith belonged to 
the class of naturalists who are so averse from publication that it 
becomes a matter of research to their brethren to discover their 
hidden stores of knowledge. Singularly enough, he combined this 
public reticence with a keen pleasure in orally discussing subjects 
of work and research, and no one could fail to be struck by his great 
and wide knowledge, and the remarkable readiness with which he 
brought it to bear. In this way he served other naturalists with 
great success. Now and then Mr. Smith could be surprised into 
publication, and the Annual Reports of the Brighton Natural History 
Society testify to the excellence of his work. There is a report of 
a paper of his " On Mosses" (12 Nov., 1869) ; and at the following 
meeting (9 Dec), he read an excellent one " On the gemmae of 
Mosses." In January, 1876, he read a singularly interesting paper 
"On Bees," which illustrates, or rather merely indicates, Ins wide 
knowledge of Natural History. It is, however, by his acutely critical 
knowledge of British Musci and Hepatica that Mr. C. P. Smith has 
made his name known and respected. His Moss-Flora of Sussex 
(Brighton, 1870, 8vo), will remain as the best memorial of the sound 
and painstaking work of this botanist. He devoted all his spare 
time and all his holiday to his favourite pursuit, and during recent 
years made annual excursions to the Highlands of Scotland in 
search of novelties. His death, after ten months of illness, from 

cancer in the stomach, occurred at Hassocks, on the 15th 
November. q. jyj 

Christopher Parker Smith died on the 15th November, in the 
57th year of his age, at his residence, Tulley Veolan, Hassocks. 
*or many years an assiduous collector of plants which delighted 
turn alike for their varied form and structure, he was a skilled 
hand in making sections of vegetable tissue. He acquired, after the 
death of Edward Jenner, author of the Flora of Tunbridoe Wells 
and of the drawings in Ealph's Desmidm, all the botanical speci- 
mens collected by him during his periodical visits to every farm- 
house in Sussex, on foot, in pre-railroad times. This collection Mr. 
bmith had but recently got into order. Continually on the railway 
between Brighton and London, and well posted up in the best 
thought of the time, Mr. Smith was ready to join in conversation 
on the most diverse subjects. Nothing seemed to please him better 
than to make extracts or copy figures from the rarer books on 
botany, and for this purpose he was a frequent visitor to South 

W?r? rui ,? ver , at . the se ™<* of his many friends, Mr. Smith 
had but little time to devote to consecutive investigation. He will 
be greatly missed by those who always found him a cheerful com- 
panion, a sagacious counsellor, and firm friend. 

\V. Mitten. 















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JOURNAL 



THI 



Vol, XXXI 




BRITISH AND 




EDITED BY 



JAMES BRITTEN, F.L.S., 

EPARTMEST OF BOTAN BsiTISH M \ T ATl HlSTOHl 

South Kh.s 



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CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



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Tab 332 







A.Beimett del 






Carex rliyncliophysa., CA.Mey 



33 



A NEW IRISH SEDGE. 
By R. Lloyd Praeger, B.E., M.R.LA. 

(Plate 332). 

Carex rhynohophysa, which I have now the pleasure of adding 
to the British flora, is a large and handsome plant, closely resembling 
C. rostrata, of which some of the continental authorities have 
described it as a variety. I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
Arthur Bennett for the following description, synonymy, &c. : 

Carex rhyncJwphysa C. A. Meyer in Ind. sem. Hort. bot. Imp. 
Petrop. No. 9, suppl. p. 9 (1844). 

C. ampullacea /?. robusta Weinmann, Enum. stirp. agr. Petrop. 
p. 92 (nomen), (1837). 

C. bidlata Schkur, (3. Icevirostris M. N. Blytt, Fl. Chr., ex Fries, 
Mantissa, ii. 59 (1839). 

C. Icevirostris Fries in Bot. Notiser, p. 24 (1844). 



(1849). 



P 



(C. rhyncJwphysa Liebman, Mexican Halv. p. 76, 1850, is quite 
a different plant, and is <?. physorhyncha Steudel, Cyper. Plant. 
219, 1855.) 

Exsiccata. — Fries ; Herb. Normale, fasc. 6, No. 74 ; Herb. Fl. 
Ingrica, Cent. 5, No. 732. 

Figures. — Flora Danica Supp. 1, t. 86 (1853) ; Anderson, 
Cyper. Scand. t. 8, fig. 108 (1849). 

Distrib. — Finland (10 provinces) ; Kussia, Perm, Wiatka, 
province of Ingermanland (St. Petersburg); Norway, Lapland, 
Sweden, provinces of Vermland, Ostrobotknia, and Vesterbotten. 
Silesia, Transylvania. Indicated also in Siberia by Gmelin ; 
Davuria. 

Plant subcaespitose, 24-34 in. high ; leaves f-£ in. broad, 
tapering-acute at the apex, as long as, or longer than, the culms, 
scabrid on the edges, the sheaths of the lower leaves loose, those of 
the middle ones closed ; culms erect, semiterete at the base, tri- 
angular in the middle, and from the lowest spike upwards usually 
triquetrous ; bracts very leafy, longer than the male spikes ; spikes 
curved outwards at the base, then nearly erect, the lowest with a 
longer peduncle; female spikes 3-4, the uppermost usually with 
male flowers at the apex (and sometimes the second one also), 
lf-3£ in. long; male spikes 4-6, sessile, f-2£ in. long, in flower 
usually adpressed to the stem, in fruit diverging or semi-patent ; 
glumes of the female flowers (nearly hidden when in ripe fruit) 
linear-lanceolate, acute, the apex often slightly recurved, reddish 
brown, with a broad band of pale green down the centre, and 
scarious at the apex ; glumes of the male flowers lanceolate and 
apiculate, pale yellowish brown, with scarious edges; fruit globose, 
inflated, tapering into a rather long cleft beak, with slightly 
diverging lobes, with 10-12 fine nerves (prominent only when 
dried), yellowish when ripe, the apex of the spikes often suffused 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 31. [Feb. 1893.] d 



84 A NEW IRISH SEDGE. 

with dusky red ; stigma trifid, long, deeply cleft to the beak of the 
fruit ; nut scarcely half the length of the fruit, and only one-third 
as broad, narrowed at the base, and finely striated. 

A peculiar species with much of the habit, in the lower part of 
the culms, of Scirpiis sylvaticus ; the structure of the leaves is some- 
what between C. aquatilis and C. rip aria. The Norwegian specimens 
have the leaves more like C. rip aria, while those of Russia and 
Mongolia are between riparia and Scirpiis sylvaticus. The spikes 
are awpullacea-\ike 9 but very much stouter, and much like the 
American Carex bull at a Schkuhr. In drying, the fruits become 
curiously compressed by the apex being forced into the distended 
portion, and thus giving the spikes an odd aspect. 

Roughly, in looking for the plant, it may be said to be a Carex 
with thick ampullctcea -like fruiting spikes, and the leafage and 

culms of C. riparia. 

Over its area of growth it seems to be a sparsely distributed 
species, and is most abundant in the deep bogs on the river and 
lake shores in Finland. 

The circumstances connected with the discovery of this plant in 
Britain were attended by a rather humorous scene, which I trust it 
will not be considered heresy to relate in the grave and strictly 
scientific pages of this Journal. On August 14th last I was 
botanising along the marshy shores of Mullaghmore Lough, a 
lakelet occupying a shallow hollow in the Lower Silurian or 
Ordovician rocks that cover the central portion of the county of 
Armagh. Tall plume-like tufts of Cicnta grew around, and the 
numerous bog-holes were spangled with the white flowers of 
Nymphaa. Presently my eye was caught by a patch several feet in 
diameter of a large sedge, growing in the centre of a deep drain 
some ten feet in width, which communicated with the waters of the 
lake. It was immediately distinguished from the groves of Carex 
rostrata which grew around by its taller growth and more glaucous 
leaves. It grew in between two and three feet of water, the total 
height of the plant being about four feet. How to get at it was the 
difficulty. The bottom of the drain was soft, deep mud. The sides 
were soft peat. I stretched over and examined the clump with my 
stick. A single fruit-stem was disclosed, much shorter than the 
leaves, and bearing several stout sessile erect spikes of fruit, with 
long leaf-like bracts. I again and again tried to hook it in with 
my stick, but unsuccessfully— tantalizing ! Meanwhile, my eccentric 
movements had attracted the attention of the inhabitants of the 
immediate neighbourhood. A small boy who had been lying half- 
asleep under a hedge sat up and stared with all his might at this 
novel fishing. The cows which he was herding approached 
cautiously, and stood mystified in a semicircle. A flock of ducks 
hurried m from the lough to see what was up, and paused within a 
few yards, expressing their curiosity in loud quacks of enquiry. All 
was excitement and suspense. Ah ! I had got the sedge safely 
hooked this time. Slowly it was drawn towards the bank, and my 
hand closed on the stem. Then came the denouement. The edge 
ot the bank suddenly gave way. There was a frantic spring, and 



ON SOME CASES OF INVERSION. 35 

then a huge splash. The ducks gave one universal quack, and fled 
from the scene with a prodigious flapping ; the cows kicked up their 
heels, and scattered precipitately; the small boy, convinced that 
the water-bogie was after him at last, fled from the spot in terror ; 
and the botanist emerged, dripping with mud and water, but 
clutching firmly in his hand the first British specimen of Carex 

rhynchophysa ! 

Unable to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion as to its determi- 
nation, I passed the specimen to my friend Mr. S. A. Stewart, who 
returned it, marked " C, rostrata." The general appearance of the 
plant was so distinct from that of the C. rostrata which grew near, 
that I was not satisfied with this determination, and sent it to Mr! 
Bennett. That gentleman has now submitted it to the most rigid 
examination, and though hesitating at first to add a plant to the 
British flora on the strength of a single specimen without the 
clearest proof, he is now convinced of its identity with C. rhyncho- 
physa of C. A. Meyer. 



ON SOME CASES OF INVERSION. 
Br Maxwell T. Masters, M.D., F.R.S. 
The relative position of particular " members " or tissues is so 



important 



- - — r b*-v-«* v , o,ix« .num hub uuiliu OI View 

of systematic botany, that any deviation from the ordinary mode of 
orientation is worthy of notice. I propose, therefore, in the 
following note to call attention to a few selected illustrations. The 
causation and significance of these is probably very diverse a 
circumstance that renders it the more desirable that they should be 
brought together for comparison and ultimate classification. 

Reversed position of the xylem and phloem elements. 

A noteworthy illustration of this occurs in the fruit-scale of 
Abietinero, indeed of all the Conifers. In the bract the arrange- 
ment is the same as in the leaf, that is to say, the phloem°is 
towards the dorsal surface of the bract, whilst the xylem ia 
directed towards the ventral surface. In the fruit scale the posi- 
tion is exactly reversed, the xylem is found on the outer or dorsal 
side, the phloem towards the ventral face. This arrangement 
points to the conclusion that the scale in question is a " cladode " 
or flattened shoot, a part only of whose vascular system is present 
The lower part (which, if present, would complete the vascukr 

afctl l! S Undevel °P ed ; K W1 " be remembered that Cashntr 
de Candolle gives a similar explanation of the position of xylem 
and phloem in an ordinary leaf-blade, but in this case it kt! 
upper half of the vascular system which is wanting. The sleet 

?±S^^ 7U2?££ ^ h0l °^ of the^oniferstS 



and need not be further alluded to here. 



d2 



36 ON SOME CASES OP INVERSION. 

A common occurrence on the leaves of Yucca fiaccidu is the 
production of tubular horn-like processes from the margins. In 
the central vascular bundles the arrangement is normal, but in 
those of the tubular portion the position of xylem and phloem is 
reversed, the phloem being nearest to the axis. 

Keversed arrangement of the palisade cells. 

The palisade cells are in most instances formed in the proxi- 
mal or ventral portion of the leaf, but an exception to this is met with 
in the leaves of Picea ajanenm and some others, where the pali- 
sades are formed in the dorsal part of the leaf, the leaves on the 
lateral, horizontally spreading branches being either bent or twisted 
at the base, so as to expose the dorsal surface to the light. The 
stomata are on the ventral surface in this case, but no change 
occurs in the relative position of the xylem and the phloem. 

A similar transposition is often observable in cases of enation 
from the leaf, thus in the orange an outgrowth from the under 
surface is sometimes met with, having its ventral or green surface 
turned in the opposite direction from that of the primary leaf, 

!^!!^^^^ where the thick lines represent the 

thus:— O dark green surfaces, the thin lines 

the paler surfaces. Occasionally in 

«x C xuuugai jjaurei ^.uickson, Journal of Botany, 1867, 822) in 
Oesnera allagophylla, and constantly in Xanthosoma appendiculatum , 

similar outgrowths are observable, with a similar transposition of 
parts. i A similar reversal may be seen in the corona of Narcissus, 
which is an enation from the perianth. In one form of this, 
figured in the Gardeners' Chronicle for March 31, 1888, p. 405, 
there are peculiar frilled outgrowths from the corona itself, and in 
these, according to Dr. Scott, the arrangement of the fibro-vascular 
bundles is the same as in the perianth segments, but contrary to 
the arrangement in the corona itself. In the corolla of a Cyclamen 
from which a frill-like outgrowth proceeded, the orientation of the 
nbro-vascular cords was the reverse of that which obtains in the 
corolla itself Owing, however, to the imperfect differentiation of 
the tissues it is not easy or indeed possible to trace the exact 
relation of the tissues in all of these cases. 

Reversed position of the stomata. 

™vftii h ° U , g V he i S ^° mata are bv no means confined to the dorsal 
21 a leaf V yet thev occur there generally in greatest 
c™\£«\ ^ eX l ej>t T, T V be noted in the cotyledons of many 
£w<L * m + theadult leaves of junipers and Pka ajanensis, 
where the stomata occur chiefly on the ventral surface. It is no 
necessary to do more than allude in passing to the position of the 

thZhtT ? V ??\ SUrface of the cladode of ««««« mdrogynu*, 

Issnl, a Z!n t, d at . tbe baSe ' S0 that the stomatiferous surface 
assumes a downward dir ection/*: The development of stomata on the 

part Mi C 8 k 8T) n l' , ix.-xu: ***" ° f RmCU8 '" Tran *' Bot < ** ***. vol. xvi. 



ON SOME CASES OF INVERSION. 87 

morphological upper surface of the leaf, associated with a twist of 
the leaf, is witnessed in Alstvcemeria, Bomarea, various species of 
Allium, and other monocots. No change occurs in these cases, in 
the relative position of the xyleni and phloem. 

Inverted distribution of colour. 

In a flower of an ordinary Gloxinia the richest colouration 
occurs in the interior of the tube, in a position corresponding to the 
ventral surface of the leaf. Occasionally petaloid outgrowths arise 
from the outer surface of the ordinary corolla, these outgrowths 
being sometimes so regular as to form a second corolla outside the 
first. In these enations the deep colour is outside. The thick 
line in the following diagram may represent the coloured surfaces, 

the inner ones the paler portions. In some of these 
cases the enation forms, by the coalescence of its 
margins, a complete tube, and when that is the case, 
the deepest intensity of colour is inside, as in the 

O original flower. 

Similarly a peculiar malformation occurs occasionally 
in Calceolana in which, in addition to the usual two 
stamens, a third is developed in the form of a petaloid 
bag or tube within the corolla, and coloured in the same 
manner, except that whilst in the corolla the deepest colour is out- 
side, in the petaloid stamen it is inside.* 

Inversion of the flower. 

In most Orchids the sepals in the adult flower are so arranged 
that one is posterior and median, the other two are lateral, while 
the petals are placed alternately with the sepals, and consequently 
have the lip or odd petal placed anteriorly in the middle line of the 
flower. This position is generally attributed to torsion of the 
pedicel, as the original position of the parts is just the reverse of 
what has just been mentioned. If, on the one hand, no torsion 
takes place, or if, on the other hand, a complete spiral turn is 



* The examination of Calceolarias presenting the peculiarities just men- 
tioned, induced me to study the mode of development of the flower. The 
primary floral tubercle soon loses its hemispherical form and becomes some- 
what angular. From one angle the posterior sepal is developed before the 
others ; next in order, and nearly if not quite simultaneously, appear the two 
lateral sepals, and lastly the anterior sepal. The corolla appears first as an 
undivided ring, which is soon overtaken in its development by the two lateral 
stamens, which are produced simultaneously and which are the only two which 
are developed. When the two stamens are considerably advanced in their de- 
velopment the limb of the corolla begins to be developed in the shape of two lobes 
anterior and posterior, which are, for a time, of equal size ; but the anterior or 
inferior one speedily increases in size to form the lower lip of the corolla. The 
pistil is very late in development and consists of two tubercles placed antero- 
posteriorly. Each becomes somewhat two-lobed before the style is produced, 
so that when the cavity of the pistil is closed, the pistil is slightly four-lobed. 
The flower is therefore numerically irregular from the first, and there is no 
trace of the fifth sepal or petal, nor of the three stamens. Eichler attributes 
the fourfold calyx to the union, or want of separation of two sepals, but there 
is no trace of fusion of two sepals. 



38 



ON SOME CASES OF INVERSION. 




Fig. 1.— Normal Barley, germinating 



,/ 









\ 



r 






effected, then the flowers 
retain their primitive ori- 
entation. It must, how- 
ever, be admitted that the 
evidence of any such tor- 
sion as is above described 
is often not conspicuous. 
Be this at it may, flowers 
in which the lip is upper- 
most, as in some species 

of Catasetum, may be taken 
to represent the primitive 
condition. A very interest- 
ing case occurred during 
the 



past 



and 



summer, 
which was kindly commu- 
nicated to me by Mr. 
Douglas. It was a case 

of a Cypri j tedium bearing 

two flowers on the same 
inflorescence. In one of 
these flowers the odd se- 
pal was anterior and the 
lip posterior or superior. 
In the other the odd sepal 
was posterior or superior 
and the lip anterior, as 
is usually the case. No 
trace of torsion was visible 
in the axis supporting the 
flower, nor in the ovary. 

In Gladiolus on the 
same inflorescence some of 
the flowers may have the 
odd sepal next to the bract, 
or more rarely next to the 
axis, with corresponding 
changes in the other parts 



of the flower. 



W 



Fig, 2,— Inverted seeds of Barley. 



Bateson, Journ, Linn. Soc. 
xxviii. p. 490 (1891). 

In Finns the adult cone 
is usually deflexed, but in 
some cases it retains its 
erect position. 

The complete inversion 
of parts in the carpel and 
seed of barley, figured from 
specimens sent by Mr. Lax- 
ton, may also be mentioned 
(see figs. 1-4). The plu- 



ON SOME CASES OF INVERSION. 



39 



mule here made its appearance from the base of the grain, while 
the roots proceeded from the other end — a topsy-turvy arrange- 
ment, the explanation of which has not yet been revealed.* 





Fig. 3. 



Barley grain with husk removed, showing 
the parts of the embryo. 



Fig. 4. 

Embryo from 

the side. 



Rev 



POSITION OF THE CARPELS. 



In the genus Citrus, as also in CraUrgus, Primus, &c, supple- 
mentary carpels are occasionally met with, and whilst the ventral 
sutures of the normal carpels are directed centrally, ( X , those of the 
adventitious productions are turned outwards, ) X . In the pome- 
granate (Panica) it will be remembered that two tiers of carpels 
exist. In the lower one the placentas are axile, while in the 
upper series they are parietal,! but, according to Payer and 
Baillon, this is due to the bending over of the apex of the ovary 
in the case of the upper series, to such an extent that the organic 
summit is ultimately placed lower than the base. This change 
seems more especially to occur in cases where the abnormal carpels 
are really metamorphosed stamens (pistillody of the stamens). 
Where the increased number of carpels is really due to an augmen- 
tation of the pistillary whorls (pleiotaxy) the carpels are arranged 
in the ordinary manner. 

Reversed position of the gills of mushrooms. 

A very frequent malformation in Agarics is one in which the 
top of an ordinary pileus bears a second, but in an inverted 



* See Gard. Chron., March 15, 1873, and in Dr. Dammer's German transla- 
tion of my Vegetable Teratology (1880), pp. 241—246. 

t Lindley, Vegetable Kingdom, p. 735. 



40 



KEY TO BRITISH RtJBI. 



position (fig. 5). All degrees of this change may be met with, the 
most remarkable perhaps being one illustrated by Mr. Worthington 
Smith in the Gardeners' Chronicle for Feb. 24, 1887, in a species of 

Russula, where three adventi- 
tious pilei sprang from the top 
of the normal one ; of these, 
two were reversed, whilst the 
third had the gills turned down- 
ward in the ordinary manner. 
See also Mr. Smith's article in 
Gard. Chron., July 26, 1873. 

It will thus be seen that 




these 



cases 



of 



A 



inversion are 
numerous, and cannot be at- 
tributed to any single cause. 
In ordinary chorisis, either 
radial or tangential, and which 
indeed is only a modified pro- 
cess of ramification, part suc- 
ceeds part without any in- 
version. But in the class of 
cases known as enations or 
outgrowths from an already 
completed structure, the diffe- 
rentiation of the tissues often 
takes place in an inverted 
direction, and furnishes additional evidence in support of the 
view that there is no fundamental difference between caulome 
and phyllome. 

In other cases the inverted position seems to be due to a 
reversion to a primordial or even to an ancestral state of things, 
but what brings about this sudden resumption of pristine ways is 
an utter mystery. 



Fig. 5. — Mushroom with a second one 
growing from its pileus in an isolated 
position ; a third pileus is in the 
natural position. 



AN ESSAY AT A KEY TO BEITISH RUBL 

By the Eev. W. Moyle Rogers, F.L.S. 

(Concluded from p. 10.) 

84. E. corylifolius Sm. — Near II. dumetorum, but with st. 
usually much rounder and very nearly or quite glabrous; prickles 
slenderer, more subulate and less unequal, and very few (if any) 
acicles and stalked glands. L. 5-nate-pedate, often large. Lts. often 
much as in dumetorum, but usually with thicker paler felt beneath ; 
while in the typical plant (E. tubluttria Lees) the term. It. is con- 
spicuously different in outline. Pan. somewhat irregular, more or 
less corymbose, often with 2 or 3 long axillary branches; rachu 



/« 



seldom 



KEY TO BRITISH RUBI. 41 

top), and acicles few or none. Sep. reflexed in jr. A puzzling 
collection of forms intermediate between R. dumetorum and R. ccesius. 

a. R. sublustris (Lees). — St. nearly round, more or less striate, 
reddish, with very scattered slender and not very unequal prickles 
usually slightly declining from rather a small base. Lts. sharply 
doubly serrate, ashy-felted beneath; term, roundly cordate-acuminate, 
and often more or less 3-lobed. Pan.-rachis nearly straight. A very 
common form in most parts of England ; nearly eglandular. 

b. conjungens Bab. R. cyclophyllus Lindeb. ? — St. rather more 
angular and often stouter, reddish. Prickles less scattered, rather 
short but strong, declining or slightly deflexed from a long base. 
Lts. all usually broader, rounder, and with somewhat crenate-serrate 
toothing; term, roundly cordate -acute, very broad, 7iot lobate. Pan.- 
rachis nearly straight. Perhaps as common as sublustris and as 
nearly eglandular, and connected with it by numerous intermediates. 



/ 



R. purpureas Bab. — St. bluntly 



angular, subsulcate above, usually dark purple on the upper side, 
slightly hairy and with a good many scattered shortly stalked ylands. 

Prickles many, unequal, slightly declining from a large base. Lts. 
doubly dentate-serrate, usually pale green-felted beneath ; term, 
roundly ovate-acuminate or obovate-cuspidate, subcordate, some- 
times lobed on one side ; interm. and bas. sometimes united into a 
single deeply -lobed It. Pan. leafy, rachis somewhat flexuose, hairy, 
often considerably glandular. Apparently a frequent plant in the 
Midlands, and much nearer to jB. dumetorum (if indeed it can be 
kept apart from it) than the other two vars. Prof. Babington now 
considers it practically identical with R. Wahlbergii Arrh., while 
Areschoug {Observations on Rubus, 1887) would put the latter nearer 
to sublustris, as (judging from my Scandinavian specimens, as well 
as his description) I should also do. 

85. R. Balfourianus Blox. — St. roundish, with a good many 
scattered fine hairs (both single and clustered) and a few (usually 
very few) acicles and stalked glands. Prickles few, slender, nearly 
patent from a rather small compressed base. L. 5-nate. Lts. large, 
irregularly and often doubly dentate-serrate, occasionally lobate, 
green and hairy on both sides, rugose above, paler and soft beneath; 
term, usually broadly elliptic or roundish acuminate subcordate. 

Pan. very loose, with long erect-patent few- flowered distant branches and 
a flexuose hairy rachis, having usually a good many unequally scattered 
stalked glands (which seldom exceed the hair), an occasional acicle, 
and a few very slender patent prickles. Sep. ovate-acuminate- 

attenuate, hairy and glandular, soon becoming erect. Pet. suborbicular, 
often very large, purplish or white. Ft. black- purple, large, and 
richly flavoured. Stam. rather short, but usually exceeding the 
flesh-coloured styles. Widely but rather thinly distributed. 

The typical plant, with its exceptionally large 1., fl. and fr., its 
open few-tlowered hairy and glandular pan., and its attenuate erect 
sep M seems distinct enough ; but there are frequent intermediates 
connecting it with R. coryUfolius. Not far removed from some of 
them is a very handsome plant growing in some quantity at Niton, 
I. of Wight, which Dr. Focke thinks is R* Holcuulrei P. J. Muell. 



42 KEY TO BRITISH &UBI. 

It has a brown bluntly angular subglabrous and almost polished st., 
with more crowded broader-based patent prickles, and a longer 
narrower more prickly and more leafy pan., with the upper branches 
somewhat fasciculate ; while in other respects it seems hardly 
distinct from the small-flowered forms of R. Balfourianus. A some- 
what similar plant occurs at Evershot, Dors. 

The "ft althceifolius Host." of British Rubi and Bab. Man. 
seems of too indeterminate a character to claim a place in our list 
at present; while the name "JR. deltoideus Mull.," which takes its 
place in Lond. Cat. ed. 8, belongs, Dr. Focke assures me, to a 
hybrid, " jR. vastus x tomentosus" which we cannot expect to find in 
Britain, where R. tomentosiis is unknown. 

86. E. c^sius L. — St. prostrate from a low arch, round, usually 
slender and very glaucous, with small scattered subulate declining 
or deflexed prickles ; hairs, stalked glands, and acicles usually very 
few. L. almost always S-nate. Lts. green on both sides (except in 
var. pseudo-Idceus), unevenly incise -serrate, or rarely doubly serrate ; 
term, ovate, rhomboidal-ovate, or 3-lobed ; lateral usually bilobed, 
subsessile. Pan. lax, usually small, often nearly racemose with 
very long-stalked fl. Sep. green, ovate-acuminate, with long point 
clasping the glaucous fr. Pet. obovate, notched. Pollen regular in 
the typical plant. 

This species hybridises so freely, that its numerous forms hardly 
admit of exact distinction. I know scarcely anything of the 
following vars., or their distribution. For synonymy, &c, see 
Journ. Bot. 1886, p. 236, and Engl. Bot. Suppl. to 3rd ed., 
pp. 122-124. 

a. aqnaticus W. & N. ; umbrosus Eeich. ; agrestis Bab.— St. very 
slender, glaucous-green. Prickles fetv, very small. Lts. thin, 
lobate-serrate ; term, rhomboidal-ovate-acuminate, rounded below. 
Pan. small, "often nearly simple, and, when otherwise, the 
branches are rarely more than once divided.'' 

b. B. tenuis (Bell Salt.). R. degmer P. J. Muell. ? — St. very 
slender. Prickles many, small, stout, mostly equal, much dejlexed 
from considerably enlarged bases. Lts. rather doubly than lobate- 
serrate; term, obovate- acuminate, always narrowed below. 

c. arvensis "Walh. ; ligerinus Gene v. ; ulmifolius Bab. — St. often 
not so slender as in a. and b., purplish. Prickles many, small, 
deflexed or declining. Lts. slightly rw/ose, lobate-serrate, very broad ; 
term long-stalked, roundly cordate with short point, often 3-lobed. 
Mostly very large. 

d. intermedin* Bab. — St. thicker, greenish-purple. Prickles 
many, slender, very unequal, subpatent. L. often 5-nate. Lts. 
lobate-serrate; term, triangular -cordate- acuminate, 3-lobed or divided 
into 3 sessile Its. Stalked gland* and acicles few (as in a., b., and c), 
but Sorter and stouter. Connects c. with e. 

e. R. pseudo-Idam (Lej.). — St. rather thick. PHckles slender, 
violet-coloured, subpatent. L. 3-nate or 5-nate -pinnate. Lts. ashy- 
felted beneath. Obviously R. casius x Idmcs. 

f. hispid m W. & N. ; serpens Godr. & Gren.-S*. slender, green. 

-Lts. lobate-serrate ; term, obovate-acuminate, subcordate ; lateral 



KEY TO BRITISH RUBI. 43 

with a large backward lobe. Fed. and sep. with numerous stalked 
glands, and felted, but scarcely at all hairy. Drupelets many. 

Section II. Herbacei. — St. nearly or quite herbaceous. Stipules 
usually attached to the st. Fl. "umbellate," or nearly solitary. 

Receptacle flat. 

Subsection I. Saxatiles. — St. slender, prostrate. Fl. umbellate 
or nearly so. or subsolitary. Carpels distinct. 

87. R. saxatilis L. — St. annual, rooting, unarmed, or with 
scattered bristles. L. 3-nate. Lts. oblong-obovate, nearly equal. 
Fl. -shoot erect, with a terminal few-flowered umbel-like corymb. 
Pet. erect, white, equalling sep. Fr. of 1-4 distinct drupelets. In 
stony hill-country ; rare in S. Engl, 

Subsection II. Arctici. — No sterile st., but a long subterranean 
rhizome. Fl. term., solitary or subsolitary. Carpels adhering 
together. 

88. R. Cham^emorus L. — St. subterranean. L. simple, reniform, 
5-7-lobed, plicate. FL- shoot erect, unarmed, with 1 large dicceious 
term. fl. Pet. large, white. Fr. of several large drupelets, first 
red, then orange. Alpine turf bogs; but descending below 2000 ft. 
on Axe-Edge, Derb. 

Conspectus of the Groups of British Fruticosi. 

A. St. tall, glabrous or with few hairs, not glaucous, with 
prickles mostly equal and confined to the angles. Usually without 
stalked glands. Stip. linear. Bas. Its. sessile, subsessile or stalked. 

a. Sep. green, with narrow white margin : 

Suberecti. — Increasing mainly by root-extension. Mature 1. 
green beneath. Pan. often simply racemose. No stalked glands. 
See p. 109 (1892 vol.). 

b. Sep. grey- or white-felted, and either without white margin, 
or having only a comparatively inconspicuous one : 

Khamnifolii. — St. usually rooting at the end in autumn. Mature 
1. green or white-felted beneath. Pan. usually compound. Stalked 
glands very rare, though occurring occasionally in small quantity, 
especially in pan. See p. Ill (1892 vol.). 

B. St. arcuate or prostrate, rooting at the end in autumn, 
mostly hairy or furnished with stalked glands, seldom glaucous 
(except in Bellardiani), with prickles nearly equal or unequal, 
confined to the angles or scattered. Stip. linear or filiform. Bas. 
Its. distinctly stalked. 

a. Large prickles on the angles of the middle and upper part of 
st. tolerably equal. Small prickles absent or present. 

I. Pan. without stalked glands : 

Discolores. — St. bearing adpressed hairs. All the prickles 
equal, strong. L. 5-nate, white-felted beneath. See p. 202 (1892 

vol.). 



44 KEY TO BRITISH RUB*. 

II. Pan. usually without stalked glands, or with comparatively 
few (in the typical plant) : 

Silvatici.— St. bearing patent hairs. All the prickles equal, or 
nearly so, of moderate size. See p. 204 (1892 vol.). 

III. Pan. with stalked glands. 

1. St. eglandular, or with scattered stalked glands : 

Egregii.— Prickles subequal, chiefly on angles. Pan. with some 
nearly equal stalked glands. See p. 266 (1892 vol.). 

2. St. rough with crowded acicles and stalked glands : 

Radius. — Prickles unequal — the larger ones nearly confined to 
angles, and less unequal or subequal. Pan. side branches almost 
cymose. Stalked glands nearly equal. See p. 299 (1892 vol.). 

b. Prickles conspicuously unequal — the larger and smaller 
irregularly mixed : — 

Koehleriani. — Large prickles strong. Pan. side branches 
almost cymose. Stalked glands mostly very unequal. See p. 835 
(1892 vol.). 

Bellardiani. — Prickles mostly weak. Pan. usually racemose 
above, and with racemose side branches. St. frequently glaucous. 
See p. 3 (1893 vol.). 

C. St. low-arching or trailing, glaucous, rooting at the end in 
autumn. Stip. broadened in the middle. Bas. Its. hardly stalked : 

CiEsn. — Prickles mostly aciculate. Stalked glands thinly 
scattered or numerous, rarely wanting. Pan. usually short, and 
nearly simple. See p. 8 (1893 vol.). 

Additions and Corrections. 

In this "Key" I have thought it best to make no attempt to 
deal exhaustively with county distribution. I have merely, in the 
case of some of the less-known forms, given within brackets the 
names of such counties as I knew for them at the time of writing. 
Already in several instances I could add to these, but abstain from 
doing so as a rule. 

p. Ill (1892). JR. Cariensis Kip. & Genev. — I have now reason 
to believe the plant referred to under this name to be rather widely 
spread in N. Devon. I have also seen it (or a very nearly allied 
form) in one Dors, locality; but a closer acquaintance with the 
Somers. plant, mentioned shows it to be different. 

p. 112. R. Diimnoniensis Bab. — The Its., 1 find, are not un- 
frequently quite green and only thinly hairy beneath. 

p. 113. R. nemoralis P. J. Muell. — There is reason to fear that 
this has been too hastily adopted as the right name for our old 
aggregate, " R. umbrosus Arch." Dr. Focke has recently placed 
nenwraUs as a subordinate form nearly allied to //. tnacrophyUxu, 
and described it as having "Its. green on both sides, .... inflores- 
cence drawn out, with many flowered branches, large bracts, and 
falcate prickles ; fl. handsome, pink." This will hardly suit our 
ayyreyate. Probably our best course at present would be to put 
aside the names nemoralis and umbrosm, and make dumosus our 



KEY TO BRITISH RUBI. 45 

type, with pulcherrimus and Lindebergii as closely allied forms 
or vars. 

p. 148. R. villicaulis EoehL — The character, "concave I.," 
though reliable, I believe, as applied generally to this species, is 
not true of the strongly marked "Midlands cahatus" the L of which 
are, I am assured, conspicuously convex. 

p. 201. The plant referred to as "the visual ramosus of the 
Midlands'' is the R. Mercicus Bagnall, since described in this 
Journal (1892, p. 372). 

p. 203. R. thyrsoideus Wimm. — Quite recently Dr. Focke has 
thus named a Heref. plant of the Eev. A. Ley's, and I have seen 
Notts and Line, specimens, gathered by Mr. H. Fisher, that I should 
also refer to it. The following is a translation of Dr. Focke's 
lately published description of this aggregate species : — " Lts. 
medium-sized, glabrous above, with appressed white felt beneath, 
unequally and coarsely often incise-serrate ; term, narrow when 
young, later narrowly ovate to broadly elliptic. Inflorescence long, 
narrow, scarcely narrowed upwards, rather loose, with long branch- 
lets and ped. Fl. showy, white or light pink. Tall handsome 
plants with striking beautiful pan." The "species" is marked off 
from R. piibescens by its very high-arching glabrous furrowed st. and 
Its. often incised, and with more closely appressed white felt 

beneath. 

p. 230. R. Salteri Bab. — The Aconbury plant gathered by 
Mr. Ley "in the open" in 1892 has Its. rounder, much thicker, 
and in some cases even grey-felted beneath. 



festivu 



wri 



I sent him of a plant which grows in some quantity on Crowell 
Hill, Oxon, "match the dried original plants" of this "species," 
except (so far as he can see) in having white instead of pink pet. 
not, I think, a material point of difference, as the pet. of the 
Crowell plant are not of a dead white. By his latest arrangement 
he places festivns after R. yymnostaehys, distinguishing it only in the 
following terms : — " Lts. green beneath, as a rule narrower than in 
R. gymnostachys ; term, generally obovate. Inflorescence as in the 
preceding species; rather less hairy. More like R. Lejeunei and 
R. Ftickelii: 9 The Crowell plant is, however, much more strongly 
armed and more glandular than any ordinary gymnostachys, while 
its long pyramidal panicles, though very similar, are broader, and 
its 1. much thinner and greener. 

p. 5 (1893). "R. Bellardi W. &N.?" — The "?" here is 
wronfflv nlaeed. as it belongs to the name that follows — R. dentattis 



Blox. 



acutifi 



This newly 



described and strongly marked plant may be readily distinguished 
from its ally, R. nitidis, by the more nearly equal and deflexed stem- 
prickles, the longer pointed and more variable 1., and (above all) 
by the more interrupted pan. with remarkably aggregated and 

smaller fl. 

R. ochrodermia Ley, Journ. Bot. 1893, p. 15. — My knowledge of 

this is too slight to enable me to form any very decided opinion as 



46 



KEY TO BRITISH KUBI. 



to where in our list it should come. But if I am right in my 
impression that its place will prove to be with R. tereticaulis and 
R. oigocladus (among the Bellardjani, Sect. B), it may at once be 
marked off from those two plants by the more unequal prickles and 
acicles, the curious ochreous colouring which those organs share 
with the st., and the almost exclusively 3-nate 1. harsh to the touch 
beneath. 



INDEX. 

The names printed in small capitals are those adopted for species, 
groups, and sections. The names in italics are of those treated as vars. 
The others are synonyms or species noticed as doubtfully British The 
numbers refer to pages in the 1892 vol. of the Journal, except those under 
46, which are in the 1893 vol. 



acutifrons Ley . 
Adenophori . 

ADORNATUS P. J. Muell. 

adscitus Genev. 
affinis Blox. . 
affinis W. & N. . 
agrestis Bab. 
althaeifolius Host, 
amictus P. J. M. . 
ammobius Focke . 
amplificatus Lees 

Anglosaxonicus Gelert 
angustifolius 

aquaticm W. & N. 
Arctici 

argentatus p. j. m. 

argenteus (W. & N.) 
Arrhenii Lange 
arvenais Wallr. 
atro-rubens Wirtg. 
Babingtonii Bell Salt. 
badius Focke 
Bagnalli Blox. 

Balfodrianus Blox. 

Banningii (Focke) 
Bellardi W. & N . 
Bellardiani 
Bloxamii 

Bloxamianus Colem. 
Boreanus Genev. 
Borreri Bell Salt 

Briggsii Blox. 

C#;sii . 

CjESIUS L. 

calvatus Blox. 
Cariensis Eip. & Genev 

CARPINIFOL1US W. & N. 

carpinifolius Blox. 

CAVATIFOLIUS P. J. M. 
CHAMiEMORUH L. . 

chlorothyrsos Focke 



45 

266 

338 

231 

111 

111 

42 

42 

6 

110 

205 

269 

234 

42 

43 

201 

200 
232 
42 
338 
303 
340 

8 
41 

268 

5,45 

3 

336 

300 

267 

270 

8 

8 

42 

143 
111, 44 

142 

113 

335 
43 

270 



cognatus N. E. Br. 

COLEMANNI B10X. . 

concinnus Baker . 
conjungens Bab. . 
conspicuus P. J. M. 

CORVLIFOLII . 
CORYLIFOLIUS Sm. 

cyclophyllus Lindeb. 
Danicus Focke 
debilis Boul. ? 

degener P. J. M. ? 
deltoideus P. J. M. 
dentatus Blox. 
denticulatus Bab. , 
derasus L. & M. . 

Devoniemis (Focke MS.) 
discolor Bab. 

Discolores . 

diversifolius (Lindl.) 

DIVEXIRAMUS P. J. M. 

Drejeri G. Jensen 

DUMETORUM W. & N. 

Dumnoniensis Bab. 
dumosus Lefv. ? 

Linton 



DURESCENS W. B. 

Durotrigum R. P. Mm 

echinatus Lindl. . 
Egregii 

egregius Focke 
Eifeliensis Wirtg. 
elongatus Merc. . 
emersistylus P. J. M. 
erubescens Wirtg. 

erythrinus Genev. 
exsecatus P. J. M. 

fasciculatus P. J. M. 
ferox Wei he 
festivus M. & W. . 
fissus Lindl. 
flexuosus P. J. M. 
foliosus Blox. 



ray 



302 

231 

10 

41 

234 

8 

40 

41 

231 

302 

42 

42 

5,45 

300 

334 

205 

202 
202 

9 

4 
271 

9 

112, 44 
113 
202 

4 
301 
266 
270 
233 
203 

8 

234 

200 

338 

41 

9 

45 

109 

334 

338 



KEY TO BRITISH RUBI. 



47 



FOLIOSUS W. & N. 

Frutescentes 
Fruticosi 
fiisco-ater Weihe ? 

FUSCUS W. & N. . 

Gelertii Frider. 
Genevierii Bor. 
glabratiis Bab. 
Glandulosi 
glandulosus . 
Grabowskii Bab. . 
gratus Focke 
Giintheri Bab. 
gymnostachys Genev. 
hamulosus P. J. M. 
hemistemon (P. J. M.) 
Herbacei 

hirsutus 

hirtifolius M. & W. ? 
hirtus W. & N. . 
hispidus W. & N. 
Holandrei P. J. M. 
horridus Schultz. 
hybridus 
hypoleucus L. & M. 

hyponialacus Focke 
Hystrices 

hystrix (W. & N.) 
Idmi 

Id^eus L. 

imbricatus Hort. . 

incultus Wirtg. 

incurvatus Bab. . 

infecundus . 
infestus Bab. 
infestus Weihe . 
integribasis P. J. M. , 
intensus Blox. 
intermedins Bab. 
Kaltenbacliii Metsch. , 
Koehleri W. & N. 

KOEHLERIANI 

latifolius Bab. . 
Leesii (Bab.) 
Leightonii Lees . 
Lejeunei W. & N. 
leucandrus Focke 
leucostachys Sclileich. 
ligerinus Genev. . 
Lindebergii P. J. Iff, . 
Lindleianus Lees 
Lingua Bab. 
Lintoni Focke 
Loehri Wirtg. 

longithyrsiger Lees . 
macroacanthus Blox. 
macrothyrsos J. Lange 

MACROPHYLLl r S W, & N. 



■ 334 


macrophylloides Gene^ 


r. .205 


. 108 


macrostemon Focke 


. 202 


• 109 


MELANODERMA Focke 


. 302 


7, 340 


melanoxylon Bab. 


. 302 


303 


MELANOXYLON M. & W. 


. 2G8 


. 268 


Mercicus Bagnall 


. 45 


. 335 


micans Gren. ft Godr. 


. 231 


205 


microphyllus Blox. 


• 301 


3 


mucronatus Blox. 


. 267 


5 


mutabilis Genev. 


. 336 


142 


myrioe Focke 


. 230 


144 


NEMORALIS P. J. M. 


. 113, 44 


334 


nemorosus Genev. 


. 336 


234 


Newbouldii Bab. 


. 300 


110 


nitidus W. & N. , 


. 110 


110 


obscurus Kalt. 


. 339 


43 


ochrodermis Ley 


. 45 


340 


OIGOCLADUS M. & L. ? 


7 


144 


orualodontos P. J.;M. , 


7 


6 


opacus Focke 


. 110 


42 


pallidus Bab. . < 


. 340 


41 


PALLIDUS W. & N. 


. 304 


9 


pendulinus P. J. M. 


7 


5 


Petiolulati 


. 267 


231 


pilosus W. & N. . 


9 


272 


plicatus W. & N. 


. 109 


335 


plinthostylus Genev. 


. 340 


337 ] 


PODOPHYLLUS P. J. M. . 


. 233 


108 


polyanthetnus Lindeb. . 


• 114 


109 


pr^ruptorum Boul. 


. 301 


112 


pseudo'ldceus Lej. 


. 42 


3 


pubescens Weihe . 


. 203 


114 


pubigerus Bab. 


. 203 


338 


pulchcrrimus Newni. . 


. 114 


269 


Purchasii Blox. 


. 272 


269 


purpureus Bab. 


. 41 


110 


pygmseus Bab. 


. 301 


9 


pyramidalis Bab. . 


. 333 


42 


PYRAMIDALIS Kalt. 


. 233 


7 


Questierii Lefv. & Mue] 


[1. . 232 


339 


radula Weihe 


. 299 


335 


KADUL.E 


. 299 


202 


raduloides 


. 269 


109 


ramosus Blox. 


. 301 


300 


Beuteri Bab. 


. 339 


333 


Bhamnifolii 


^^ ^*^ ^^ 

. in 


144 


rhamnifolius W. & N. 


. 113 


234 


Ehenanus P. J. M. ? . 


. 333 


42 


rhombifolius Weihe . 


. 143 


114 


ROSACEUS W. & N. 


. 337 


145 


rotundifolius Bab. 


. 109 


338 


rotundifolius Blox. 


6 


304 


rubricolor Blox. . 


. 234 


304 


rudis Bab. 


. 301 


333 


rudis Weihe 


. 301 


203 


rusticanus Merc. 


. 202 


234 


Salteri Bab. 


230, 45 


205 


ealtuum Focke 


7 

. 334 



48 



ALISMA RANUNCULOIDES VAB. ZOSTERIEOLIUM FEIE9. 



Saxatiles 
saxatilis l. 

saxicolus p. j. m. 
scaber w. & n. . 

8cabrosus P. J. M. 
Schlectendalii (Weihe) 
Schlickumi Wirtg. 
serpens Godr. & Gren. 
serpens Weihe 
setulosus 

SlLVATICI 
SILVATICUS W. & N. 

Spectabiles . 
Sprengelii Weihe 
stenophyllus P. J. M. 
stenoplos Focke . 

SUBBELLARDIANI . 

SUBCORYLIFOLII 

SUBERECTI 

suberectus Anders. 

Subkoehleriani . 



43 

43 

5 

303 

10 
205 
270 

42 
6 
269 
204 
204 
266. 
232 
143 
113 
299 

267 
109 

109 
299 



sublustri8 Lees . 
sulcatus Vest. 

tenuis (Bell Salt.) 

TERETICAULIS P. J. M 

thyrsiflorus W. & N. 
thyrsiger Bab. 
thyrsoideus Bab. . 
thyrsoideus Wimm. 
tuberculatus Bab. 
ulmifolius Bab. 
umbrosus Arrh. 
umbrosus Keich. . 
velatus Lefv. 
vestitus Bab. 
vestitus Weihe 
villicaulis Koehl. 
vire8cens G. Braun 
viridis Kalt. 
Wahlbergii Arrh. ? 
Winteri Focke 



. 41 
. 110 
. 42 

7 
. 304 
. 333 
. 203 
203 , 45 
. 10 
. 42 
. 113 
. 42 

7 
. 234 

. 234 
143, 45 

. 230 

3 

. 41 

. 201 



A LIS MA 



RANUNCULOIDES var. Z 

IN BEITAIN 
By the Eev. E. S. Marshal] 



^eX^^o^U^ ^S b ° ta T nisi ^ alon S the Beauly 
of small pUs full of w,f ^ V ?^' I came across a ™m°<* 

^oS^l^^ '^ 4 * deep famed by 

remarkable Growth S i Se were 0CCU V™& by a very 

nutans Buchenau u^i t SE ^ Tr* the presence o{ Al ^' a 
of specific identic H av / VG1 T ° f fl ° WerS Settled the V'estion 
(DavL)inW FraL ^1 f ° nly ° DC T e gathered var "*»» 

might perhaps be I CirS' 1 ^^ the *™ 
did not favour this view Z t l ! ^ ° f ttat ; but af ter-study 
so different. For Z T most n r «* TT ° f flowerin ^ bein S 
merged, the rooWeavesTn^n i - pl * nts grew entirel y sub " 
linear-lanceolate bSde b 2T^/„? « 1Dg ? 8maU lance ° kte or 
point, so as to resemblp \Z Y ? ^ em tapermg g^dually to a 

The most strikmSr^V^ f ° rmS ° LUt ° rella ****** 
arching, BiibaqueoaT2i« 7 * howe ! er > ™ the presence of long, 

four infhes sTan, ronr?' ^ ^ hlch ' at intervals of three S 
long. The'se Zfed fZlyZZ *??• leaVeS bma * t0 6 inches 
rooting in the soil whichT <? \ \^ m , no Case did J fi » d «»em 

late in the year VJ Ve ^ Z ?n ? ^ ^^ ° nly do ^ uite 
usual form of ditches w?re tn ST Wa ^ r V ea Y es approaching the 
throw off these free floXV „i ^ mth ' but the teiulenc y to 
could I find normals ra2in f, 1& f bearil !S *tems remained ; nor 
specimens were in flowed S "f^w around. Very few 

nower, and those only at the water's edge ; the 



ALISMA RANUNCULOIDES VAR. Z0STERIF0LIUAI FRIES. 49 

inflorescence showing no marked deviation from type, except in the 
presence of fascicled leaves on most of the panicles, which I 
believe to be analogous to the leaf-producing submerged rootlets. 
No fruit was seen, and I suspect that it seldom, if ever, occurs' 
Specimens from the Eiver Laune, Killorglin, Co. Kerry, collected 
by Mr. E. W. Scully in August, 1890, and sent out under the name 
of var. repms, appear to me to be the same thing, though less well 
marked ; an opinion endorsed by Mr. Scully himself and by Mr. 
Arthur Bennett, to whom I owe both the identification of my plant 
and almost all the information gleaned from books about it. He 
has looked through the material at Kew and South Kensington 
without finding anything similar to those above named, and, from 
an examination of Davies' specimens of his A. repem, concludes 
that the two forms should be kept separate. This appears to be 
rare, being only known hitherto from a few localities in Sweden, 
Denmark, Pomerania, and Holland. All the Floras that mention 
it treat it as a " good " variety ; but whether it is really more 
than an extreme " state " can only be proved by experiment. 

The first publication by Fries was in Botaniska Notker for 1840, 
p. 85. In Nov. Fl. Suec. Mont. iii. p. 183, written two years later,' 
ignoring his previous name, the author substituted that of spar- 
ganifolium, possibly considering it more appropriate. The earlier 
title must, of course, stand. He says: — " spargamfolium, foliis 
pr^elongis natantibus linearibus membranaceis. But. Not. 1840. In 
GElandia3 australis aquis G. M. Sjostrand. Exacte respondet A. 
Plantagini gramini folio. Utriusque folia sunt phyllodia, in quorum 
apice laminam parvam abortivam videre licet.' ' The original 
description runs : — "foliis longissimis linearibus natantibus (fran 
Oland, Sjostrand)." The following list (due to the source already 
mentioned) illustrates the book-history of the subject : — 

1753. Alisma ranunculoides L. Spec. Plant, ed. i. vol. p. 343. 
1840. var. zoster i 'folium Fries in Bot. Not. p. 35. 
1842. var. sparganifolium Fries, Mant. iii. p. 183. 

1844. zoster {folium Fries in litt., Koch Synopsis Fl. Germ, et 
Helv. 

1846. Fries Summa Veg. Scand. p. 65. 

1864. y. littorellcefolium Mortensen in Lange's Handb. i dm 

Danske Flora, ed. 3, p. 79$. 

1868. Echinodorus ranunculoides G. Engelmann in Ascherson 
Flora d. Prov. Brandenburg, p. 651 (1864), var. foliis zosteraceis 
Buchenau. Abhandl. d. naturw. Vereiues zu Bremen, xi. p. 17 
(reprint). 

1869. var. spa rgani folium Fries. Marsson Flora von Neu- 

vorpommern, p. 446. 

1879. v. zosterafolia Ft. i. Bot. Not. 1840, Hartman Skand. 
Flora, ed. xi. p. 416. 



Journal of Botany. — Vol. 31, [Feb. 1893.] e 



Mo. Bot. Garden. 



1894 



60 



AJUGA PYRAM1DALIS IN SCOTLAND. 

By Aethur Bennett, F.L.S. 

In last year's Journal, p. 310, Mr. Colgan asks under what con- 
ditions, and at what elevations, the above species occurs in 
Scotland. As no one has replied to his query, I offer the following 
notes. In compiling them I am much indebted to Messrs. Miller 
and Duncan for notes on the species in the Hebrides and Suther- 
land. 

Taking the counties in which it occurs, and in which the 
hahitats are so stated as to be available : — In Orkney it occurs at 
about 600 ft., " on the sides of a hill." In the Outer Hebrides it 
grows among short grass about 100 ft. above sea-level on ground 
moderately dry. Another station is on the S.E. slope of one of the 
hills that occupy the peninsula at the S.W. corner of Harris, about 
350 ft. ahove sea-level, on roughish, moderately dry ground, 
among short grass, and small tufts of heather. 

In Caithness it grows on " The Old"; this is about 1250 ft. 
altitude, but I can find no note of the exact position of the plant 
on this hill. It also occurs on the grassy ledges of the cliffs on the 
north coast (about 300 ft.), and on the sloping banks (among 
grass) of one or two of the rivers at a low elevation (70'-100' ?). 
In E. Sutherland, on the sloping and rocky banks of a small burn 
near the coast ; and again on the sides of the " Straths " on the 
east side of the watershed, bordering on the Caithness border. In 
W. Sutherland, about a mile inland, among rocks partly over- 
shadowed by brushwood, about 2-300 ft. above sea-level ; and in a 
grassy dell on the inland side of the sea-cliflfs facin°- west, 
probably from 3-400 ft. altitude. In Dumfries, "on a small 
grassy plat formed by a slip in the rocky sides of the glen, at an 

elevation of about 1750 ft." (J. T. Johnstone) in the Moffat 
district. 

Sir J. E. Smith describes its stations as "in dry pastures in 
the Highlands " ; Hooker and Arnott as " Highland pastures." Mr. 
Bentham remarks (ed. 1), '< It is never more marked than in 
recently burnt pastures"; this is the case in Sutherland, except 
that heather predominates over grass. 

Looking beyond our own country, in Norway it extends 
upwards from 3500', 4000', and 5000'. Sommerfelt, in his Suppl. 
JH. Lappoma gives " in graminosis humidis inferalpinum." In 
Denmark, at a low elevation in the island of Bornholm, &c. (" in 
high grassy places"). In Belgium, in the glades of woods, 
pastures and heaths. In Italy, " in alpine pastures in the Alps." 
m [ u , cuk \ v r atlon ( fr om Sutherland) it often shows for flower in 
the end of March, and in early seasons is in full flower by the end 
of April, contmning to the beginning of June. 

Ajvga pyramidal* seems to be generally described as perennial, 
but it is otten biennial, becoming perennial by buds in the lower 
axils of the leaves, which sometimes become very short stolons in 



the end of autumn. 



can 



LABORATORY NOTES. 51 

small plants that at the time puzzled me greatly as to what they 
could be, but growing on, they now show they are the Ajuga ; the 
present leaves are curiously folded with patent hairs almost touch - 

™ g o^ ° ' lookin S m «ch like a trap. Mr. Watson (Cyb. Brit, 
11. 351) says : « Maintains itself by seeds in my garden in Surrey, 
but rather as a biennial than perennial." 



LABORATORY NOTES. 
By Spencer Le M. Moore, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

I. The best way to make Millon's reagent. 

The usual method of making Millon's reagent is that given by 
the text-books on physiology. The inconvenience in following the 
directions contamed in those books is great, seeing that not only 
are nitrous fumes liberated in large quantity, much loss of time 
being caused before the fluid is ready, but the process is not 
feasible, supposing only a little of the reagent to be required. 
Seeing that Millon's fluid is well known as being a mixture of mer- 
curic and mercurous nitrates, it would seem to be a matter for sur- 
prise if no attempt has been made to form a Millon's fluid by simply 
mixing the above nitrates in a certain proportion. As I have never 
heard of such an attempt, it may perhaps be worth mention that 
for some time I have used a Millon's reagent made by mixing the 
nitrates. Some preliminary experiments showed that a saturated 
solution of mercurous nitrate added to an equal quantity of mer- 
curic nitrate as ordinarily sold, gives a fluid behaving in every way 
like one got by the action of hydric nitrate upon mercury. The 
advantages of this practice are that time is saved, there is no un- 
pleasant smell caused, and just as much or as little of the reagent 
can be made — if it be only a few drops — as the operator requires. 



DEMONSTRATING 




Within the last three years I have had much occasion to use 
Millon's fluid in connection with researches on callus and para- 
callus, and on the chemical constitution of cell-walls. Having 
frequently noticed that by careful boiling of sections mounted in 
Millon's fluid continuity of the slime through the sieves of sieve- 
tubes can often be made out in a beautiful manner, it occurred to 
me to try whether the fluid would be of any service in the demon- 
stration of continuity through cell-walls in general. With ordinary 
tissues the result was not satisfactory, apparently because the 
boiling fluid acts too energetically upon the walls, but in the case 
of bony endosperms the reagent acts admirably if the precaution 
be taken of carefully applying heat to the preparation, when, in 
the course of a few seconds the intramural threads are well shown 
up. Preparations so treated may, after thorough washing be 
mounted in glycerine, and they will keep for years. When it is 

e 2 



52 LABORATORY NOTES. 

remembered that, except very rarely (e. g., Strychnos Ignatia), the 
ordinary methods employed to demonstrate continuity involve 
action of the reagent during several hours, the advantage of the 
plan here proposed is at once obvious. 



III. Action of cold Millon's fluid on iron-greening tannin, and 

ON cell-walls giving proteid reactions. 

In a memoir recently published in Joum. Linn. Soc. vol. xxvii. 
I have endeavoured to show that the substance in certain cell-walls 
which causes them to give several of the reactions whereby proteids 
are recognised is not protein, as some continental authors (notably 
Weisner and Krasser) suppose, but is an iron -greening tannin. I 
was led to take up this position by the accumulation of evidence 
from several quarters; for not only did it appear that the cell- walls 
which will give some proteid reactions will not give others as dis- 
tinctive, but the presence of iron-greening tannin could be demon- 
strated in those very walls. Moreover, it was found that solutions 
of iron-greening tannin behave exactly as do the walls to the 
various reagents employed, whether those reagents be reagents 
used in the detection of proteids, or reagents enabling us to 
discover tannin. Further, an attempt was made to explain why it 
is that certain cell-walls will take a distinctive colour with a given 
reagent, such as Schulze's solution, and some evidence was ten- 
dered in favour of the view that the presence of tannin (or at least 
of some glucoeide) often determines the colour taken in these cases. 

As I am here writing about Millon's reagent, the opportunity is 
taken of stating that, in the course of some further researches on 
this interesting subject, an unsuspected confirmation of the above 
doctrine has lately come to light. I find that whereas when 
Millon's fluid is added to a solution of tannin, no change in the 
yellow ochre-coloured precipitate * ensues on allowing the°unboiled 
product to stand overnight, yet that with an iron-greening tannin in 
the lorm of a solution of catechu, the result is quite different, since 
tlie precipitate slowly becomes brirk-re,l without boiling. Here then is 
a crucial test which anyone who still favours continental views can 
easily apply. If the substance in the cell-walls which react like 
proteids be really protein, those walls should be unstained after 
lying overnight in cold Millon's fluid ; on the other hand, staining 
ot these walls would be evidence of a very decided character in 
support of the deduction advanced in my memoir. 

The result of the experiments is here given : in each case 
sections were kept overnight in Millon's fluid, but usually three or 
lour hours action is quite sufficient. 

(«). In/. Xylem, hard bast and to a less degree outer cortical 
layers and epidermis stained as on boiling in the fluid. The stain 

t r° f °S W f ? the 1 sclerotise * fundamental tissue lying upon the 
inner side of the xylem. 



m^S^^^T^ ° ne ' the P reci P" ate i« ^ first orange, but it 



MARINE ALGiE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 53 

(6). Escallonia macrantha. Xylein and hard bast well stained. 

(c). J uncus conglomeratus. Xylem and sclerotised fundamental 
tissue surrounding vascular bundles well stained ; walls of phloem 
less clearly stained. 

(d). Yellow Jasmine. Walls of xylem, hard bast, phelloderm, 
and to a slighter degree of soft bast stained; sclerotic fibres 
running through cortex also well-stained. 

(e). Privet. Xylem and hard bast stained. 

(/). Pyrethrum Partheniwn. Xylem and hard bast stained. 

(//). Berberis Darwinii. Xylem and hard bast stained. 

(h). Maize. Walls of xylem and especially those of the sclero- 
tised fundamental tissue in the neighbourhood of the vascular 
bundles stained. 

(i). Khizome of Arundo Phragmitss. Same as maize. 

(j). Veronica sp. Hard bast and xylem stained. 

(k). Isoetes lacustris. Meristem walls stained. 

It must suffice to remark that these stained walls are precisely the 
walls which give the proteid reaction with boiling MMoris fluid. More- 
over, iron-greening tannin in the cells of these plants, when it 
could be detected, reacted in the same way as did the walls to the 
cold fluid. 



A PBOVISIONAL LIST OF THE MARINE ALGiE 01 

THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

By Ethel S. Barton. 

I.— PEOTOPHYCEiE. 

Lvtngbya semiplena J. Ag. Sea Point, Boodle ! A small speci- 
men on Codium tomentosum. 

' Oeogr. Distr. North Sea. Adriatic. 

Calothrix Crustacea J. Ag. Kalk Bay, Boodle ! 

Oeogr. Distr. Adriatic. 

Dermocarpa prasina Born. On Rhizoclomum, Knysna, Boodle ! 

On t 'ladophora rupestris, Cape, Harvey ! 
Geogr. Distr. North Sea. Adriatic. 

II.— CHLOBOPHYCEiE. 

Ulve.e. 

Ulva Lactuca L. Robben Island, Tyson ! Kalk Bay, Boodle ! 
Knysna, Kraussl Port Elizabeth, Sutherland I Port Natal, Kr&uml 
No. 274; Gueinzius ! Cape, llohenack. ! Meeralgen, No. 4 ( J0; IMujuia 
Brebissonianm ! Ser. 2, No. 200. 

Var. rigida. Kalk Bay, E. Young ! Knysna, Boodle ! Cape, 



m 



Indies. 



Geogr. Dhtr. N. Atlantic. North Sea, Mediterranean, West 



U. fasciata Delile. Cape Point, BoodUl Kalk Bay, Boodle I 
Kei Mouth, Flanagan 1 Cape, lidiquia Brebissoniana ! Ser. 2, No, 107. 
Geogr. Distr. General in warm seas. 



51 



MARINE XLGM 



U. uncialis Suhr. Robben Island, Boodle I Wenekl Table Bay, 
Dreye ! Aretehouy, Tyson ! Cape Agulbas, Hohenack. I Cape, Ares- 
chouy, Phyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 59; Hohenack. I No. 153; 

Dickie ! Reeve ! 

Enterouorpha compressa Kiitz. Table Bay, Ecklonl Sea 
Point, Tyson ! Knysna, Krauss. 
Geoyr. Distr. General. 

E. flexuosa J. Ag. Ca,$e, Jide De Toni. 

Geoyr. Distr. Atlantic. Pacific. Baltic. Mediterranean. 

E. bulbosa Kiitz. Eobben Island. Table Bay, Dreye. Sea 
Point, Cape Point, Kalk Bay, Knysna, Boodle \ 
Geoyr. Distr. Southern oceans. 

E. Linza J. Ag. Cape, Dreyel 

Geoyr. Distr. N. Atlantic. Baltic. Mediterranean. W. Indies. 
Tasmania. 

E. intestinalis Link. Cape Agulbas, Hohenack. ! Cape, ZW! 
Brand] r J 

Geoyr. Distr. Atlantic. Mediterranean. W. Indies. 

E. clathrata Roth. Moutb of Olifants River, Dreqe. Algoa 

Bay, Sutherland ! 6 

Geoyr Distr. N.Atlantic. NortbSea. West Indies. Tasmania. 
New Zealand. 



Letterstedtia insignis Aresch. 

PfilNGSHEIMIA 



fi 



.Fringsheimia scutata Eke. On Placophora Binderi J. Ag., an 
epiphyte on Codium tomentosum. Kei Moutb, Flanagan I 



Geoyr. Distr. Baltic. Scotland. 



CONFERVE^ 



CHjETOMORPHA 



Uiuetouorpha clavata Kiitz. Table Bay, False Bay to Algoa, 
Me Areschoug. Cape Point, Boodle ! Sea Point, Boodle ! Table 

±>ay, Harvey \ 

Geoyr. Distr. West Indies. 

C. Linum Kiitz. Port Natal, Krauss. 

Geoyr. Distr North Sea. Baltic. Mediterranean. North 



Atlantic. Red Sea. 



NATALENSIS 



Port Natal, Krauns. 



Ocean. 



C. crassa Kiitz. Kei Mouth, Flmuuian ! 
Geoyr. Distr. Adriatic. Ireland. 
C. «rea Kiitz. Kalk Bay, Boodle ! 

Geoyr Distr Mediterranean, Atlantic shores of Europe 
lanes, United States, W. Indies, Australia. Europe, 

Rhizoclonium riparium Harv. Knysna, Krauss. 
Geoyr. Distr. North Sea. Baltic. Adriatic. A 



Adriatic. Atlantic. Indian 



R. arenosum Kutz. Cape, lib. Dickie ! 
Geoyr. Distr. British shores. Arctic ocean. 
R. tortdosum Kiitz. Knysna, Boodle I 
Geoyr. Distr. North Sea. 



Marine algje of cape of good hope. 55 

Cladophora nuda Kate, Cape Agulhas, Hohenack, ! Meeralgen, 
No. 464. This specimen is so fragmentary that it is quite impos- 
sible to examine it satisfactorily, and I therefore take Hohenacker's 
naming on trust. 

Geoff r. Distr. Atlantic. 

C. mediterranea Kiitz. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! Meeralgen, 
No. 466. 

Geogr. Distr. Mediterranean. 

C. spinulosa Kiitz. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! Meeralgen, 
No. 351. 

Geogr. Distr. Mediterranean. 



C. glomerata Kiitz. Port Natal, Krauss. 
Geogr. Distr. General. 

C. afra Kiitz. Knysna, Krauss. 
Geogr. Distr. Mauritius. 

C. hospita Kiitz. Eobben Island, Tyson ! Table Bay, Ecklon, 
Harvey ! Green Point, Harvey ! Cape Point, Boodle ! Cape 
Agulhas, Hohenack. ! Knysna, Krauss. Cape, Gaudichaud, Dregel 
Areschoug, Phyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 60; Hb. Dickie I Harvey I 
Hb. Lenormand ! Hb. Wenek ! Reeve ! Hohenack. ! Meeralgen, Nos. 
53, 204. 

C. catenifera Kiitz. Table Bay, Harvey ! Boodle \ Kalk Bay, 
Boodle ! Cape, Hb. Lenormand I Pieliqui<p Brebissoniancel Ser. 2, 

No. 124. 

C. flagelliformis Kiitz. (? includes C. virgata Kiitz.). Olifants 
Kiver to Algoa Bay, Binder. Robben Island, Boodle ! Table Bay, 
Drege ! Krauss, Menzies ! Harvey ! Kalk Bay and Cape Point, 
Boodle ! Knysna, Krauss. Cape, issued in Brebisson's Algws de 
France I Ser. 2, No. 98; Hohenackl Meeralgen, No. 152; Hb. Wenek ! 

C. rupestris Kiitz. Cape, Brand I Harvey ! Scott Elliot ! 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. Baltic. 

C. trichotoma Kiitz. Between Omsamcuio and Oincomas, Drege. 
This is the only record of this alga from the Cape that I can find. 
In the Herbarium of the British Museum there is a specimen named 
" Conf. trichotoma, Cap. B. Spei. Herb. Koem., n which is clearly 
Cladophora hospita Kiitz. ; and as, with the exception of Maze's 
Guadeloupe specimen, all other records of C. trichotoma are European, 
I am inclined to think that Drege's specimen was simply C. hospita 

Kiitz. 

Geogr. Distr. North Sea. Adriatic. W. Indies. 

C. Eckloni Kiitz. Table Bay, Ecklm, Drege ! Robben Island, 
Wenek ! Cape Agulhas, Hohenackl Meeralgen, No. 463. Cape, 

lib. Dickie ! Reeve ! Harvey ! 
Geogr. Distr. W. Indies. 

C. viroata Kiitz. Table Bay, Binder. 

Spec, dnbia. 
C. capensis Ag. Cape, Jide Areschoug (Phyc. cap. p. 13). 

(" Num Lychaete Ecklonii? ,, ). 



56 SHORT NOTES. 

C. aculeata S. Algoa Bay, Ecklon. 

C. radiosa S. Algoa Bay, mouth of Zwadtkap. Ecklon. 

SlPHONEiE. 

Microdictyon umbilicatum Zanard. Port Natal, Krauss. 
Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. Pacific. Mediterranean. Ked Sea. 

Apjohnia rugulosa G. Murr. Port Alfred, Can- ! Kei Mouth, 
Flanagan ! Algoa Bay, Becker ! Cape, Harvey 1 Natal, Krauss ! 
Sub nomine Conferva prolifera Roth. 

Geogr. Distr. Japan. 

Chamjedoris annulata Mont. Table Bay, fide Arttchoug. Port 

Natal, Krauss \ 

Geogr. Distr. Brazil. Indian Ocean. W. Indies. 

(To be continued.) 



SHORT NOTES. 

Arctium intermedium in Worcestershire. — I met with one 
plant of this species on the bank of the Severn, near the Ketch, 
between Worcester and Kempsey, on August 7th, 1890. So far as 

I can ascertain, it has not been recorded for this county before 

R. F. Towndrow. 



Hybrid Orchis. — I notice on p. 382 of last year's Journal that 
you would hke to know whether I found more than one specimen 
of the natural hybrid Habenari-orchis viridi-maculata. I only found 
one specimen, which I removed at the time to what was formerly a 
wild garden at Longwitton, with the hope that it so mhdit be 
preserved ; I did not, however, see that it had come up lasf year, 
as 1 was not there at the right time. The spotted and frog orchises 
are both fairly abundant in the hay-field in which I found the 
hybrid, so that there must be plenty of opportunities for cross- 
iertihsation and it seems strange that it should not oftener occur. 
— Cecil H. Sp. Percival. 

Valerianella carinata in East Kent. — My friend Mr F 
Smith sent me this plant a few months ago from Boughton 
Quarries, Linton, near Maidstone, where he has noticed it growiii" 
lor several years. Atropa Belladonna, occurs in the same quarries! 
Mr. Arthur Bennett has seen specimens.— Ernest S. Salmon. 

ift Q f E w CA J5S?* 7 m - IN Co - Cobk. -During the summer of 
1«91, 1 found this handsome grass growing in a rocky wood over- 
hanging the Glanmire estuary, about three miles east of Cork. 
Ihough this wood forms part of a private demesne, I think the 

nP,rH;fn SmU ? h i Cla l m ,, t0be conside red native as it has either 
5 ear p D ? e J La , ke ' ^Harney, or along the rocky bankside of the 
R. f eale, Listowel-a 1 three localities being very similar. This 
is an addition to the Flora of Cork.— R W Scully 



57 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Fossil Plants as Tests of Climate : being the Sedgwick Prize Essay for 

the year 1892. By A. 0. Seward, M.A., F.G.S. London: 
C. J. Clay & Sons. 1892. 8vo, pp. xii. 151. Price 5s. 

In this Essay Mr. Seward has undertaken the examination of 
a large and important question, and if his conclusions are less 
definite than could be wished, it is due rather to the state of 
existing knowledge than to a want of industry on his part. The 
subject being a wide one, he has restricted himself in the main to 
the task of bringing together such botanical and geological facts as 
are at present available for its discussion, and of calling attention 
to the several points of view from which previous writers have con- 
sidered the subject. This will explain to the reader why the 
author has indulged so largely in quotation, and why, independent 
criticism, though not entirely absent, is not a prominent feature of 
the essay. 

In a somewhat lengthy historical sketch, Mr. Seward traces the 
growth of such theories or opinions as have been formulated with 
regard to the connection between fossil plants and climatic 
changes in the past history of the earth. This is followed by brief 
accounts of plant distribution, and the life of plants at low tempe- 
ratures, with special reference to Arctic vegetation. We then come 
to what we regard as one of the most important chapters in the 
whole essay, viz., that on " the influence of external conditions upon 
the macroscopic and microscopic structures of plants.' ' Everyone 
allows that if plants are to be used as tests of climate in all 
possible ways, we ought to know to what extent it is possible 
to infer climatic conditions from morphological and histological 
details. Unfortunately, however, in spite of all that has been 
done in the way of distinguishing the floras of different climates 
in these respects, we are still far from such definite and constant 
relations between structure and climate as will enable us to 
pass with confidence from one to the other. The facts as they 
stand are fairly well summarised by the author, but they show 
most clearly that much experimental research will be required 
before we can use plant-structure as a guide to climate. In dealing 
with this part of his subject, Mr. Seward takes up one or two posi- 
tions which we think will hardly be accepted by modern botanists. 
At the opening of the chapter it is stated that " plants with woody 
stems are able to live through the winter of the cold temperate 
zones, because the lignification of part of the plant tissues is 
followed by a development of cork, a screen against cold." The 
italics are ours. Here he appears to have mistaken a condition for 
a cause, and to take a view of the function of cork not held by 
plant physiologists generally. A few sentences further on, refe- 
rence is made to the woody plants of the tropics, and we read that 
" there, the wood is not a safeguard against the influence of cold, 
but serves to give the plants that firmness which they require to 
enable them to support their branches. In a tropical climate, cork 
must be looked upon, not as a screen from cold (italics ours), but as 



58 FOSSIL PLANTS AS TESTS OF CLIMATE. 

a regulator of transpiration, of which it prevents excess." We 
venture to think that this statement is as correct for cold temperate 
plants as for tropical ones, and that neither wood nor cork is a 
special adaptation against cold. 

In dealing with the possibility of using the structure of fossil 
plants as a guide to climate, the author gives most attention 
to those of the Carboniferous Period, and concludes that "we 
cannot as yet learn many lessons in Climatology from the 
structure of stems, roots, and other parts of fossil plants," 
In this we fully agree. Thanks to the researches of Carruthers, 
"Williamson, and their continental co-workers, the minute struc- 
ture of some of the best known types has been worked out with 
considerable detail, but this merely gives us some idea of the 
nature of the habitat, and throws little light on that of climate. 
In considering the case of Lepidodendnm, Mr. Seward follows what 
is a common practice, and speaks of the vascular tissue as 
"wood." We would suggest that the time has arrived when a 
reform of this terminology is urgently needed, especially if we are 
to employ the structure of the fossil in the diagnosis of climate. 
As applied to Dicotyledons, the term "wood" represents neither 
a histological nor a physiological unity, but a mass of tracheids, 
fibres and cells, subserving the functions of conduction, mechanical 
support, and storage of elaborated food-stuffs. But in Lepido- 
dendron, and several other Carboniferous plants, a corresponding 
complex of tissues is not met with. Here both the primary and 
secondary xylem are purely vascular, and contain no sclerenchy- 
matous elements whatever, the mechanical function being per- 
formed by a zone of sclerenchyma which runs in the cortex near 
the periphery of the stem. Hence in these plants the term " wood " 
is as applicable to the mechanical as to the vascular tissue, but in 
either case does not mean the same thing as in Dicotyledons. If 
this were borne in mind we should not hear so much about the 
"comparatively feeble development of wood" in Lcpidodendnm, 
seeing that the mechanical tissue is often well developed, even in 
stems where the monostotic axis is unaccompanied by a zone of 
secondary xylem. Curiously enough, Mr. Seward describes this 
sclerenchyma as cork, overlooking the facts that it lies entirely within 
the generating layer, which produces it centrifugally, and that the 
tissues outside it appear to retain their power of growth even when 
it has attained considerable thickness. 

Passing over the next two chapters on "Annual Eings in 
Recent and Fossil Plants" and "Arctic Fossil Plants" respec- 
tively, we have another excellent chapter on the Climate of the 
Carboniferous Period as indicated by other characteristics of the 
vegetation than those of structure. Here the evidence which has 
rendered untenable the old ideas of a tropical climate, with an 
atmosphere laden with moisture and carbon dioxide, is well set out, 
and special prominence is given to the views of the late Dr. 
Neumayer, of Vienna. There is nothing, however, which calls for 
special comment or criticism, and the same may be said of the 
closing chapter on the plants of the Pleiocene. Thomm Hick 



LES ALGUES DE P. K. A. SCHOUSBOE. — LES LICHENS. 59 

Les Algues de P. K. A. Schoitsboe. Par Edouard Bornet (Masson, 

Paris, 1892). Extr. des Mem. de la Soc. Nat. Sc. Nat. 
et Math, de Cherbourg, t. xxviii. 1892, pp. 216, 3 tab. 

Students of Algae will cordially welcome this volume by M. 
Bornet, giving an account of the Algae collected in Morocco and 
the Mediterranean (1815-1829) by Peter Schousboe, who was 
Danish Consul at Morocco for some thirty years. Those who 
possess the valuable sets of Algce Schousboeance will be especially 
glad of this critical work. It is prefaced by a very suggestive, brief 
essay on the affinities of the marine flora of this region ; but the 
feature of particular value is contained in the notes on the species. 
Their critical value is beyond estimation in this short note. It is 
scarcely necessary to add that the copper-plates are illustrations 
of the kind one sees only too seldom. q j^ 

/ 

Les Lichens : Etude sur Vanatomie, la physiologie et la morphologic 

de Vorganisme licheniqne. Par A. Acloque. Paris : Bailliere 
et fils. 1893. Pp. viii. 376, fig. 82. 3fr. 50. 

This is one of the last additions to the Bibliotheque Scientifique 
Contemporaine, of which some hundred volumes have already 
appeared. The type is large and clear, and commendably free 
from misprints. The illustrations are woodcuts intercalated in the 
letterpress. While approving of the way in which the publishers 
have got the book up, we feel it our duty to express our dis- 
satisfaction with them for dating the title-page " 1893," since the 
book was in the hands of the public in November, 1892. 

Upon opening the book we were much surprised to see the 
following passage : — " Le nostoch n'est pas un lichen parfait, et 
ineme, pour un grand nombre de savants, il constitue une algue. M 
We have always accepted without question the view of the majority 
as to the algoid nature of Nostoc, and being lamentably ignorant of 
the existence of a minority imaginative enough to conceive the 
possibility of its being anything but an alga, we determined to 
search for further particulars. The result of our search is that we 
find M. Acloque to be disinclined to entertain the theory of Schwen- 
dener and the " heterogonidistes," who hold that a lichen is a 
symbiotic union of a fungus and an alga. He has indeed a decided 
bias in favour of " homoeogonidisme " (the theory that the gonidia 
are of essentially the same nature as the hyphae), but is not 
entirely satisfied with it. So he offers us an intermediate hypo- 
thesis, in which he endeavours to reconcile the two opposed 
theories. We have not space for giving his hypothesis in full. 
Suffice it to say that in M. Acloque's opinion the two elements of a 
lichen develop themselves separately at first, giving rise to distinct 
states, imperfect so long as they remain isolated. Nostoc is an 
instance of the purely gonidial state, capable of indefinite growth 
as Xostoc, but incapable of generating hyph<e and of becoming a 
completely developed lichen. It must wait, as it were, until some 
matrimonially inclined hypha or spore comes along and offers to set 
up housekeeping with it ; and then things just hum around, as the 



60 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 



Americans say. The purely hyphal state, on the other hand, is at 
present unknown ; but, supposing it to exist, should it fail to meet 
with a suitable gonidial thallus, it would be capable of generating 
the necessary gonidia, and of arriving at the complete lichen state°. 
We must refer those who are interested in the subject to the book 
itself, as we are uuable to do justice to the hypothesis here. 

Leaving the theoretical part, we can strongly recommend the 
practical portion of the work. Chapters III., IV., and V., for 
instance, deal with the anatomy of Lichens, and are fully ex- 
planatory of the difficult terminology employed for distinguishing 
the parts and innumerable states of these variable plants, and put 
the whole matter into clear and popular language. Succeeding 
chapters treat of the functions of nutrition and reproduction, of the 
economic uses, and of the principal systems of classification. 
M. Acloque does not mention the curious genus Kphebe. Perhaps 
he hands it over to the algologists in exchange for Nostoc. 



A. G. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 

™4 nn ' , Scottish Nat - Hist > (Jan.). — E. S. Marshall, « Scottish 
VVillows. — G. C. Druce, ' Alchemilla vulgaris: — J. W. H. Trail 

1 Peziza ammophila.' 

Bot. Centralblatt. (Nos. 1-4). — G. Holle, ' Zur Anatomie der 
baxifragaceen und deren systematische Verwerthung.' 



sp. n 



Bot. Magazine (Tokio).— (Dec. 10). Eugenia cleyemfi 



Bot ZeitungjBee. 23, 30).— H. Rehsteiner, <Zur Entwicklungs- 
geschichte der Fruchtkorper einiger Gastromyceten.' 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club (Dec.).-J. K. Small, 'List of American 

EJ ^'yil-num ' (P. Prinylei Small, P. phgtolacc^diuvi 

fcontd V 8 ^-» n -)--N L Britton, Busby's S. American plants 
(contd.).— L. H. Pammel, 'Phrenological Notes.' 

Gardened Chronicle (Jan. 7). - « Pitcher- plants and Frankin- 
cense /-(Jan 1^ J G. Baker, ■ Synopsis Jcmmrt-OuL 2ll 
Kmphojia Tuckn Hort-Leichtlin, sp. n. V ' 

Journal ds Botanique (Jan. 1, 16). — L. Guignard, ' Sur le 

if^T T d V a graiUe T et en P articuli * r du tegument seminal? 
—(Jan. 16). J. Vesque, ' La tnbu des Clusiees ' (contd.). 

Oesterr. Bot. Zdtschnft (Jan.). - A. Kemer, < Die Nebenbl-itter 

fiber ZTJ tr T\u {1 P late )-~J- Ltitkemuller, ■ BeoC?t™£ 
uber die Chlorophyllkorfer einiger Desmidiaceen ' (1 plate) 

££5£^? ***??■ •**«■, und sein Vorkommen tester- 
reicn ungarn. — F. Krasser, 'Kleinere Arbeiten des nflanypn 

Physiobgischen Institutes der Wiener Universitat^-^.HaUcTy 
Zur Flora der Balkanhalbinsel ' (concl.). -naiac^y 



61 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, 6c. 



with 



of Chinese Botany has several times been referred to in this Journal, 
has published the second part of his Botanicon Sinieum (Shanghai : 
Kelly & Walsh). This is devoted to the Botany of the Chinese 
Classics, and is enriched with annotations and an appendix by Dr. 
Grush Faber. The subject is one with which only those possessing 
special knowledge are competent to deal ; and as, to our regret, we 
are not among these favoured few, we must content ourselves with 
calling the attention of those interested to the work. From our 
knowledge of Dr. Bretschneider's previous undertakings, we have 
no hesitation in saying that this volume is a valuable contribution 
to the History of Botany in China. 

The sixth part of Prof. Macoun's cheap and useful Catalogue of 
Canadian Plants (Montreal, 1892 ; pp. viii. 295 ; 25 cents) enume- 
rates the Mosses. It includes 128 genera and 953 species. Of these 
latter upwards of 160 are described for the first time, and there are 
more than 70 others of which the descriptions have been recently 
published. Thus about one quarter of the whole total are new to 
science. This is, without doubt, too liberal a proportion ; and as 
time goes on many of these new species will be sunk, and the list 
condensed. The task of naming and classifying has been under- 
taken by Prof. Kindberg, of Linkoeping, in Sweden. The collections 
upon which the catalogue is based are principally those made by 
Prof. Macoun in his numerous travels about Canada during a 
period of thirty-one years. All species recorded from Greenland, 
Alaska, and Newfoundland are included. 

In the Transactions of the Eastbourne Natural History Society for 

1891-92, there is a paper by the Rev. W. A. Bathurst, who gives 
an account of " the first real climb when rope and axes were called 
into requisition that [he] ever took " in Switzerland. The article 
is noteworthy for its extraordinary mispnuts and— we are afraid 
we must add— for the slight acquaintance with Swiss plants that it 
displays. Mr. Bathurst speaks of " that wide class of trifohum, 
oxvtropis, or astragalus, which are characterized by pea-like flowers 
and often veitch-like [sic] form"; of "Arnica Montana, . . . scarcely 
to be distinguished from Hieraceum, another class of plants with 
handsome composite flowers"; of " Sacifrage," « Eritrichium no- 

" "the tube rose of our hothouses," and other curious things. 



nam, 



But what calls for our chief censure is Mr. Bathurst* s announce- 
ment that he imported plants of Linnaa from " Pontorsina in the 
En^adine," and "set roots of it in many places " in a forest near the 
Saas Valley. " Call it vandalism if you like," he says ; and even 
without his permission this is the word we should have used, 
unless some stronger expression had suggested itself. The almost 
entire absence of anything bearing upon local natural history is 
the chief feature of these Transactions. 



West 



general" botanical journal, contains two papers by the Editor, Mr, 



62 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

W. L. Jepson, and two by Mr. E. L. Greene. The latter writer 

still finds room for criticism in the irregular proceedings of his 
fellow scientists, even those who are " governed by principle rather 
than by time-honoured bad precedent in the matter of nomenclature." 
It appears that among these excellent folk there is a lack of care as 
to dates of publication, and this, as Mr. Greene says, " is really 
important." Erythea is not to replace PiUonia, but the latter 
'•will be likely to appear at longer intervals." The last editorial 
note foreshadows a new crusade, against "barbarous and ugly" 
and " uncouth personal " names. 

The first number of the Orchid Review, viewed from a botanical 
standpoint, is distinctly disappointing. No editor's name is given, 
and we understand that Mr. Rolfe, who was to have occupied that 
position, is unable to fill it, so that we have now no guarantee of 
the scientific value of the new venture. As an addition to the 
large number of horticultural journals already in existence, the 
Orchid Review may have its value, but on this point we do not feel 
competent to express an opinion. It is well printed; but the 
illustrations, which are to form " a special feature of the work," 
are by no means satisfactory. 

Dr. Vasey's Grasses of the Pacific Slope, including Alaska and the 

adjacent islands (issued Oct. 1892), forms Bulletin No. 13 of the 
Division of Botany of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. It 
contains plates and descriptions of the grasses of California, 
Oregon, Washington, and the North-western Coast. These, which,' 
in our present knowledge, number nearly 200 species, are, Dr. Vasey 
tells us, all specifically distinct from those found east of the 
Mississippi Kiver, and also mainly distinct from those of the plains 
and desert, except in that part of California which partakes of the 
desert flora. Many of the grasses of the mountain regions of 
California, Oregon, and Washington reappear in the mountains of 
Idaho, Montana, and the interior Kockies. The dry interior of 
California, verging southwards into the desert, is poor in grasses 
especially those forming a turf. In this, the first part of the 
enumeration, are figured and described the species most con- 
spicuous m size and apparent utility, so the work will be of value 
not only to botanists, but " to all interested in agriculture and the 
raising of domestic animals." Dr. Vasey's assistant, Prof. L H 
Dewey is responsible for most of the descriptions. There are 
50 plates, including figures of 52 species and varieties illustrative 
of 15 genera, the series of Alopecurus, Calamayrostis, and Stipa being 
the most complete. The descriptions are concise and seem accurate! 
and measurements of the parts are freely given. The plates are 
well drawn and well lithographed, though a little crowded in the 
case of some of the larger species ; and this brings us to the one 
great mistake in the work, the wretched allowance of margin to the 
p a es which drives the larger ones almost off the sheet. The size 
of the book is indeed, unwieldy; had it been broader, it would 

Sr;S "Went of the plates. The disseltions 
are often iu,t-iate ; here and there they might perhaps be a little 



OBITUABY. 63 

more extensive. Taken as a whole, the work is excellent, and 
shows how useful a Department of Agriculture may be; we con- 
gratulate and envy our American cousins. 

We regret to announce the death of Dr. Benjamin Carrington, 
which took place at Brighton on the 18th of January. We hope 
to publish an account of the deceased hepaticologist from the pen 
of his friend, Mr. W. H. Pearson, in our next issue. 

The Herbarium of Mr. William M. Canby has been purchased 
by the College of Pharmacy of New York, and will be placed in 
their new building, now in course of construction. Mr. Canby's 
Herbarium has been in course of formation during the last thirty 
years, and is very rich in American collections. An account of the 
Herbarium by Prof. Kusby is given in the Bulletin of the Torrey 
Club for November last. 

The thirteenth volume (1892) of the Proceedings of the Dorset 
National History Society contains two botanical papers — one by 
the President, Mr. J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, on Lamprothammu 
alopecuroides, and the other by Mr. Arthur Lister on Mycetozoa ; 
each is illustrated by a plate. We are glad to learn that the new 
edition of Mr. Mansel-Pleydell's Flora of Dorset is on the eve of 
completion. 

We are always glad to allow the reprint of papers published in 
this Journal, when the ordinary courtesy of asking permission is 
observed, or a suitable acknowledgment made. A recent ap- 
propriation of several pages, without such permission or acknow- 
ledgment, calls for a protest on our part. This in no way interferes 
with the privileges hitherto extended to such as desire them, but it 
may perhaps serve as a check upon those who ignore the usual 
amenities of journalism. 



OBITUARY. 

When the death, on the 30th of November last, of that dis- 
tinguished biblical scholar the Rev. Fenton John Anthony Hort, 
late Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, was announced, few 
probably remembered that forty years ago he might have been 
styled one of the rising hopes of the Cambridge school of 

botanists. 

Fenton John Anthony Hort was born apparently in 1828, and 

proceeded in due course to Trinity College, Cambridge, from which 
most of his botanical notes are dated. In the 2nd vol. of the 
Phytologist (pp. 1047-9) appear a 4 Notice of a few plants growing 
at Weston-super-Mare ' and a ( Note on Centaarea nigra var. radiata 
and C. nigrescens,' both bearing date November 5th, 1847, when the 
young undergraduate was not yet twenty ; and in the 3rd vol. 
(pp. 821-2) is a 'Note on Alsine rubra var. media Bab./ dated 
M Torquay, Sept. 27th, 1848." In the 1st vol. of Henfrey's Botanical 
Gazette (1849), pp. 197, 200, he has a paper ' On Viola sylvatica 



64 OBITUARY. 

and canina,' and in the 2nd vol. (1850), pp. 1-2, a ' Notice on 



nogeton fluitam 



writer 



critical acumen, he was already giving proof of the direction in 
which that acumen was likely to be employed. In 1850 he 
took a first class in the Classical Tripos, and in 1851 a first 
class in both the Moral and the Natural Science Tripos. In 
1851, however, he found time to publish, in the 3rd vol. of the 

Botanical Gazette (pp. 15-17), a note 'On Euphorbia stricta and 

platyphylla ' ; and in the same volume (pp. 155-7) appears a ' Note 
on Athyrium fdix-fcemina var. latifoUum,' dated 12th November, 
1851, which was reprinted in the Phytolugist, vol. iv., pp. 440-2.' 
To this year also belongs his paper « On a supposed new species of 
Eubm' (Rubus imbricatus Hort), which appeared in the Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History, vol. vii., pp. 874-7 ; but not until 
1853 in the Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 

(vol. iv., pp. 113-116), to which it had been communicated. In 
the 4th vol. of the Phytologist (1852), pp. 640-1, is a note by him 
on the ' Occurrence of Orobancha, carulea Vill. and Aconitnm Napdlwi 
L. in Monmouthshire,' dated July 21st, 1852, and a ' Note on the 
third volume of Mr. H. C. Watson's Cybele Britannica ' frankly 
corrected several blunders that had found their way into that work 
from his own list of Weston-super-Mare plants. This seems to 
have been Hort's last botanical publication; but he appears in 
Topographical Botany as a correspondent of Watson's from no less 
than 11 vice-counties, viz., North Somerset, East and West 
Gloucester, Monmouth, Merioneth, Carnarvon, North Lancashire 
and Westmoreland, Cumberland, Durham, West Suffolk, and 
Cambridge. 

In 1852 he was elected a Fellow of his College ; in 1853 he 
proceeded M.A. ; and in 1854 and 1856 respectively he took 
deacon's and priest's orders. In 1857 he resigned his fellowship 
ol Irinity College on accepting the vicarage of St. Ippolyts and 
Great Wymondley, Herts His Cambridge friend and contemporary, 
the Kev WW. Newbould, used always to speak of Hort's abandon- 
ment of botany m favour of biblical studies in much the same 
manner as Watson regretted that Edward Forbes' -attention had 
been drawn from botany to the more showy studies, in which he 
became eminent." 

With Hort's subsequent career we are not here concerned. He 
became Divinity Lecturer and Fellow of Emmanuel College in 

£&£ In 188? H.7 ° f Dl ^ ty /f • 1878 ' and Lad y Mar S aret 
rroiessoi m 1887. He became D.D. of his own University in 1875 ■ 

published two theological dissertations in 1876, and, johitly with 
Dr. Westcott a revised Greek text of the New Testament in 1881 
He served on the Revision Committee of the «' Authorized Version"' 
of the New Testament and for these services to ShSarah p was 

G. S. BOULGER, 



IN THE PRESS. TO BE PUBLISHED EARL V IN 1S93 

PART I. 

01 

A HANDBOOK 






lO 



THE FLORA OF CEYLON 



BY 



HENRY TRIMEN, M.B., F.R.S. 

Director of the R. Hot. Gardens. 




This First Part contains a full account of all the native plants 
found in the colony which are members of the Natural Orders 
from Ranunculacece to Anacardiaa inclusive ; and is illustrated 
by 25 Coloured Plates representing some of the most interesting 
species. The Publishers are Messrs. Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, 
London, W. ; and the price is 1/. is. 

It is intended to publish the book at intervals, in four similar 
Parts, and it will, when complete, consist of 2 Volumes of Text 
(in 8vo.) and an Atlas of 100 Coloured Plates (in 4to.). The 
Subscription Price for the whole work, in one payment in advance, 
is 3/. 135*. 6d., and Subscribers' names should be sent at once to 
the Publishers in London. A Subscription form is attached. 

This Flora of Ceylon is issued under the authority and with 
the assistance of the Government of the Colony, and has been 
written with special reference to local use ; one principal object 
being to enable observers here to ascertain readily the name of any 
tree, shrub, or herb they may meet with growing wild in the country. 
For this purpose copious analytic keys and full descriptions are 
given, as well as the Sinhalese and Tamil names, the distribution 
of each species through the Island, its period of flowering, and 
varied information as to its history, properties, and uses. An en- 
deavour has also been made by references and quotations to embody 
all previously published information on the Botany of Ceylon, so 
that the book will form a comprehensive work of reference for every- 
thing relating to the plants of the Colony. 



To Messrs. DULAU & CO. 



37 Soho Square, London, W 



F request that yon will enter my name as 



a 



Subscriber for a Copy of Trimens 'HANDBOOK 



TO THE FLORA OF CEYLON' complete, 

and will send to my address the successive Parts as 



they are published. 



The Sum of jl. ijs. 6d., being the Subscription 



Price, is forwarded herewith. 



Name 



-****-*- **»•*#**»•***«■■*«*«.*«*, 



Address 






Date 







No. 37. Vol. IV 






January, 1893- 



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OCICTYS 



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Edited by 

JAMES BRITTEN, F.L.S. 



/M 



<Ci-M. 



FT i 



V 



CONTENTS 



WAYS OF WORK ' .. 

By the Editor. 

BIRDS IN AN ALPINE GARDEN 
By Miss C. M. Symonds. 

TREES IN WINTER 

By Dr. Henry Smith. 

THE DEATH'S HEAD MOTH AND BEES .. 

By J. R. S. Clifford. 

PETER: A GOLDFINCH 

By Fred. W. Ashley, 

BRITISH NEW GUINEA 

By Mrs. George Murray. 

MORF ABOUT WILD NATURE 

A MENDIP VALLEY 

SHORT NOTICES OF BOOKS '.] .. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES AND QUERIES 
Avadavats. 
Swallows. 
A Plant Bug. 
Nightingales. 

Disappearance of Rooks' Nests 
-Mountain Ash Berries. 
Field Mice. 
Squirrel and Birds. 

OFFICIAL NOTICES .. 

OUR VOLUMES .. ..... 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 






^London : 

JOHN BALE & SONS, 

87-89, Great Titchuf.ld Street, W. 

City Agent: 



29, 



BAXTER, 

Paternoster Square, E.C 



TWOPENCE, 20 PAGES, WITH 





SPECIMEN 



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will be sent by JOHN BALE & SONS, 87-89, Great Titchfield Street, W., 

on receipt of Id. Stamp for Postage. 



NATURE NOTES: 

XEbe Selborne Society's fl1>aQa3ine- 

Edited by JAMES BRITTEN, F.L.S. 

Senior Assistant, Department of Botany •, British Museum y 

assisted by eminent Specialists in every Departmerit of Natural History. 



Among the Contributors to Nature Notes during 1892 were the following 



well-kno wn writers : 



Rev. J. C. Atkinson, D.D. 
Hon. Mrs. Boyle (E.V.B.) 
Mrs. Brightwen. 

William Carruthers, F.R.S. 
Theodore Compton. 
Mrs. Conybeare. 
Giles A. Daubeny, Esq. 
Vubrey Edwards, Esq. 
Rev. W. WARDE Fowler, M.A., vS:c. 
Miss Isabel Fry. 

Antony Grpp, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

Pro£ R. J. Harvey Gibson, M.A., 

F.L.S. 

Francis George Heath, Esq. 
Miss E. H. Hick iv. 

Robert Holland, Esq. 



Countess Anna Jenison. 
Lionel Johnson, Esq., B.A. < 
Arthur Lister, Esq., F.L.S. 

A. Holte Macpherson, Esq. 

Rev. F. O. Morris, B.A. 

George Murray, Esq., F.R.S. Ed., 

F.L.S., &c. 
G. A. Musgrave, Esq., F.G.S.. 

F.Z.S. 
Mrs. Musgravi:. 
C. Kegan Paul, Esq., M.A. 
Rev. H. D. Rawnsley, M.A., &c. 

R. B. Sharpe, Esq., LL.D., F.L.S., 
&c. 

Harrison Weir, Esq., F.Z.S. 

J. Jenni.r WEIR, Esq., F.L.S. 



Nature Notes is intended to be a record of progress— progress in the 
love of Nature, in the knowledge of natural objects, and in the war to be 
waged in defence of the beauties of Nature against their more or less avowed 
exterminators. 

Special prominence is given to Reviews of Books which bear on the various 
branches of Natural History, and the Editor will always be glad to give informa- 
tion as to books suitable for any particular study. 

I he object of the Selborne Society is to unite lovers of Nature for common 
study, and the defence of Natural Objects (Birds, Plants, beautiful Landscapes, 
&<U) against the destruction by which they are so constantlv menaced. The 
minimum Annual Subscription (which entitles the subscriber to a Monthly copy 
of the Soaetys Magazine) is 2S . 6d. All particulars as to Membership may be 

obtained from the Secretary of the Selborne Society, 9, Adam Street, 

Aaelphi, W.C. 

I 

Business communications with regard to Nature Notes should be addressed 

to the SECRETARY OF THE SELBORNE „ ... „ ._„ _, ^^ 

vtZ communications and Books for Review should be addressed to f AMES 
Brhten, Esq., 18, West Square, Southwark, S.E. 



* 



Society, 9, Adam Street, Adelphi. 



PRESS 



OPINIONS. 



"Nature Notes, the Selborne Society's magazine, 
may be commended to all lovers of the country, 
who will find their tastes catered for in pleasant 
papers on ■ Field-names,' c Ducks' Nests,' ' Wild 
Birds in their Relation to Agriculture,' and the 
like." — Literary JVorld, Sept. 9, 1892. 

"Nature Notes, the Selborne Society's excellent 
little magazine (John Bale and Sons), brings with 
it a fresh out-of-door flavour characteristic of the 
pleasant early autumn season — but, indeed, all 
seasons are pleasant to the true lover of nature. 
1 Old Field Nantes,' 'Wild Birds and Agriculture,' 
'The Growth of the Wheat,' and 'A Pleasance 
with Birds' are all suggestive of rural holiday 
rambles, and the shorter notes contain many a 
little anecdote of bird, beast, and plant which is 
worth preserving. "—Birmingham Gazette, Sept. 9, 
1892. 

"Nature Notes, the Selborne Society's magazine. 

■We have received the October number of this 
well-edited periodical, which contains a faithful re- 
cord of the doings of that highly useful body, the 
Selborne Society. The Editor and Mr. Francis 
George Heath are the joint authors of an interest- 
ing article on 'The Earlier Opening of Kevv 
Gardens,' a movement being on foot with a view 
to this great national museum of flowers being 
opened to the public before twelve o'clock on 
week-days and one o'clock on Sundays. Another 
feature of the current issue is a capital portrait of 
Gilbert White's House at Selborne."— Hackney 

Mercury, Oct. 15, 1S92. 

"The organ of the Selborne Society, Nature 
Notes, contains much that is interesting in its 
January number, including articles by the editor 
(Mr. James Britten, F.L.S.), Dr. II. Smith, Mr. 
J. Clifford, Mr. F. W. Ashley, Mrs. George 
Murray, ana Miss C. M. Svmonds. There are 
articles on the ■ Death's-head Moth,' on Alpine 
birds, and on trees in winter, while ■ Notes and 
Queries' furnish some unusually interesting matter. 
The editor gives an account of the work being 
done by the Society's branches, and some books 
worth buying are noticed in the review column." 
— Notts Guardian, Jan. 6, 1893. 

"In Nature Notes the editor devotes some 
pages to suitable lines of work which may be 
undertaken by members of the Selborne Society ; 
ne also takes occasion to point out that this year is 
the centenary of the death cf Gilbert White, and 
asks, Could Selbormans observe it more flttinely 
han by making a special effort to advance the 
Pnncip] which are associated with his name V " 
li ester n Mail, Jan. 6, 1893. 

of ^7 °i n " Symomk ' a daughter, we believe, 
? L rY,V , dd . m & on Symonds, handles the sub 
ject .of Birds m an Alpine Garden' in January's 
Nature Notes with decided literary abili y Se 
scnptions of birds and flowers are SneraHv 
rather dull reading, but Miss Symonds makes her 

as a human chronicle . '-&*«», Jan. 7, 1893. 

"Nature Abies, the Selborne Society's magazine 
continues to deserve our approval and ou recom! 
nidation as a great help"* the intelligent and 



sympathetic student of animal and vegetable life. 
The December number completes a volume, and 
contains a nice portrait of the late Lord Tennyson] 
of whom, if of any, it may be said he was, lik 
Shakespeare, the 'poet of nature and of truth.'" 
Queen, Dec. 17, 1892. 

" The Selborne Society has a very interesting 
collection of Nature Notes for the members' Sq> 
tember perusal. The whole of the contents will! 
repay reading, one of the most pleasing items 
being John Keats' ' Ode to Autumn.' Mr. ( lile^ 
A. Daubeny writes on ducks' nests in Kensington 
Gardens, and among other matter are Selbomiana, 
natural history notes, queries, &c. The work o. 
the Selborne Society in its protection of Nature 
deserves to be more widely known."— Mid-Sussex 
Times, Sept. 6, 1S92. 



Natut 



The late Lord Tennyson, and 
many interesting articles, are contained in the 
closing number of 1892. A complete index of the 
volume for the past year is given. This magazine 
is worthy of support by young and old, rich and 
poor, for all will find in it instruction and delight." 
— Catholic News, Dec. 10, 1892. 

"A very pleasant and diversified number is the 
December issue of Nature Notes. There is, with 
a character sketch by the editor, a portrait of 
Lord Tennyson. Tennyson was President of the 
Selbornian Society, as was befitting that great 
lover of nature. Mr. Britten writes a short but 
charming personal reminiscence of the few oc- 
casions on which he had the privilege of talking 
and walking with the Laureate. The articles are 
numerous, and all interesting. We are in thorough 
accord with Mr. Warde-Fowler in his scathing 
criticism of Mr. Charles Dixon's latest works on 
the migration of birds. Mr. Dixon is a shallow 
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cessor. If Mr. Dixon wrote less and studied 
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65 



OUR ENDEMIC LIST. 

By William H. Beeby. 

To the British botanist, the most interesting chapter in the 
second edition of Island Life is doubtless that dealing with our own 
islands, containing, as it does, the first list yet published, of any 
extent, of our reputed endemic plant-forms. In the first edition 
the list comprised but four, while the present includes no less than 
seventy-five forms claimed as endemic. The list referred to is sup- 
plied by Mr. Arthur Bennett, and is supplemented by criticisms by 
Sir J. Hooker, and sometimes by Mr. J. G. Baker. These detailed 
criticisms deal chiefly with the relationship which is considered by 
them to exist between the list-forms and other types ; the question 
as to whether or not the seventy-five forms are endemic being 
afterwards treated of in a summary, from which we learn that Sir J. 
Hooker would exclude fifty-five of the seventy-five forms from the 
endemic list, for " various reasons." 

m Before proceeding further, I desire to acknowledge fully that it 
is a far more difficult matter to draw up such a list as Mr. Bennett 
has presented to us, than it is to criticise it afterwards. Having 
admitted this much, I do not hesitate to say that I scarcely think 
that the list, as it stands, can be regarded as satisfactory. It 
seems to me very desirable that we should possess a well-digested 
list of our endemic plants, and the following observations on a few 
of the plants named in Mr. Bennett's list are made with this 
object in view. Some of the plants remarked upon below are 
already excluded in Sir J. Hooker's summary, but without sufficient 
reason being given for the course pursued. 

Caltha rad icons Forst. — From my experience of this and 
kindred forms, I should feel it very rash to assert that it is endemic. 
My reasons for taking this view are contained in previous papers, 
and need not be repeated here. 

Brassica monensis Huds. — The form of B. Chriranthus men- 
tioned by Lloyd (Fl. de VOuest, ed. x. p. 24) should be compared 
with this ; until the result of such a comparison is published, one 
would hardly feel disposed to accept B. monensis as endemic. 

Diplotaxis muralis DC. var. Babingtonii. — Both biennial and 



only. 



occur 



Apparently endemic in name 



Viola lutea Huds. var. amcena. — The varieties given by Koch 



forms 



}r~V" ~ — • »»■ f • «-v u^v>i^ uw vuiu iai luuic mail ttll UlitJ JJllUSU 

Endemic in name only, apparently. 

Cerastium arcticum Lange, var. Edmondstonii.— Although this 

differs from the type chiefly in its purplish copper-coloured foliage, 
the character is retained to a very considerable extent in culti- 
vation. It is true that C. alpinum is a very variable plant- it 
sometimes approaches 0. arcticum very closely in habit. But the 
marked difference in the sculpturing of the seeds, pointed out by 
Journal of Botany.— Vol. 81. [March, 1893.1 f 



* 



°" OUE ENDEMIC LIST. 

H. C. Watson a great many years ago, is not variable, and is easily 
apparent to anyone who is accustomed to compare the two. Un- 
doubtedly, however, C. arcticum is more nearly allied to C. alpinum 
than to C. latifoUum L. F 

Anthyllit Vulneraria L., var. ovata.—I am disappointed to learn 
that this remarkably beautiful plant reverts at once to the type in 
cultivation ; from Mr. J. G. Baker's experiment it would appear 
that it is merely a state due to situation, and it should accordingly 
be expunged from our lists. ° 



I should not venture to 



'" ". rr-'— ■"•> »""•• j-uwiisenui,. — j. snouia not venture to 

accept this as endemic until the result has been published of a 
comparison between it and the plant referred to under T. veneris bv 
Boreau (Fl du Centre, ed. hi., p. 158) as '< T. prostration Biasol. ?'" 
the description ot which applies very well to Tavmsmdi. 

(Enanthe Jlunatilis Colem.-In the opinion of the first Fen 
botanist of the day this plant is probably distinct. Sir J. Hooker 
m his criticism, speaks of it as the « fluitant form of <E. Phelhm- 
drium, but what this expression is intended to imply is not verv 
clear ; it can hardly be intended to mean that it is merely a state 
due to situation, asm his summary it is called a variety/while in 
his Students' Flora it ranks as a subspecies ! 

Chenopodium rubrum L., var. pseudo-botryodes. — I thought 

tson hart ch^wr* i\^ n ±~ !.„ 1__ i , n . . *=> 



Watso 



u nwmmi , nn .: . i : — r* ™ ^m.x,xj » *wiv uue m environment. 
£SH tZllf^i™™*™":*™^ be interesting to 



Mryotus. SitUati ° nS Simikr t0 th0Se Which here Produce Vlzo^ 
Caress involuta Bab.-Accepted as endemic by Hooker, who 

3f; zr r ' th tt ' I s f obably a h y brid between * %uZrt 

in ScandSvk * 0CCUrS b ° th ° n the Contin ^t and 

Hieraciwn -m. Bennett quotes fifteen endemic forms a 

Hooked ^ndMrT r * P ^ ^^ ° n a11 of *™M ' 
Th.v ov \ ; J ' Gl Baker sa y : ~" No case ^n be made of these. 
They are local forms with the shadowiest of shady characters » I 
confess that the real intent of this criticism seems^o me somewhat 

spcTe r s e bu S tTr m i'? bt f t el l nClined t0 ask > what 1S aclinic 

in a recenlv tt ?? ? J 5 U J ^^ nobod y wouId e *Pect to find 
?J- Te ?? ni V se Parated island, forms as distinct as those found in 

Tx&^^J^S**' Were this the ™*> the phenomena 
compu S whb Z t mde 1 d ^f 11 * a b °P eless Puzzle ! However, 
'rcontf n r' tbe Cbannel Which se Parates, say, Madagascar from 

-shadow^ of ZZJ™ S i 6para 5 ed fr ° m our contine nt by the 

HtnfeZTLL wl? w? aMe ¥ S ° thafc 0Ur endemic foms of 

hi ereXl Si ?* I ^ *? e J ° Ught to be ' altbou g b this, the really 
ST^St^faiH r - ant i feat, l r8 ? tbe Case ' is entirely ignored. 
endemL ftm 8 a 11 n Dly na * Ural to ex P ect to find mos t of the 
Pkstic iroun, W? L^ "T CriticaI ' or in otbe r words, more 
E« are not Z f*™** the great bulk of our named 
meracia are not merely states due to situation ; their characters 



OUR ENDEMIC LIST. 67 

have been proved to be permanent by cultivation under varied con- 

SSuS °nf v llc V re m r nt f from their own ori ^ ai habit ^- 

w 1 li™ ■ + variation is therefore specific in its nature, and we 
will leave it to others who are interested in the point to allot 
them exactly such rank as seems fit to them. It should be 
remarked here that a very close study having been given to the 
S fl 7i n Scan <5 mavia > we may with some safety assume that the 
bulk of the plants now considered to be endemic here will even- 
tually prove to be really so. 

% ■ r I ■ ■ m 



While 



tion to the persistent efforts that have^S tim^t been 
made to disparage the study of the finely separated species. The 
« d'etre of these attacks is not expressed in the papers them! 
selves but it is quite well understood by British botanists, 
protest against anyone assuming to write in the "Darwin 



I 

rwmian 



sense » as Mr. C. B. Clarke does, and at the same time (or pre 

viously) sneering at investigations of the kind referred to. One is 

not altogether unaccustomed to hear it stated that if there really be 

TLl I ? mg !f E 7 1 1 ution ' we ought to see it at work around us. 
It may be pretty safely predicted that those who despise the study 
of ultra-cn ical plants will never see it ; it must be remembered 
that 111 such groups as the Hiemcia there are, beyond the named 
lorms, yet others, whose variation is too slight to receive a name 
but is at the same time quite perceptible to those who intimately 

SvotST Jl2*JH?» * erha P S > * a ^-> - ma? 



see Evolution in its active state. 



One can easily understand how galling it must be to the mere 
plant-sorter, to see the increasing study of the more critical groups 
that is growing up -in other words, to see how his power is slipping 
away from him ; but it does seem an anomaly that one writing from 
the Darwinian point of view should fail to see the extreme value of 
studying those groups in which the forms run closest 

Hieracium auratum Fr.— This should have been included in the 
American British list. It will not, probably, be contended that it 
is a local form ; in its wide distribution in Scotland (from Shetland 
southwards), due to the pappus-borne fruit, it forms a notable ex- 
ception to the rest of the American group. 

Besides the plants referred to above, there are various others in 
Mr. Bennett's list which I should not venture to accept as en- 
demic ; as, however, the exclusion of these rests mainly on indi 
vidual opinion, it is perhaps not worth while to name them at 
present. There are also some which may be eventually added to 
the list, but in the present early stage of their history, it would be 
premature to accord them such rank. *' De 



f 2 



68 



SYNOPSIS OF GENEKA AND SPECIES OP MALVEM. 

By Edmund G. Baker, P.L.S. 

(Continued from vol. xxx., p. 332.) 

XVII. BASTARDIA H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et Spec. v. p. 254, 
t. 472. — Bracteolae 0. Carpella in capsulam loculicide 3-5-valvem 
connata. 

1. B. viscosa H.B.K. I.e. p. 256; L'Herit. Stirp. t. 53 bis. 
B. Guayaquilensis Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1858, p. 201. 
Abutilon fcetidum Moench, Meth. Supp. p. 206. Sida viscosa L. ; 
DC. Prod. i. p. 467. 8. fcetida Cav. ; DC. Prod. I. c. 8. Magdalence 
DC. Prod. I. c. ? S. brevipes DC. Prod. I. c. 

Hab. West Indies ! Mexico I Guatemala ! Ecuador. Ve- 
nezuela ! New Granada. Peru. 

Var. a. Grisebach, Fl. Brit. West Indies, p. 80. 
Hab. West Indies. 

Var. /3. parvifolia Grisebach, /. c. Bastardia parvifolia H.B.K. 
1. c. p. 255, t. 472. Sida Bastardia DC. Prod. i. p. 467. 
Hab. Brazil. West Indies. Cuba ! 

Var. y. fragrans. Sida fra grans L'Herit. Stirp. p. Ill, t. 53. 
— Planta fragrans, folia majore quam typo pedunculis petiolo 
brevioribus, carpellis 5. 

Hab. St. Domingo. 

2. B. hirsutiflora Presl, Reliq. Haenk. ii. p. 112. J5. hirmtis- 
sima Walp. Rep. i. p. 327. S. hirsutissima Dietr. Synop. iv. p. 850. 

Hab. Mexico, nr. Acapulco, Haenkel Barclay! Colima, Palmer, 
No. 1307 ! 

This plant has only three carpels. 

3. B. conferta Garcke et K. Schum. in Fl. Brazil, Fasc. cix. 
p. 362, t. 66. 

Hab. Brazil, Glaziou, No. 14516. 

4. B. elegans K. Schum. in Fl. Brazil, /. c. p. 368. 
Hab. Brazil, Prov. Minas Geraes, Warming, No. 1342. 

5. B. bivalvis H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. v. p. 255. B. aristata 
Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1858, p. 200. B. spinifex Tr. &P1. 
Prod. Nov. Granat. p. 186. Sida bivalvis Cav. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 464. 
S. viscosa MacFad. Fl. Jam., non L. 

Hab. Brazil. New Granada ! Ecuador ! Jamaica ! 

6. B. Berlandieri A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. p. 295. 
Hab. Mexico, nr. Tantoyuca, Berlandier, Nos. 747, 2167 ! 

Species exclusm. 

Bastardia angulata Guill. &Perr. = Abutilon intermedium Hochst. 
B. crispa St. Hil. = Abutilon crispum Sweet. 
B. nemoralis St. Hil. = Abutilon Crispin, , Sweet. 

Subtribus 4. Abutilejs. — Carpella simplici serie verticillata. 
Ovula 2-ao (rarius 1) saepius adscendentia, nunc alia pendula alia 
adscendentia. 



SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPEdlES OF HALVED 69 

XVIII. HOWITTIA F. v. Muell. in Trans. Vict. Inst. i. 
p. 116. — Bracteola3 0. vula gemina, collateralia. Carpella 3, in 
capsulam loculicide 3-valvem connata. 

1. H. triloculare F. v. Muell. I.e. 

Hab. Australia. S. Australia. Victoria ! New South Wales ! 

XIX. KYDIA Koxb. PL Corom. iii. p. 11, t. 215, 216. 
Bracteolae 4-6. Carpella 2-3 in capsulam loculicide 2-3-valvem 
connata. 

1. K. calycina Eoxb. Hort. Beng. p. 50; PL Corom. iii. p. 11, 

t. 215. K. Roxburghiana Wight, Ic. ii. t. 881. K. fraterna Koxb. 
PL Corom. t. 216. K. pulverulenta Ham. in Wall. Cat. 1176. 
Hab. India I Burmah ! Tonquin ! Pegu ! 

2. K. glabrescens Mast, in Fl. Brit. Ind. i. p. 348. 
Hab. North-east India, Griffith, 1794 ! Malacca ! 

Species exclusa. 

Kydia angustifolia Arn. = Julostyles angustifolia Thw. 
K. axillaris Thwaites = Dicellostyles axillaris Benth. 



bifoli 



ifi 



XX. ^ WISSADULA Medik. Malv. p. 24.— Bracteolas 0. Car- 
pella apice divergentia plus minusve transversim appendiculata. 

Sect. I. Wissada Griseb. FL Brit. West Indies, p. 77 (Sectio 
Sidarum). — Carpella 1- sperm a rarissime multiora. 

1. W. divergens Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. Plant, pp. 197 & 204. 
Sida divergent Benth. Voyage of Sulphur, p. 69. 8. periploci/olia 
MacFad. FL Jam. p. 85, non alior. 

Hab. Jamaica. Ecuador, nr. Guayaquil ! 

2. W. Balansae, n. sp. — Caule ligneo ramoso erecto, foliis 
longe petiolatis cordato-ovatis apice subacuminatis distincte irregu- 
laritercrenato-serratis discoloribus supra sparse pubescentibus sub- 
tus molliter cinereo-velutinis 7-9-palmatinervatis, petiolis teretibus 
sparse cinereo-pubescentibus, floribus laxe pauiculatis, pedicellis 
gracilibus, sepalis triangularibus acutis, petalis iiavis calyce multo 
longioribus obovatis, stigmibus capitato-stigmatosis, carpellis ex- 
terne pubescentibus apice acutis 1-spermis, seminibus applanatis 
fulvis angulatis. 

Hab. Paraguay, nr. Villa Rica, in the Forests, Balansa, 
No. 1603 ! 
^ Stem " 1 metre " ; leaves 4-5 in. long ; petioles 3-5 in. ; petals 



* 



The leaves of this plant are crenately serrated and discolorous. 

Carpella 2-3- 



Sect. II. Eu WISSADULA 



sperma matura plicis binis transversalibus lateribus spurie in 
loculamenta 2 superposita divisa, s^pius heterosperma. 



W 



IF. Lesche- 



naultiana Mast, in Hook. FL Brit. Ind. i. p. 325. W. hernandioidcs 
Garcke in Zeit. fur Natur. lxiii. p. 122. Abutilon parvijt 



70 SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF MALVE^E. 

St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. i. p. 201. A. leucantkemum St. Hil. 
Fl. Bras. Mer. i. p. 200. A. hemandioides, A. polyanthon, A. 
Lucianum, A. Leschenaultianum Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1, p. 53. 
A. contractum Sweet, I. c, ed. 2, p. 64. A. laxitiorum G. & P. 



Fl. Senegal, i. p. 66. A. verbascoides Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 1858, p. 202. Sida racemosa Veil. Fl. Flum. vii. t. 15. 
S. polyantha Sebl. in Link Enum. ii. p. 204. S. Luciana & S. 
Leschenaultiana DC. Prod. i. p. 468. S. rostrata Solium, et Thonn. 
Beskr. af Guin. PI. p. 306. S. stellata Don, Gen. Syst. p. 499. 
S. amplexicaulis & ? S. polystachya Veil. Fl. Flum. vii. t. 21 & 22. 

S. paucifli — ^.i n - „„ ~ . _. 



p. 852. 



S. lencanthema Dietr. Syn. iv. 



if, 



A , . Ha ^* T ™P- S - America! Paraguay! West Indies ! Trop. 
Africa! India! Cape Verd Is. ! Mauritius! Bourbon! 

Sida periplocifolia L. var. ft. in the Linnean Herbarium is 
represented by a specimen of Sida dumosa Swartz. 

4. W. zeylanica Med. Malv. p. 25. W. periplocifolia Presl, 
Keliq. Haenk. u. p. 117 ; K. Schum. I. c. p. 441, t. 77. W. rostrata 
PI. var. 1. zeylanica Mast, in Fl. Brit. Ind. i. p. 325. Abutilon 
penplocifoliiim Sweet, Hort. Brit. i. p. 53. Sida periplot 
DC. Prod. i. p. 467. 

Hab. India ! Ceylon ! Malaya ! Trop. America ! Mexico. 

Cuba ! 

Var. Wrightiana. W. periplocifolia var. Wriyhtiana Griseb. 
Cat. PI. Cub. p. 25. W. excelsior Presl, Beliq. Haenk. ii. p. 117, 
t. 69, figs. a-m. A. excelsior G. Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 500. Sida 
excelsior Cav. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 468. 

Hab. Mexico. Central America ! Cuba, Wriaht, No. 2053 ! 
Peru. 

Var. guatemalense. — Foliis ovatis acuminatis petiolatis subtus 
sparse stellato-ferrugineo-tomentosis, floribus paniculatis paniculis 
confertis terminalibus vel subterminalibus, carpellis aristatis. 

Hab. Guatemala, "In dumetis Mazatenango," j5t-?7w«//t, No. 55! 

Leaves 4 in. long, rather more than 2 in. broad ; petioles 1-2 in. 

5. W. Chapelieri. A. Chapelieri H. Baill. in Bull. Soc. Lin. 
Par. 1885, p. 508. 

Hab. Madagascar, bor. or. Chapelier ! 

6. W. patens Garcke in Zeit. fur Naturw. 1890, p. 123. Abu- 
tilon patens St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. p. 200. Sida patens Dietr. 
Synop. iv. p. 851. 

Hab. Brazil. Provs. Eio Janeiro ! Minas Geraes. 

7. W. ferruginea Garcke et K. Schum. in Fl. Brazil, I. c. p. 443. 

Sidajerntyinm DC. Prod. i. p. 468. Abutilon ferruyineum H. B. K. 

Nov. Gen. et Sp. v. p. 271. 

Hab. Peru. Valley of Paulo, alt. 7000 ft., Jameson ! 

, ;, 8 ; \ N Q U1 * FL0 ^ Garcke in Zeit. fur Naturw. 1890, p. 123. W. 
stellata K. Schum I. c p ,445. Sida stellata Cav.; DC. Prod. i. 
p. 468. 6 nudijlora L Herit. Stirp. Nov. p. 123, t. 59. Abutilon 
nudijlorum Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 2, p. 64 
Hab. Peru. Bolivia! St. Domingo'. 



MALVEJE. 71 



9. VV. HIRSUTA 

i Klotz. in Linr 
Hab. Brazil ! 



Abutilon crini- 



10. W. gymnanthemum K. Schum. I c. p. 446. Abutilon gymnan- 

themum Gns. Symb. ad Fl. Arg. p. 44. A. uissadifolium Grig, I.e. 
p. 47. 

Hab. Argentine Republic. 

. 11. W. andinum Britton in Bull. Tor. Club, xvi. p. 153. 

Hab. Bolivia, Capi, M. Bang, No. 768 ! Cuesto of Purrochuco, 
A. Mathews, No. 504 ! 

Sect. III. Wissadulastrum K. Sebum. L c. p. 439. — Carpella 
2-3-sperma dissipimenti horizontali a dorso abemiti in locula- 
menta superposita bina divisa. Inflorescentia contracta. 

12. W. spicata Presl, Beliq. Haenk. ii. p. 117, t. lxix. figs. 1-14 ; 
K. Schum. I. c. p. 448, t. lxxviii. W. yymnostachya et W. Jamesam 
Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1858, p. 202. Abutilon tpicatum 
H.B. K. Nov. Gen. v. p. 871. Sida spicijiora DC. Prod. i. 468. 

Hab. Trop. America ! Cuba ! Mexico ! Guatemala ! 

Sect. IV. Abutilastrum. — Carpella 3-rarissime 4-sperma; dis- 
sepimento loculos undique dividente sed lateribus et angulo carpelli 
interne non adhserente. Inflorescentia paniculata. Folia semita. 

13. W. scabra Presl, Beliq. Haenk. ii. p. 117, t. 69, figs. 1-14. 
Hab. Mexico ! 



cies 



W. holosericea Garcke = Abutilon holoscriceum Scheele. 

XXI. HOBSFORDIA A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. p. 296. 
— BracteoL-e 0. Carpella 1-3-sperma, pars superior saepius vacua 
inox accrescens, membranaceo-scanosa, et bipartita in alas 2. 



alata 



a. uray in rroc. Am. Acad. xxu. p. 297. Sida 
alata S. Wats, in Proc. Am. Acad. xx. p. 356. 
Hab. Mexico. N.W. Sonora, Pringle. 

2. H. Newberryi A. Gray, I.e. Abutilon Xewbernji S. Wats, in 
Proc. Am. Acad. xi. p. 125. 

Hab. United States. Arizona. Lower California. Mexico ! 

3. H. rotundifolia S. Wats, in Proc. Am. Acad. xxiv. p. 40. 
Hab. Mexico ! Lower California ! 

4. H. Palmeri S. Wats. /. c. 

Hab. Lower California. Los Angelos Bay I 

XXII. ABUTILON L. Fl. Zeylan. p. 219. - Braoteoto 0. 
Carpella 2-oo (ranssime 1-ovulata) apice divergeutia vel rotundata 
iutus nuda. 

Sect. I. Cephalabutilon K. Schum. I, c. p. 366.— Stigmata capi- 
tata superne papulosa. 

A. Carpella 1-2-ovulata rarissime multiora. 

1. A. oxypktalum Triana & Planch. Flor. Nov. Granat. p. 184 
Hab. New Granada, BchHm, No. 200 ! Santa Martha, Purdk ! 



72 SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF MALVEiti. 

2. A. cordatum Garcke et K. Schum. /. c. p. 370. 
Hab. Peru. Ecuador, Jameson, No. 605 ! 

8. A. intermedium Hochst. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aeth. p. 49. 
A. angulation Mast, in Fl. Trop. Africa, i. p. 183. Bastardia angu- 
lata G-uill. & Perr. Fl. Seneg. p. 65. Sida acutangula Steud. Nom. 
ii. p. 576, S. angulosa Bojer in herb. 

Hab. Tropical Africa ! Madagascar ! 

Var. macrophyllum. Sida macrophylla Hils. & Boj. in herb, ex 

Baill. L c. — Fruticosum, caule angulata, foliis cordatis ovatis acutis 

discoloris supra fulvis subtus albo-cinereis, sepalis subacuminatis 
vel acuminatis. 

Hab. Madagascar, nr. Tananarivo, Bojer. Port Leven, Ins. 
Sato, Bender. Port Leven, Vesco, No. 2 ! Boivin, No. 259. 

Var. Greveanum. Sida Greveana H. Baill. in Bull. Soc. Lin. 
Par. 1885, p. 504. — Fruticosum totum albo-pubescens, caulibus 
teretibus ramosis, foliis cordatis ovatis, pedunculis articulatis, car- 
pellis 1-spermis reniformibus. 

Hab. West Madagascar. Mouroundava, Greve> No. 22 ! 

Var. Figarianum. A. graveolens var. Figarianum Webb in herb. 
— Caule terete ramoso, foliis cordatis ovatis irregulariter dentatis, 



Hab. 



ovulat 

orth-east Africa, nr. Matamnia, Schweinfun 

B. Carpella 3-ovulata rarissime multiora. 

a. Inflorescentia umbellata. 
— Carpella aristata vel rostrata. 



t 



4. A. umbellatum Sweet, Hort. Brit. i. p. 53 ; Jacq. Hort. 
Vindob. t. 56. Sida umbellata L. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 469. S. obtusa 
Cav. ; DC. I. c. 

Hab. West Indies ! Mexico ! New Granada. Peru. 

5. A. umbelliflorum St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. i. p. 204. A. 
umbelliferum Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 501. Sida umbelltjera Dietr. 
Synop. iv. p. 853. 

Hab. Brazil. Prov. Rio Grande do Sul. 

Carpella mutica. 

6. A. FLiicKiGERiANUM K. Schum. I. c. p. 370, t. lxvii. 

Hab. South Brazil or Uruguay, Sellow, 1741. Argentine Re- 
public. 

i. Nov. Gen. et Sp. v. p. 272. Sida 

ib'irremis DC. Prod, i. p. 470. 

Hab. New Granada ! Ecuador. 

8. A. terminale St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. i. p. 203. Sida termi- 
nate Cav. ; DC. l^rod. i. p. 471. 

Hab. Brazil ! Uruguay ! Argentine Republic ! 

9. A. rivulare St, Hil. I.e. p. 202; K. Schum. I. c. t. lxviii. 
A. ajfine Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 503. Sida affinis Spr. Syst. Veg. iii. 
p. 121. S. nvularis Dietr. Syn. iv. p. 854. 

Hab. South Brazil or Uruguay, Selfow, Nos. 509, 714. Uru- 
guay, nr. Monte Video, Sellout No. 3168. 



Ibarre 



MALVE.E. ?3 



10. A. discolor, n. sp. — Caule ligneo erecto pracipue 
superne angulato et rufescente, foliis petiolatis cordatis ovatis 
acutninatis vel subacuminatis discoloris superne nigrescentibus 
subtus cmereo-pubescentibus 5-7-palmati-nervatis nervis subtus 
petiolisque ferrugineo-tomentosis, tloribus unibellatis, sepalis ex- 
tern e ferrugineis lanceolatis acuminatis striatis, petalis calyce 
rnnlto longioribus, stigmibus capitato-stigmatosis, carpellis reni- 
tonmbus muticis externe pubescentibus, seminibus nigrescentibus. 

Hab. Mexico. Tula, Berlandier, No. 2163! Herb. Mus. Brit. 

btem 1 foot high, possibly more ; leaves about 4 in. long, rather 
more broad: netio ps 11 in l™„ fe ' 



geminijl, 



11. A. Galeottii, n. sp. — Caule vel ramo ligneo, foliis ovatis 
apice acuminata vel subacuminatis basi cordatis vel rotunda s 
utrmque minute stellato-pubescentibus, inflorescentia umbdlata 



externe 



In mediam mSF^*^^ SS^oCT^ 
^utren^ 

Her?. a Kew MeXiC °' Parkinsonl Vera Cru *> ^eotti t No. 4103! 

Related to Abutilon integerrimum Turcz 
Peduncles nearly 3 in. long ; petals f in. long. 



P 

■ 



fi 



Boreah- ^ Centrali-Americana, Mexicana, Cubanaque interdum 

Ind. occidentaha ranssime Ins. Sandvicensia. memum 

t Petala erecta. 

12. A. Xanti A. Grnv in P fnn A.~ a__j •• 



if i. ~"" u "' "<"• 1U ^*oc. Am. Acad 
Hab. Lower California. 

13. A. BoNOBiE A. Gray, PL Wright 
■tlab. Mexico ! New Mexico ! 



A. call- 



14. A. Nealleyi Coulter in Contr. from Nat tt„ u i •• 
Hab. West Texas. Hilda™ nl ? Nat " Herb ' vo1 ' »• P- 41. 



Hildago County. 



W* jut A. Gray in PI. Thurb. 7 m ' ^ P * 418 ' A ' 

Hab. Mexico. Arizona. 

pJ* rtSMS Pre ° eding 3Pe0ie3 W « a »«** compound 

2* ■ sffTwawasfcE ^ 



INCANU.M 



Lower California. 



Presl, Kehq. Haenk. ii. p/nXe, de S cr %?' • A ' •*-**«- 
Prod i p. 468 . A% T J & '2*[™™ r : ,£* incana Link; DC. 

V 1 • ■***■ r »«>**** wet;; Cop i> n* «,? lay ' a Amer ' 

Hab. Mexico! Texas! New Mevu? a P ' 863 ' 

«ew Mexico. Arizona! Sandwich Is » 



74 SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF MALVE.E. 

19. A. triquetrum Presl, Reliq. Haenk. ii. p. 115. Sida tri- 
quetra L. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 468. S. trisulcata Jacq. Am. p. 195. 

Hab. Mexico ! Yucatan ! Cuba ! 

20. A. floribundum Schl. in Linnaea, xi. p. 366. Sida Keerlena 
Steud. Nom. Bot. 

Hab. South Mexico. 

21. A. malacum S. Wats, in Proc. Am. Acad. xxi. p. 446. 
Hab. Mexico. Chihuahua! 

22. A. holosericeum Scheele in Linnaea, xxi. p. 471. A. velu- 
tinum A. Gray, 111. Gen. PI. Am. bor. ii. p. 67, t. 125. 

Hab. Mexico ! New Mexico ! Texas. 

This plant has been referred by A. Garcke in Zeit. fur Naturw. 
1890, p. 124, to Wissadnla. It is possibly the same as A. erosum 
Schl. in Linnaea, xi. p. 367 (S. suberosa Dietr. Syn. iv. p. 853). 

23. A. Andrieuxu Hemsl. Diag. PI. Nov. pars alt. p. 24. 
Hab. South Mexico. Oaxaca, Andrieux, No. 552 1 

24. A. Haenkeanum Presl, Keliq. Haenk. ii. p. 115. Sida 
Presliana Dietr. Synop. iv. p. 856. 

Hab. West Mexico, Haenke ! 

1 1 Petala reflexa vel subreflexa. 

25. A. divaricatum Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1858, p. 204. 

xt „ S; S £ Uth Mexico > m '« Vera Cruz, Linden, No. 1378 ! (ialeotti, 
INo. 407 J. Cordova, Bourgeau, No. 1740. 

26. A. MExicANUM Presl, Reliq. Haenk. ii. p. 115. Sida bibracteo- 
lata Dietr. Synop. iv. p. 856. 

Hab. Mexico. Guatemala ! 
Allied to A. petiolare H. B. K. 

xi *l' Af L T TUM Gri8eb - Fh Brit West Indie8 > P- 79. Sida data 
MacFad. Fl. Jam. p. 87. 



Hab. South Mexico ! Jamaica ! 



fertifi. 



Fl. Cub. i. p. 153. Sida con 



Hab. Cuba, Wright, No. 1572 ! Trinidad ! 

* * Australi-Americana Ins. Galapagensia rarissime Centrali- 

Americana. 

29. A. thyrsodendron Griseb. in Goett. Abhand. xxiv. p. 48. 
Hab. Argentine Republic. 

30. A. ramiflorum St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. i. p. 199. / Sida 
?v 85T F1Um ' Yii ' *' 22> S ' rami fi° ra Dietr - S y n °P- 

^^^13017' ****** lm ' Gibert l Brazi1 ' Herb - *+ 

81. A. aristulosum K. Schum. 1. c. p. 880. 

Hab. Brazil, nr. Piccada, Pohl, No. 3289 (d. n. 1321). 

xr 3 ?' A n o Anderss0ni anum Garcke ex Andersson, Galap. Oar. 
Veget. p. 98, r 

Hab. Galapagos Is. I 



SYNOPSIS 



75 



New Granada! Peru! Venezuela, Fendler, 



Jacq. Hort. Schoenb. ii. p. 8, t. 141. 

Hab. Mexico ! 
2287! 95. 

Var. detonsa Triana & Planch. Prod. Fl. Nov. Granat. p. 183. 
Hab. New Granada ! 
Belated to A. datum Griseb. 

34. A. stenopetalum Garcke in Bot. Zeit. 1850, p. 683. 
Hab. Venezuela, Funcke et Schlim, No. 130 ! 

35. A. cymosum Tr. & PI. Prod. Fl. Nov. Granat. p. 185. A. 
nerve Seem. Bot. Herald, p. 83. 
Hab. Panama ! New Granada ! Bolivia ! 

36. A. Grevilleanum Walp. Eep. i. p. 158. Sida GrevMeano 
Gill, in Bot. Misc. lii. p. 154. S. Doniana Gill. MS. 

Hab. Chili ! Ecuador, Jameson, 605 in part ! 

* * * Bahamense. 



ifi 



37. A. Eggersii, n. sp. 



Caule erecto fruticoso ramoso 



nigres 



WW , J. - ~. www 11 "UV/UOU iniiiuou 

tereto velutmo, tolus petiolatis ovatis acuminatis vel subacuminatis 
acute 5-lobatis lobo medio majore parce discoloris utrinque 
molliter cinereo-pubescentibus basi cordatis serratis, floribus pani- 
culatis paniculis foliosis, pedunculis pedicellisque teretibus cinereo- 
vel fulvo-velutinis, sepalis ovatis acutis, petalis roseis, carpellis 
20-25 reniformibus calyce multo superantibus dorso pubescentibus 
lateribus merabranaceis 2-spermis * " " 

centibus. 

Hab. Bahamas. ''In sylvestribus New Providence, Seven 
Hills, " Eggers, No. 4288 ! Herb. Mus. Brit. 

Stem about 8 ft. high ; leaves about 3 in. long ; petioles 1-1 £ in. ; 
carpels f in. long. 

The carpels of this plant are entii 
and resemble those of Abutilon muticum. 

* * * * Gerontogea. 

38. A. ramosum Guill. & Perr. Fl. Seneg. i. p. 68. A. sparman- 
nioides Guill. & Perr. I.e. p. 70. A. elaocarpoides Webb, Frag. Fl. 
Aeth. p. 52. A. sidoides Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. FL p. 18. Sida 



and 



ramosa Cav. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 469. 

Hab. Tropical Africa ! In 
related to A. cymosum Tr. & PI. 



West 



BIDENTATUM 



Hochst. 



nces. Closely 

Sida bidentata 



Hab. Tropical Africa ! India 1 Arabia. 



40. A. longicuspe Hochst. ex Eich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, i. p. 68 
Sida longicuspis Hochst. in herb. S. acuminata R. Br. in Salt* 
Abyss, p. 65. 

Hab. Abyssinia ! Mozambique District ! 



Var. HlLDEBKANDTII. 



Caule ligneo ramoso, foliis cordatis acu- 



• • • i »i ° — — — w« V j avauu vuiuaillO civil* 

minatis serratis, floribus axillaribus, petalis obcuneatis reflexis, 
carpellis atnculatis. ' 



^6 THE MOSSES OF GUERNSEY* 

Hab. East Africa. N'di (Taita), J. M. Hildebrandt, No. 2633! 
Differs from the type in the carpels, which are pointed. 

41. A. auritum Sweet, Hort. Brit. i. p. 53. A. atropurpureum 
Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 502. A. pyramidale Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 1858, p. 203. A. stipulare Presl, Reliq. Haenk. ii. p. 114, 
A. Guichenotianum Dec. in Herb. Timor. Desc. p. 106. Sida atro- 
purpurea Bl. Bij. i. p. 77. S. aurita DO. Prod. i. p. 468 ; Bot. Mag. 
t. 2495. 

Hab. Malaya ! Philippine Is. ! Queensland ! New Caledonia ! 
Naturalised largely in the Tropics. 

42. A. timoriense Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 500. Sida Tivwriensis 

DC. Prod. i. p. 468. 

Hab. Timor. 

Sida Pentacarpos Boxb., DC. Prod. i. p. 473, and S. Sesei Lag. 
Nov. Gen. p. 21, are doubtful species belonging to this group. 

(To be continued.) 



THE MOSSES OF GUERNSEY. 

By E. D. Marquand. 

So little seems to be known about the cryptogamic flora of 
Guernsey, that perhaps a list of the mosses I have collected in the 
island during the last three or four years may be of interest. 
Considering the small size of the island, — its area is under twenty- 
five square miles, — its moss-flora is an extremely rich one, no less 
than 142 species being enumerated below. And it is certain that 
many additions are yet to be made, especially among the spring 
and summer-fruiting species, for my moss collecting has been con- 
fined almost entirely to late autumn and winter. Many species of 
common distribution in the south-west of England, however, seem 
wanting here ; but this only accords with what I have found to be 
the case in every other section of plant-life. Why these common 
species should here be either excessively rare or altogether absent, 
it is not easy to explain; but at any rate it suggests many points 
for consideration in studying the general distribution of plants from 
given centres. Guernsey, it must be borne in mind, is geologically 
the oldest of the Channel Isles; it was a detached island at a 
period long anterior to the separation of the others from the main- 
land of what we now call France. 

It is probable that the moss-flora of Guernsey in its general 
character approaches more nearly that of Cornwall than any other 
English county. From the similarity of soil, climate and general 
features, one might judge that it would be so ; but there is also a 
certain resemblance to the south of Ireland. 

Three species in the subjoined list I have not myself seen here, 

viz., Fissidem exilis, Hypnum molluscum, and Bryum Mildeanum ; 
but they are recorded in the Revue Bryologique for 1887 as having 

been gathered in Guernsey by Mons. J. Cardot during a hurried 



THE MOSSES OF GUERNSEY. 



77 



• • 



Moss 



p. 81, the Bryum is noted for Guernsey on the authority of the 
French bryologist. I know of no other authenticated moss-records 
for this island. The list of species given in Ansted's Channel 
Islands is utterly worthless, and the deductions drawn from it by 
the author of the book (who was not the compiler of the list) are 
perfectly absurd. 

Seeing that the highest elevation of land hardly exceeds 400 ft. 
above sea-level, the occurrence in the island of such mosses as Bryum 
atpinum, Qrimmia leucophcea, and some other sub-alpine species, 
is rather remarkable. Among those most noteworthy by their 
rarity may be mentioned Fissidens rivularis, which occurs on the 
sides of a small waterfall on the south coast, fruiting abundantly in 
October; and Trichostomnm (Mollia) hitescevs, of which this is the 
second known locality in the kingdom, the other station being 
Killarney. These, as well as many others of my doubtful gatherings, 
have been identified by my friend Mr. Henry Boswell, M.A., to 
whom I am much indebted for kindly assistance in my moss-work 
during many years past. It is unnecessary to encumber these 
pages with the local names of habitats and other points of use only 
to a worker on the spot; it will suffice to give a general idea of the 
comparative distribution of each species in the island, and anyone 
wanting more precise information will find it in a paper which will 
appear in the forthcoming Transactions of the Guernsey Society of 
Natural Science. 

I hope in a future paper to give a list of the Hepatic*e of 
Guernsey; meanwhile it may be well to place on record the 
occurrence of the excessively rare Cephalozia Turned, which occurs 
in very small quantity intermixed with other minute forms on a 
gravelly bank near the sea ; and also of the Irish hepatic, Lopho- 
colea spicata, which Mr. Boswell and I found during one of our 
rambles last August ; it occurs plentifully at the original station, 
and since then I have gathered it in two or three widely- separated 
localities, so that it seems to be a fairly distributed plant in 
Guernsey. Lophocolea spicata was first discovered in England some 
five or six years ago by my old friend the late Mr. W. Curnow, who 
found it on the extreme western coast of Cornwall, at St. Just, near 
the Land's End, and I am not aware that it has been seen 
elsewhere ; so that its occurrence in Guernsey, in a direct line from 
the south of Ireland, through West Cornwall, is of peculiar interest. 

Very I>. majus Turn. Bare. 

Campylopus brevipilm B. & S. 



tifoli 



rare. 



Gymnostornum microstomnm Hedw. Very rare. 



Bather rare. [mon. 

Weissia controversa Hedw. Com- 

W. mucronata Bruch. Rare. 
DicraneUa 



introjlexh 
the cliffs. 



Common on 



Bare. 



Common. 



heteromalla Hedw. C. subidatus Sch. Very rare. 



/ 



& 



Common. 



D. scoparium L. Common. 

Var. orthophyllum. On the Leucobrynm glaucum L. Local 



Bare. 



southern cliffs. 



and rare. 



78 



THE MOSSES OF GUERNSEY. 



PleuridiitmnitidumE.ed\v. Pound G. pulvinata Dill. Bather com- 



but once, 
P. subulatum L. Frequent. 
P. cuspidatum Sclireb. Rather 

common. 
Pottia truncata L. Common. 
P. intermedia Turn. 



mon. 



G. trichophylla Grev. Common. 
G. leucopfuza Grev. Common on 

the cliffs ; fruiting abundantly 

in one place. 



common. 

P. WiUoni Hook. Rare. 

P. littoralis Mitt. Rare. 

P. aspertda Mitt. Rare. 

P. Heimii Hedw. Very rare. 
Didymodon rubellus B. & S. Rather 

rare. 

D. luridas Hornsch. Rare. 

Ditrichumfiexicaule Schwg. Very 
rare. 

Trichostom urn tophaceu m Brid . 

Rare. 
T. mutabile Bruch. Common. 



Rather Hkacomitrium heterostichum, var. 

ft. (Grim r> da affinis Braith.). 



Rare. 

Ptyclwmitriwn polyphylliun Dicks. 
Very rar^. 

Zygodonviridissimus Dicks. Com- 
mon. — Var. mpestriH. Rare. 
Z. Stirtoni. Very rare. 
Ulota phyllantha Brid. Common. 
rthotrichum aftine Schrad. 



Rather rare. 



0. tenellum Bruch. Rare. 



0. diaphanum Schrad. 



Rather 



common. 



y™-™phocarpa. Rather rare. 0. pulchellum Sm. Very rare. 



(Mollia) lutescens Lind 



if* 



*°* S * P * 2 )', V ^ ry rare * E **°**°d°* ericetorum Bals. Fre- 
quent on the cliffs. 

Funaria hygrometrica L. Com- 



fi 

near the sea. 



Common 



T.litto rale Mitt. Rather common. 
Barbida ambigua B. & S. Rather 



mon. 



rare. 



i/i 



Com- 



B. atrovirens Sm. Frequent near 
the sea. 

B. muralis L. Very common. 

B. unyuiculata Dill. Common. 

B. cylindrica Tayl. Rather com- 
mon. 

B. vinealis Brid. Common. 



mon. 



\fontana L._ Very rare. 
mpyrifi 



house flower-pots. 



-yum 



Wils. Rather rare. 



rpurpureum^SN 



common. 



— ~ — — — ~«. uumiuun. 

B Hormchuchiana Sch. Very B. MOdeanum Juratz. (Cardot, 



rare. 

P. revoluta Schwg. Common. 

P. convoluta Hedw. Rare. 

P. commutata Sur. Very rare. 

P. squarrosa Brid. Rather com- 
mon near the sea. 



1885). 

P. alpinum L. Southern cliffs, 
rare. 

B. caspititium L. Rather com- 



mon. 



B. argenteum L. Rather rare. 



5. to wpi k find. Rather com- P. c^ator* L. Common. 



mon. 
P. montana Nees. Rare. 

P. rw/«//s L. Common on the 

sandhills. 
Ceratodon purpureas L. Very 

. common. 

Grimmia maritima Turn. Com- 
mon on the coast. 



B. pseudotriquetrum Hedw. Rare. 



Mnium 



Rare. 



-M. rostratum L. Very rare. 
.M. hornum L. Very common. 
Af. punctatum Hedw. Very rare. 
Aulacomnion palustre L. Rare. 
Atrichum undidatum L. Rather 

common. 



THE MOSSES OP GUERNSEY. 



79 



Pogonatum nanum Neck. Bather B. rutabulum L. Very common. 

rare. B. rivulare B. & S. Rare. 

P. aloides Hedw. More common B. plumosum Swartz. Common. 

Eurhynckium myosuroidm L. 

Common. 

E. circinatum Brid. Rather com- 
mon. 

E. striatum Schreb. Common. 



than the last. 

Polytrichum formosum Hedw. 

Frequent. 
P. piliferum Schreb. Southern 
cliffs, frequent. 

P.jumpermumWilld. Common. E. crassinervium Tayl. Rare. 
Fissidens bryoides Hedw. Very 
common. 

F. Curnowii Mitt. Found but 
once. 

F. exilis Hedw. (Cardot, 1885). 
F. viriduhts Wils. Rare. 
F. rivularis Spruce (Braith. M. 
Fl. p. 84). Very rare. 

F. adiantoides Hedw. 



Rather 



common. 



F. ta xif alius L. Rare. 



E. piliferum Schreb. Frequent. 
E. speciosum Brid. Rare. 
E. Swartzii Turn. Rare. 
E. prcelongum Dill. Very com- 
mon. 

E. pumilum Wils. Rather com- 
mon. 

E. Teesdalii Sm. Very rare. 

Rhynchostegium tenelhim Dicks. 

Rare. 



'/< 



Grxjphaa heteromalla Hedw. Very mon. 



Very corn- 



rare. 
Leptodon Smithii Dicks. Very 

rare, growing on a boulder. 

It is very unusual to find this 

moss growing on stone. 
Neckera complanata L. Rather 

common. 



R. meyapolitanum Bland. Very 



rare 



it\ 



feck. Common. 

dent icula turn L. 



Plagiothecium 

Common. 
P. Borrerianum Spruce. Rare. 
P. sylvutirum L. Rather rare. 
Homalia iridium anoides Schreb. Amblystegium serpens L. Rather 



Rare. 

■ 

Pterygophyllumlucens Sm. Rather 

common. 
Thuidium tamariscinum Hedw. 
Common. 



common. 



Wils. Rare. 



A. riparium L. Rare. 



Var. 



long if t 



Very rare. 



Pterogonium gracile Dill. Rare. H. cupressif 



Hypnum fiXicinum L. Common. 



Thamnium alopecurum L. Rather mon. 



rme L. Very com- 
Var. lacunosum. Com- 



common. 



mon. 



Pylaisia polyantha Schreb. Very H. resupinatum Wils 



rare. 



Isothecium myiirum Poll. Rather H 

common. 
Homalotheciiim sericeam L. Very 

common. 



common. 



Camptothecium lutescens Huds. H 



Very 

molluscum Hedw. (Cardot, 

1885). [ raret 

H. stellatum Schreb. Local and 
H. cuspidatam L. Very common. 



Common on the sandhills. 



Very common. 



Scleropodium illecebrum Schwg. rare. 



Hylocomium splendens Dill. Very 



Common. 

Brachytheciam glareosum B. & S. 

Rare. 



H. brevirostre Ehr. Rare. 

H. squarrosum L. Rather com- 
mon. 



B. albicans Neck. Rather com- H. loreum L. Rare. 



mon. 



H. triquetrum L. Rather rare. 



80 



RUBI OF WOBURN SANDS. 

By Edward F. Linton, M.A. 

There is a sandy tract on the borders of Bedfordshire and 
Buckinghamshire, where the L. & N. W. R. line from Bedford to 
Bletchley cuts the county boundary, which has a soil so similar to 
that of Bournemouth, that locally the village of Woburn Sands, 
which owes its origin to the planting here of the railway station for 
Woburn (two miles away), is sometimes spoken of as the "Midland 
Bournemouth. ,, Owing to the foresight of a former Duke of Bedford, 
the low sandy hills are clothed with Scotch fir as the predominating 
tree ; and it is not difficult to imagine oneself, when walking through 
the woodland rides, in the Talbot Woods or Branksome Park of the 
southern watering-place. It struck me that it would be interesting 
to compare the brambles of these two districts ; and on the last day 
of September, 1892, I was able to spend several hours studying this 
genus on both sides of the boundary. I will take those within the 
county of Bucks first. 

Bucks (24). — These I find, after consultation with Mr. Arthur 
Bennett and Mr. (j. C. Druce, to be new to the county : — Rubus 
plicatiis W. & N. The Rev. W. Moyle Rogers thought this had a 
peculiar look ; not that he had any other name to suggest ; as a 
matter of fact, I think it is simply peculiar in being shade -grown ; 
consequently the leaves lose their plicate character ; I have speci- 
mens with just such flat leaves from Derbyshire, Norfolk, and 
Surrey. The panicle is not at all untypical. — R. nemoralis P. J. 
Muell. (the ordinary umbrosus, auct.). In woodland, south of the 
village. — R. pyramidalis Kalt. Wooded side of a wet lane. The 
specimens are denuded of the usual thick clothing under the leaf, 
owing to the wet and shady situation ; but Mr. Rogers arrived at 
the same conclusion, independently, that the plant was R. pyrami- 
dalis. There were a few bushes visible ; probably more in the wood. 
R. Drejeri G. Jensen. Named for me by the Rev. W. Moyle 
Rogers. Only one bush was noticed. It struck me at once as a 
species I was not familiar with, at least in the living state. 
R. rudis Weihe. Only noticed in one spot : two or three bushes. 
This is a typical form of the plant, and identical with the Oxford- 
shire material which has been issued in Fasc. I. of the Set of British 
Rubi. — On a form of the hirtus group, found in fair quantity in the 
woodland just south of the village, Dr. W. 0. Focke writes as 
follows: — " R. flaccidifolius P. J. Muell., I believe. It is dis- 
tinguished from all forms of the hirtus group by its sepals reflexed 
in fruit. 1 ' I am not aware that this has been noted for Britain 
before. — R. dumetorum W. & N. In hedgerows. — R. Balfourianus 
Blox. A good typical form of this variable species ; hedgerows, 
south of the village. 

Besides these I noticed R. Idaus L., in the woods ; R. rusticanus 
Merc, R. lencostachys Schleich., and R. Radttla Weihe, by road- 
sides, already recorded ; also R. macrophyllus W. & N., abundant on 
the steep banks of a cutting in the road leading to Woburn, which, 




MARINE ALG.« OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. Hi 

I understand from Mr. Bennett, has not been placed on record for the 
county, but Mr. Druce tells me he has it from another part of Bucks. 



Wood 



found 



W 



R. echinatus Lindl., in some profusion ; both additional to Top. Bot. 
ed. 2. 

Beds (30). — Of the brambles observed in Beds, Mr. A. Bennett 
tells me that those new to the county are R. Lindleianus Lees, 
E. rhamnifolius auct. angl., R. rusticanus Merc, R. macrophyllus 
W. & N., a glabrate form rather harsh under the leaf, R. Radula 
Weihe, R. Balfourianus Bloxam, and a form of R. dumetorum 
W. & N., all of them in hedgerows on the side of Woburn Sands 
towards Aspley Guise. In one of these untrimmed hedgerows a 
large bramble-bush took my attention, which had the aspect of R. 
adscitus ; it was, however, perfectly barren, and by degrees I 
arrived at the conclusion that it was R. Lindleianus x rusticanus ; 
a view in which the Kev. W. Moyle Rogers entirely concurs. 

On comparing this list of the brambles of Woburn Sands with 
those of Bournemouth, I am struck by the dissimilarity of the two 
lists. In fact, only the most ubiquitous of our British brambles 
occur at both places. 



A PROVISIONAL LIST OF THE MARINE KLGM OF 

THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

By Ethel S. Barton. 

(Contiaued from p. 65.) 

Bryopsis oespitosa Suhr. Seal Island, Challenger ! Shore of 
Kaflfraria. Suhr. 



Geogr. Distr. Mauritius. 



AFRIC 



fid, 



B. plumosa Ag. Kalk Bay, Boodle ! Cape Point, Boodle ! 
Camps Bay, Tyson ! 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. Australia. West Indies. 

B. setacea Hering. (? inch B. myosuroides Kiitz.). Kei Mouth, 
Flanagan ! Port Natal, Krauss ! No. 222. (I have not seen an 
authentic specimen of B. myosuroides Kiitz., but from his descrip- 
tion and figure, Tab. Phyc. vol. vi., I have but little hesitation in 
pronouncing it to be B. setacea Hering.). 

Caulerpa Holmesiana G. Murr. Algoa Bay, Becker \ Kei Mouth, 

Flanagan ! 

C. Zeyheri J. Ag. Algoa Bay, Becker \ Kei Mouth, Flanaganl 
C. ligulata Harv. Simons Bay, Challenger ! Kalk Bay, Boodle ! 

False Bay, McMillan I Cape Agulhas, Krauss I Hohenack ! Meer- 
algen, Nos. 206, 480. Cape Recife, Botcerbank ! Algoa Bay, Eck- 
lon f Harvey I Sutherland ! Bowerbank ! Kei Mouth. Flanagan 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 31. TMarch, 1893.1 g 



82 MARINE ALG2E OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



Natal, Gueinzius ! Cape, Areschoug, Phyc. extraeurop. exsicc. 
No. 28; Reliquice Brebiss. ! Ser. 2, No. 153. 

C. clavifera J. Ag. Knysna, Boodle ! Natal, Gueinzius \ 
Geogr. Distr. Tropical seas. 

C. chemnitzia Lam. Port Natal, fide Areschoug. 
Geogr. Distr. Brazil. West Indies. Indian Ocean. 

Codium tomentosum Ag. From mouth of Olifants River to 
Port Natal, Drege. Table Bay, Krauss, Boodle I Sea Point, Boodle 
False Bay, Reynolds ! Algoa Bay, Ecklon. Kei Mouth, Flanagan ! 
Natal, Krauss. Cape, Brand ! Gueinzius ! Hb. Dickie ! 

Geogr. Distr. General. 

C. tenue Kiitz. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack ! Meeralgen, No. 496. 



Geogr. Distr. Red Sea. 

C. elongatum Ag. Cape, Pappe, fide Kutzing. I have seen no 
specimens of this plant from the Cape. It is probable that those 
recorded are < . Lindenbergii Bind. See De Toni, Sylloge Alyarum 
vol. i. p. 496. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. Mediterranean. Japan. 

C. Lindenbergii Bind. Cape, Hb. Dickie ! 
Geogr. Distr. N. Pacific ? 

C. platylobium Aresch. Port Elizabeth, fide Areschoug. Algoa 
Bay, Hb. Dickie ! Cape Morgan, Flanagan ! 

C. laminarioides Harv. Cape Point, Boodle ! 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

Halimeda cuneata Hering. (inch H. obovata Kiitz.). Algoa Bay, 
Sutherland ! Port Alfred, Carr I Natal, Krauss. Cape, Hb. Dickie I 

Ill.—PRMOPRYCEM. 

Fucace.e. 

Bifurcaria brassicjeformis Stackh. (= Pgcnophycus brassic(E- 

formh Kiitz., inch P. sisymbrioides Kiitz.). Cape Town, Burchell ! 

Cape Point, Boodle ! Sea Point, Tyson ! Muysenberg, Harvey ! 

Table Bay, Pappe ! Algoa Bay, Holub ! Natal, Gueinzius ! Cape, 

Hohenack. I Reeve ! Scott Elliot ! 

B. tuberculatus Stackh. (= Pgcnophycus tuberculatus Kiitz.). 
Table Bay, Wenek ! Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. I Knysna, Krauss. 

Cape, Harvey ! Hb. Dickie ! 

Geogr. Distr. North Atlantic. 

B. levigatus = Pycnophycus levigatus Kutz. Cape Agulhas, 

Hohenack. ! No. 320. 

Fucus serratus L. Cape, Ecklon. 

Geogr. Distr. North Atlantic, Arctic and Baltic. 

F. vesiculosus L. Cape, Ecklon. 

Geogr. Dixtr. Northern seas. Australia. 

F. constrictus Harv. Camps Bay, Tyson ! Table Bay, Harvey I 
Ifappel Green Point, Harvey I Cape, Hb. Dickie I This plant 
has been placed in several different genera by authors, i. e., Carpo- 
glossu m , I ucodi mm, and Carpophyllum . In several poin ts it resembles 



MARINE 



83 



and 



r .. i , r „,,„, ul4U iUi vuv yLvsvub ± retain jaarvey s practice. 

keep it in the genua Fuciis. 

Cystoseira teiquetra Ag. Cape, fide Bory. Cape, Koenig. 

C. ericoides J. Ag. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! 

Geogr. Bistr. North Atlantic. Mediterranean. Adriatic. 

Scaberia Agardhii Grev. Natal, Krauss. 

Geogr. Bistr. Australia. Tasmania. 

Carpophyllum scalare Suhr. Cape, Brege. 
xt C ™ TAR ™ lA australis Endl. et Dies. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! 

ii , ort Nata1 ' Gueinzius > Poppig. Cape, Brege. This may 
possibly be the same as Carpophyllum scalare Suhr, but as I have 
not seen the type-specimen of that plant, I must leave this point 
undecided for the present. In any case, however, the name 

Lontannia must fall, as that had been previously used for a genus 
of red alga?. ° 

Sargassum elegans Suhr. Cape, Brege. 

S. lendigertjm Ag. Port Natal, Krauss. 
Geogr. Bistr. Warm Atlantic. 

S . incisifolium Ag. Saldanha Bay, Ecklon. Table Bay, Wenek ! 
Kalk Bay, Boodle ! Pappe ! Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! No. 219. 
Mouth of Zwart Valley, Burchell ! Knysna, Krauss. Plettenberg 
Bay, H. B. Home ! Algoa Bay, Holub I Cape, Menzies, Hb. 

Bickie I Harvey I Brege I 

Var. nullipora = Carpacanthus glomeratus Kiitz. Table Bay, 

fide Grunow. 

Geogr. Bistr. West Indies. 

S. heterophyllum Ag. Algoa Bay, Hb. Bickie ! Cape Colonv 
Hb. Holmes \ Port Natal, Krauss ! " 

b. longifolium Ag. Simons Bay, Pappe ! Cape Agulhas 
Hohenack. ! No. 169, Steel ! Port Alfred, Slavin ! Natal, T. Cooper r 

Cape, Hb. R. Brown ! Harvey !, 

Geogr. Distr. Indian Ocean and New Zealand. 

S. vuloare Ag. Knysna, Boodle I Algoa Bay, Ecklon; Hb. 
Dickie ! Cape, Harvey ! 

/?. tenuifolium. Port Natal, Krauss. 

Geogr. Distr. Warm Atlantic. West Indies. 

S. affine J. Ag. Cape, Hohenack. ! Meeralgen, No. 365. Cape 
W. Ferguson ! 9 

Geogr. Distr. West Indies, 

S. pyriforme Ag. Port Natal, Krauss. 
Geogr. Distr. Indian Ocean. 

* 

, S. unifolium J. Ag. Swellendam, Ecklon. 

Geogr. Bistr. Mediterranean (Canary Islands, rare). West 
Indies. ' 

S. baociferum Ag. Cape, Hb. Bickie ! Brege ! 
Geogr. Bistr. Warm oceans. 

Turbinaria decurrens Bory. Port Natal, Krauss. 
Geogr. Bistr, Indian Ocean, Malay Archipelago, China Seaa 

g2 



84 MARINE ALGvE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE 



Splachnidiace.e . 

Splachnidium rugosum Grev. Seal Island, Challenger ! Sea 
Point, Boodle ! False Bay, Harvey ! Knysna, Natal, Krauss. Cape, 
R. Brown ! Koenig, Drege, Tyson ! 

Oeogr. Distr. Australia* New Zealand. 

■ 

Dictyotace^:. 

Dictyota dichotoma J. Ag. Cape Point, Boodle ! Kalk Bay, 

Boodle ! Algoa Bay, Ecklon. Port Natal, Drege, Krauss ! Gueinzius ! 

Var. implexa J, Ag. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! Meeralgen, 
No. 313. 

Geogr. Distr. Warm and temperate oceans. 

D. linearis Ag. Port Natal, Krauss. 

Geogr. Distr. Mediterranean and neighbouring Atlantic. West 
Indies. [Red Sea ?] . 



D. n;evosa J. Ag. Plettenberg Bay, Home I 



oa 



Hb. Dickie ! Algoa Bay to Port Natal, Krauss. Kei Mouth, 
Flanagan ! Cape, Pappe ! 

Geogr. Distr. West Indies. 

D. fasciola Lam. Cape Agulhas, Hohenacker ! Meeralgen, 
No. 512. 

Geogr. Distr. Mediterranean, Bed Sea, West Indies. 

D. inscripta J. Ag. Kalk Bay, Pappe ! 

D. denticulata Ag. Cape, Hohenacker ! Meeralgen, No. 511. 

D. liturata J. Ag. Kalk Bay, Hb. Trin. Coll. Dublin ! 
J. Agardh includes under this name D. Pappeana Kiitz. The 
specimen in Hb. Kew from the Cape named D. Pappeana in 
Pappe's writing is clearly a form of D. navosa J. Ag., under 
which name I have therefore included that record. 

Geogr. Distr. West Indies. 

D. Pappeana Kiitz. Kalk Bay, Pappe. 

Species inqairenda. 

D. polycarpa Sond. Simons Bay, Pappe. 

Zonaria interrupta Ag. Table Bay, Wenek ! Milk Bay (False 
Bay), B. McMillan ! Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! Meeralgen, No. 156. 
Plettenberg Bay, H. D. Home I Algoa Bay, Ecklon, Holubl 
Burchell, Hb. Dickie ! Port Alfred, W. Carr ! Kei Mouth, Flana- 
gan ! Cape Colony, ex Hb. Holmes ! Port Natal, Dr. Stanger ! 
No. 3974 ; Krauss. Cape, Pappe ! Zeyher ! Hb. Shuttleworth ! Ares- 
choug, Phyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 58. 

Geogr. Distr. Teneriffe, Indian Ocean, Tasmania, and Nqw 
Zealand. 

Z. plumbea Aresch. Natal B&y,Jide Areschoug. 
Z. multifida Harv. ( = Z. liarveyana Pappe and Phycopteris 
Harverjana Kutz.). Kalk Bay, Pappe ! Cape, Harvey ! Hohenack. ! 

(To be continued,} 



85 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 



COMPILED BY 



William A. Clarke, F.L.S 



(Continued from vol. xxx., p. 345.) 

Pyrus torminalis Ekrh. Beitr. vi. 92 (1791). 1597. "In 
Kent it groweth in great aboundance, especially about Southfleete 
and Gravesend." — Ger. 1288. 

P. Aria Sm. Fl. Brit. ii. 534 (1800). 1570. "In Angliae 
frigidioribus sylvosis frequentem videas." — Lob. Adv. 435. 

P. Aucuparia Gaertn. Fruct. ii. 45 (1791). 1562. "Groweth 
in moyst woddes and it is called in Northumlande a rowne tre, &c." 
—Turn. ii. 143. 

P. communis L. Sp. PL 479 (1753). 1562. " Wylde Pere 
tre . . . well knowen." — Turn. ii. 108. 

P. Malus L. Sp. PL 479(1753). 1562. " Malus sylvestris 
[called] in y e South countre a Crab tre in y e North countre a 
scarbtre." — Turn. ii. 47, back. 

Mespilus germanica L. Sp. PL 478 (1753). 1597. "Often- 
times in hedges among briars and brambles." — Ger. 1266. " In 
the hedges betwixt Harnpsted heath and Highgate." — Merrett, 77. 

Crataegus Oxyacantha L. Sp. PL 477 (1753). 1562. "Our 
como hawthorn." — Turn. ii. 73, back. " Oxyacantha . . . Angli 
May dicunt."— Lob. Adv. 443 (1570). 

Cotoneaster integerrimus Med. Bot. 85 (1793). C. vulgaris 
Lindl. Syn. 104 (1829). 1828. " On the limestone cliffs of the 
Great Ormshead, Carnarvonshire, in various places. Mr. W. Wil- 
son, 1825."— Sm. Engl. Fl. iv. 268. From a note on the E. B. 
drawing, it appears that Wilson first noticed it in 1821 or 1822. 
Mr. J. W. Griffith perhaps discovered it in 1783 ; see E. B. S. 2713. 

Saxifraga oppositifolia L. Sp. PL 402 (1753). 1677. 
" Ingleborough," Yorkshire.— Ray, Cat. ed. 2, 269. 

S. nivalis L. Sp. PL 401 (1753). 1641. Johns. Merc. Bot. 
pars alt. 33 (" Sedum serratum, &c"). 

S. stellaris L. Sp. PL 400 (1753). 1641. " Upon the moyst 
Rockes at Snowdon." — Johns. Merc. Bot. pars alt. 19. 

S. Geum L. Sp. PL 401 (1753). 1806. " Discovered by Mr. 
J. T. Mackay on a mountain near Dingle, in the County of Kerry, 
Ireland, in September, 1804. ,, — E. B. 1561. 

S. umbrosa L. Sp. PL ed. 2, 574 (1762). 1697. "Grows 
plentifully here with us in Ireland, on a mountain called the 
Mangerton, in Kerry." — Dr. T. Molyneux in Phil. Trans, xix. 510. 

S. Hirculus L. Sp. PL 402 (1753). 1724. "Found by Dr. 
Kingstone on Knotsford-moor, Cheshire." — R. Syn. iii. 355. 

S. aizoides L. Sp. PL 403 (1753). 1670. " On the sides of 
Ingleborough-hill (Yorksh.) . . • also ... in Westmoreland." 
Ray, Cat. 279. 

S. tridactylites L. Sp. PL 404 (1753). 1597. " Upon the 
bricke wall in Chauncerie lane [London] belonging to the Earle of 
Southampton/' — Ger. 500. 



86 FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 

S. rivularis L. Sp. PI. 404 (1753). 1800. " Ou Ben Nevis, 

Scotland. Dr. Townson."— Sm. PI. Brit. ii. 454. 

S. cernua L. Sp. PL 403 (1753). 1794. " Amongst the rocks 

on the summit of Ben Lawers." — James Dickson in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. ii. 290. 

S. granulata L. Sp. PI. 402 (1753). 1568. "In diverse 
places of England."— Turn. iii. 67 (with fig.). 

S. caespitosa L. Sp. PI. 404 (1753). 1800. " On alpine rocks 
above Lake Idwell, in Carnarvonshire, rare. J. W. Griffith, Esq., 
in Herb. Soc. Linn."— Sm. EL Brit. ii. 455. 

S. decipiens Ehrh. 1798. " Gathered wild on the rocks 
of Cwm Idwell, Carnarvonshire, North Wales, by Mr. Griffith, in 
the end of May last."— E. B. 455. 

S. hypnoides L. Sp. PI. 405 (1753). 1640. " On the Moun- 

tames of Lancashiere with us, as Mr. Hosket [Heskethl told us." 
Park. Theatr. 740. 

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium L. Sp. PI. 398 (1753). 1570. 

"In Angliae humentibus saxeis .... floret."— Lob. Adv. 267* 
" About Bath and Wels," &c— Ger. 693. 

C. alternifolium L. Sp. PI. 398 (1753). 1666. "Near 
Hedley, Hampshire, Mr. Brown." — Merrett, 109. 

Parnassia palustris L. Sp. PI. 275 (1753). 1597. "In 
Lansdall and Craven, in the north part of England : at Doncaster," 
&c— Ger. 692. 

Ribes alpinum L. Sp. PI. 200 (1753). 1688. "In agio 

Eboracensi invenit D. Dodsworth."— Ray, Hist. ii. 1486. 

R. rubrum L. Sp. PI. 200 (1753). 1568. "By a waters 
side at Clouer in Somerset shyre in the possession of Maister 
Horner."— Turn. iii. 63. 

R. nigrum L. Sp. PI. 201 (1753). 1660. " By the rivers 
side_at Abington" (Cambsl.— R. C. C. 139. 

L- Sp. PI. 129 (1753). 1775. " On Dray- 
uuii xieam ana several other places near Norwich, in great plenty. 
First examined and ascertained by the Rev. Mr. [Henry] Bryant, 
in 1766."— Rose's Elements of Botany, App. 450. 



muscosa 



uotyieaon Umbilicus L. Sp. PI. 429 (1753). 1562. "In 

welles and divers places of Summerset shyre."— Turn. ii. 169. 

Sedum roseum Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2, 326 (1772). S. Rhodiola 
DC. (1805). 1597. " Upon sundry mountains in the north part 
of England, especially in a place called Ingleborough Fels."— Ger. 

S. Telephium L. Sp. PI. 430 (1753). 159 7. " Plentifully in 

. . . Englande."— Ger. 416. 

S. villosum L. Sp. PI. 432 (1753). 1666. " On the North 

side of Ingleborough hill."— Merrett, 111. 

S. album L. Sp PI. 432 (1753). 1634. " In locis saxosis et 
!Ef« 8 .V7^°i ' Merc -, Bot ' 6 7. "Very plentifully on many of 
R C C. 153 a660) m Chatteresse in tne Isle of E1 y ' (Cambs.).- 

SullST^ 8 '"'/ 9 ^ 1778 )' 167 °- " In sterilioribus 
-Ray Cat! 280 arm ° U ' ^ DunWlch P lurimum observavimus." 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 87 

* 

S. acre L. Sp. PI. 432 (1753). 1538. J 1 Sedum minus puto esse 
herb am quain vulgus appellat Thryft aut Stoncrop." — Tarn. Lib. 

S. rupestre L. Sp. PI. 431 (1753). 1666. " Sedum Divi 
Vincentii N. D. Mr. Goodver." — Merrett, 111. 

S. Forsterianum Sm. E. B. t. 1802. 1807. M Gathered in 
1806 by E. Forster, Jan., on a rock at the fall of the Rhydoll near 
the Devil' a -bridge, Cardiganshire." — E. B. I. c. 

Drosera rotundifolia L. Sp. PI. 281 (1753). 1568. "Rosa 
solis is a litle small herbe that groweth in mossey groundes and in 
fennes and watery mores." — Turn. iii. 79. 

D. anglica Huds. ii. 135 (1778). 1640. " This was sent me 
by Mr. Zanche Silliard an Apothecarie of Dublin in Ireland, 
which sort wee have growing by Ellestmere in Shropshire by the 
waysides (the report of Dr. Coote)." — Park. Theatr. 1953. 

D. intermedia Hayne. 1660. "On Hinton moor " (Cambs.j 
R. C. C. 139 (1660). This may be the Ros soils foliis obloiigU of 
Johns. Merc. Bot. p. 65 (1634). 

Hippuris vulgaris L. Sp. PL 4 (1753). 1597. " In waterish 
places." — Ger. 957. Near Sandwich, Kent. — Johnson, " Kent," p. 
23 (1632). 

Myriophyllum verticillatum L. Sp. PI. 992 (1753). 1660. 
" In the rivulet Stoure by the little Islet . . . above the Paper 
mills" (Cambs,).— R. C. C. 99. 

M. spicatum L. Sp. PI. 992 (1753). 1640. "In our owne 
land."— Park. Theatr. 1258. " In the river [Cam] about Stret- 
ham ferry."— R. C. C. 99 (1660). 

M. alterniflorum DC. Fl. Fr. v. 529. 1724. "In fossa 

prope Lodden-Bridge, baud procul a Reading J. Bobart observavit." 
— Ray Syn. iii. 151. 

Callitriche verna (aggregate), L. Sp. PI. ed. ii. 6 (1762). 
1597. An " herbe of small reckoning that floteth upon the water 
called . . . Water Starwoort." — Ger. 681. 

C. autumnalis L. Sp. PL ed. 2, 6 (1762). 1830. " Llyn 
Maelog, Anglesea, Mr. W. Wilson." — Hook. Br. FL ed. i. 884. 

Lythrum Salicaria L. Sp. PL 446 (1753). 1548. " groweth 
by water sydes." — Turn. Names, E. ij back. " Under the Bishops 
house wall at Lambeth neere the water of Thames." — Ger. 388. 

L. Hyssopifolia L. Sp. PL 447 (1753). 1633. " Found by 
my friend Mr. Bowles at Dorchester in Oxfordshire." Johnson. 
—Ger. em. 582. 

Peplis Portula L. Sp. PL 332 (1753). 1632. Johnson, 
Kent," p. 33. " Betweene Clapham heath and Touting and 
betweene Kentish Towne and Hampstead." — Ger, em. 615. 

Epilobium angustifolium L. Sp. PL 347 (1753). 1597. 

" In Yorkshire in a place called the Hooke." — Ger. 388. 

E. hirsutum L. Sp. PL 347 (1753). 1597. "Neere the 
waters (but not in the waters) in all places for the most part." 
Ger. 388. 

E. parviflorum Schreb. Spic. 146 (1771). 1629. Johnson 

1 Kent/ p. 8 (" Lysimachia siliquosa minor hirsuta "). 

E. montanum L. Sp. PL 848 (1758). 1570, "In Anglia 



88 FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 

observatur . . . locis . . . umbrosis saxosis aut minus udis." — Lob. 
Adv. 145. 

E. lanceolatum Seb. & Maur. Fl. Eom. p. 138 (1818). 1847. 
Frome Glen Stapleton near Bristol. Mr. G. H. K. Thwaites; 
sent to Bot. Soc. of London in 1847.— Phyt. ii. 762. 

E. roseum Schreb. Spic. 147 (1771). 1798. " Primum in 
Angha a eel. Curtisio in Lambetb Marsh in comitatu Surr. detecta." 
— Syinons, Synopsis, 199. 

E. tetragonum (aggregate) L. Sp. PI. 348 (1753). 1634. 
" Lysimachia sihquosa glabra minor Bauh. In humidis saxosis." 
Johns. Merc. Bot. p. 49. 

obscurum Schreb. Snio. 147 (1771). 1856. "Wyken 

Bab. in Ann. N. H. ser. 2, 



Warwickshire 



xvii. 243. [The " E. virgatum" found near Lincoln by Dr. Deakiri 
may have been this.— Florigr. Brit. p. 548.] 

*r E, ,, P ^ 1US ^ L * Sp ' PL 848 i 1753 )- 166 °- " On Teversham 
Moor (Cambs).— R. C. C. 93. But see Ger. em. p. 479. 

E. alsinefolium Vill. Prosp. 45 (1779). 1677. "In the 



rivulets 



allidifolium 



Morne 



Wet. ii. 876 (1786). 1856. "Lofty 
mountains oi Scotland : Morne and Lochnagar, &c."— Babington 
m Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 2. xvii. 312. 

E. alpinum L. Sp. PI. 348 (1753). 1777. » On Ben 
Lomond, about two-thirds of the way up."— Lightf. Fl Scot 199 

Ludwigia apetala Walt. Fl. Carolin. 89 (1788). {hnardia 
pahistru L.) 1666. " In a great Ditch neer the Moor at Peters 
neld, Hamsbire, Mr. Goodyer."— Merrett, 7 

nW? irC8B ®i ? t 1 tia ? a L, ,? P « P1 - 9 ( 1753 )- 1597 - " Gr ™eth in 
obscure and darke places."— Ger. 280. 

C. alpina L. Sp. PI. 9 (1753). 1762. « Ad radices montium 
in Comitatibus Westmorlandico Eboracensi, &c, circa Dallam 
lower in agro Westmorlandico."— Huds. i. 10. 

Bryonia dioica Jacq. Fl. Austr. ii. 59 (1774). 1538. "Am- 
pelos leuce .... anglis Bryoni aut wylde nepe."— Turn. Lib. 

(15487 m many PlaCeS ° f En ^ lande -"— Turn - Names » B V J> b ack 

«. o, Hy( ^ rc ?f otyle ^garis L. Sp. PI. 234 (1753). 1562. 
bnepekylhnge penny grasse that groweth in merishe and 
waterye groundes."— Turn. Herb. ii. 169. 

Eryngium maritimum L. Sp. PL 233 (1753). 1548. 

Groweth . plentuously in Englande by the sea syde. "-Turn. 



Names, D i. 



campestre 



sea syde." 
(1753). 1670. " On a rock 



communely b> wodd ra ."_T»a Names! , Hjffl. ^ 



(To be continued.) 



89 



SHORT NOTES. 

Vicia bithynica in Hampshire. — I found several plants of this 
species, in flower and fruit, on the sides of a ditch in a cultivated 
field at Bridgemary, near Gosport, on the east side of the Fareham 
Road, on Sept. 17, 1889. I sent some to Mr. Townsend, who con- 
firmed my identification. It had been reported from Hants by the 
late Mr. Borrer, but Mr. Townsend thought the evidence in- 
sufficient. — J. E. Kelsall. 

Eubus ammobius Focke in E. Ross. — In July, 1891, I met 
with a few bushes of a bramble near plicatus, but evidently distinct, 
growing upon shingle by the Carron river, about three miles from 
Bonar Bridge. Suspecting it to be the above, I carefully compared 
fresh specimens with the description in Synopsis Ruborum German! cc, 
and found them to agree in all essential particulars (stamen slightly 
exceeding the styles, petioles distinctly channelled above near their 
base, leaves frequently septenate, &c), only differing by the some- 
what stout prickles which may very likely be due to the effects of 
frequent inundations. The Rev. W. Moyle Rogers has, after some 
hesitation, endorsed my opinion. As Dr. Focke has disallowed 
the Perth specimens so named by Prof. Babington, which I should 
judge, from what I have heard about them, to be very different 
from the above-named form, it seems desirable to place the occur- 
rence of the true plant on record. — Edward S. Marshall. 

Ajuga pyramidalis (p. 50). — With reference to the altitude 
attained by this plant, I may mention that I have gathered it on 
the range between the Rieder Alp and the Eggisch-horn, in Upper 
Valais, at fully 7000 ft., a couple of thousand feet higher than its 
apparent range in Norway. — Edward S. Marshall. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

English Botany : Supplement to the Third Edition. Part III. Com- 
piled and illustrated by N. E. Brown. London : Bell. 5s. 

With this number, which completes a volume, Mr. N. E. 
Brown's connection with the Supplement to English Botany comes 
to an end. He has brought the work down to the end of Dip- 
sacea, and now hands it over to Mr. Arthur Bennett. We noticed 
the first part of the Supplement at some length in last year's 
Journal (p. 250), and see no reason to alter the general conclusions 
then expressed, but a word or two on the present number may be 
looked for by British botanists. 

Mr. Brown has devoted a good deal of attention to the forms of 
Pyrus Aria, and those who know these difficult plants will be able 
to judge how far he has thrown light upon them. He disposes 
summarily of the hybrid Epilobia. He also writes nearly four pages 
about Saxifraga hirta, but here, as in very many other instances, 
we have to complain that he has not examined the material ready 



90 EEPORT OF THE CONIFER CONFERENCE. 

to his hand. The types of Smith's English Botany, for instance, 
do not seem to have been consulted by Mr. Brown; he says, "I 
have not seen Mr. Carroll's specimens," and goes on to speculate 
as to what "his plant may be," or "may possibly represent," 
although a visit to the National Herbarium at South Kensington 
would have settled the matter. Dr. Syme's herbarium, although, 
by Mr. Hanbury's courtesy, always accessible to botanists, has, we 
believe, not once been consulted by Mr. Brown. 

It is not only with regard to plants which have exercised the 
ablest and most critical of our British botanists that Mr. Brown 
dogmatises without hesitation. Questions of nativity are settled 
by him in the same offhand method. Siler trilobum " is natura- 
lised and apparently not worth a description ; while of Selinum 
Lanijolm the writer says — and the sentence is a fair sample 
of bis style :-" The recent discovery (in 1880, of this plaTni 
Britain, leads to the belief that it has been introduced a^a com 
paratively recent date, although where it grows it has all the 
appearance of being a genuine native, and it is just possible tha it 
may have been mistaken for Peucedanum palmtre /still, had this 
been the case, there would probably be specimens of it preserved in 
the older herbaria under the latter name, but of this, so far as 
Known to me, there appears to be no evidence." The readers of 

n fl Hvftv U1 f U ? *?, remembe / that Mr - F. A. Lees dealt with the 
nativity oi the Selinum and came to the conclusion, after a careful 

that Ihe nW thG Ll f COlt lf ire l0Calit ? in Which « Was found, 

that the plant was native there; and that Mr. W. Marshall was 
oi the same opinion with regard to the Cambridgeshire station.* 

an und^k?n^ PWS i 8 - r ? 8 J et i that Mr " Br ° WU is unable to coati ™ e 
tToublf bt L i?A hehiiS eXpended a ^ reafc deal of tim * and 
Bennett n Z Sj° > * ? mamfe ^ ™ su ^ d - Mr. Arthur 

BrSi LZ^ u &r band ' Stauds in the first rank of «K*i<»l 
tha i botamst8 [ he . 13 accustomed to observe plants, not only in 

«d^fe M Imt V he gi ; owing state > both * tbe field a » d 

*xwLtf\l? ■ TJ ? e f° desty aud caution witb wbicb «e 
and his .it P I m ° nS , *? nd additl0nal weight to his conclusions, 
Merest ™* mu . at "* ?' tb 'f work will be looked for with very great 

ri 1\L I trUS } that he wiU not waste tim e and space over 
ent7rPlv q nnt ?\°* nomeilcla t«re, the consideration of which is 
entirely out of place in a Supplement to English Botany. 

Import of the Conifer Conference held at the Chiswick Gardens, October, 

Lond'o n SP$ f th l^^ Horticultural Society, xiv. 
London. 117, Victoria St. 1892. 8vo,pp.558. Price 15s. 6d. 

timW fofprTfifa^wlf ngbnd f t0 the besfc methods of rea ™g 
condition fn heahh Ind ZIT* kn ° Wledge ° f its life " b i^ory and 
the Contineni J ThktS 8 ^' "T 8 «° US alm ° St eatirt ^ from 
foresters or eeono* ^ sctntist^ ^f/ 6 ^ T d | b either on our 

increasing the generSiSS « n WaS , n ° d ° ubt with a view of 
- ° ^neraunterea^aa we li aa of lmparting instruction to 

* See Joiirn. Hot., 1882 l-2<» •>« i . d 

' UJ > 2U • *<*<»* Hot. Record Vlub, 1881-2, p. 216. 



REPORT OF THE CONIFER CONFERENCE. 91 

those who are engaged in the care of woods, that the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society arranged for a Conference on Conifers. The 
volume before us contains the report of papers read at that Con- 
ference. It may be divided into three parts:— (1st) Papers by 
scientific men who have specially devoted themselves to the study 
of forest trees ; (2nd) papers written by practical foresters who by 
experience have gained a large amount of information about arbori- 
culture ; and (3rd) some lists of coniferous trees grown in the 
United Kingdom, to which is added a similar catalogue by Professor 
Carl Hansen of those of Denmark. 

The first of these divisions, containing papers by Dr. Maxwell T. 
Masters, Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. W. T. Blandford, and Dr. 
A. W. Somerville, is in itself a short text-book on conifers. Dr. 
Masters begins his opening address with a brief history of the group 
from our knowledge of the remains in the Devonian rocks; he 
proceeds with a sketch of their method of growth, and concludes 
with some notes on the introduction of these trees into Great 
Britain and Ireland. He touches with pride on the fact that 
Douglas, Hartweg, and Fortune, who have done so much for the 
furtherance of the interest in Conifers in Britain, were Fellows and 
officers of the Horticultural Society. A necessary warning note is 
sounded on the danger of not keeping an adequate supply of timber 
in this country by failing to re-plant old forests when cut down, 
and not protecting those which exist. 

The important subject of diseases of Conifers is dealt with by 
Professor Marshall Ward and Mr. W. H. Blandford, the latter of 
whom treats of those resulting from the attacks of insects. Dr. 
Ward considers each class of Conifers separately, and describes the 
attacks from which they suffer, both from the presence of parasitic 
fungi and also from disturbing actions of the inorganic environment. 
Special notice is taken of the alarmingly prevalent larch-canker, 
and a short account is given of the aseomycetous fungus (Dasyscypha 
WiUkommii) causing it. The writer mentions as a prevention of 
this malady the planting of sound trees, but whether by that he 
means the use of what nurserymen term m healthy seed," or merely 
seeing that the young plants have no canker spots when planted out 
in the woods, does not appear. This point as to the belief which 
is so very general among foresters, that the canker is fostered and 
intensified by the propagation of young plants from seed produced 
by diseased trees, is noticed in a most valuable paper — both from a 
scientific and practical point of view — by Dr. A. W. Somerville, 
who thinks that it is only held by those who ignore the fungoid 
character of the disease, and very justly says that until we have 
proof that the seed contains the mycelium or spores of the fungus, 
we cannot regard it as the means of extending the disease. Dr. 
Somervilles article is full of the most useful methods to be 
employed in order to obtain the best quality of timber, and the 
reasons for all these methods are given in a way which must make 
their advantage clear to all practical readers. 

Among the papers by practical men there is one by Mr. A. D. 
Webster, who is a believer in the planting of "good seed" as a 



92 



LA TEUFFE. 



remedy for larch disease. He thinks that "induced tenderness in 
the constitution of the larch is the primary cause of disease, cold 
winds and frosts the destroying agents, and ulceration the direct 
consequence." It is curious, after the life-history of the fungus 
causing this disease has been so fully described both in Germany 
and later in England, that a paper read before a scientific society 
should entirely ignore these investigations. 

An article rather differing from the last mentioned is that of 
Mr. E. J. Baillie, which charmingly describes the decorative cha- 
racteristics of Conifers in language which is not prosaic enough to 
find a place in the more matter of fact economic parts of the 
volume, though the suitability of Conifers for landscape gardening 
is treated also by Mr. G. Nicholson in a short and instructive paper. 
Among other papers of interest may be mentioned an article on 
Japanese Conifers from the pen of Mr. H. J. Veitch, whose firm 
has done so much good work in the introduction of members of this 
group to England. 

The latter half of the report contains a list of all the Conifers 
and Taxads cultivated in Great Britain, with their synonyms by 
Dr. Masters. We note that Torrey is given as the authority for 
Sequoia (ju/mitea, but from the recent writings of Sereno Watson we 
know that Decaisne was the first to give this name to the mammoth 
tree. The volume closes with a most interesting record of the 
finest trees in Great Britain and Ireland, with statistics of their 
age, size, and height. Much interesting information can be gained 
by studying these tables. We find that Cupreum macrocarpa 
which is a native of a restricted belt of sea-coast in California- 
nourishes vigorously in Orkney, notwithstanding the stormy winds 
and saline breezes of that bleak country. The tallest tree recorded 
is the Douglas Fir at Dropmore, which is 61 years old, with a 
height of 120 feet ; a yew tree with a girth of 13 feet at an age of 



400 years, at Rossdhu, Sir James Colquhoun's 
bartonshire, is mentioned. 

It is a pity that the question of nomenclature was not taken 
in hand. It would have been a great gain if— among the other 
work done at this Conference— the multifarious synonymy of 
Conifers, which has always been an annoyance to workers, could 
Have been put straight. The report, as a whole, reflects great 

credit on the labours of it "' " ~ 

John Weathers. 



W 

J. B. Careuthers. 



#< 



™ 'Q7n a « Ad - ^t™ ( Bailliere et Fils, Paris, 1892, pp. 
xn., 870, 8vo, 15 tab. col. Price 14 fr.). 

ml'*™^ { °A r P™l Since a handv little volume bearing this 
i 1S j, bv the »»e publishers in their BUuSupu 

and of a moJ^ES Vf 1 ^ i8 1&rger ' much more exhaustive, 
ana o a more definitely scientific character, and deserves a 

cordial welcome from students of the truffle. Since the Ste Mr 
Broome, no one in this country seems to haw take-up tie 
Itterm* as a special study, an! it may be of semce Throw 



SAMOS. 



93 



out the suggestion here that the order offers many attractions to a 
botanist in the southern counties having sufficient leisure to under- 
take a small, well-marked group. Truffle hunting is not without 
its excitements, whether pursued in the company of dog, pig, or 
by the unaided human instinct ; and there is always the subject of 
truffle-culture for experiment, with a glittering reward for the prac- 
tically successful. 

This volume is a second edition of one published in 1869, 
and is a great advance on the original. It is professedly 
not written specially for savants, "mais pour tout le monde," 
Nevertheless, it does not fail in exact information and in minute 
information such as savants demand, while at the same time it is 
written, as scientific books so seldom are, in such fashion as to in- 
terest all who choose to read. In this respect, indeed, it is a very 
happy effort on the part of the author. He begins with a history 
of truffles from the piping times of Theophrastus onwards, and 
then describes in detail the species of Tuber, Terfezia, Tirmania, an 
Algerian genus so named by the author, and Gautiena graveolens, 
the Mexican truffle. In the next chapter the trees and other 
vegetation favourable to the production of truffles are discussed, 
then the nature of the soil and atmospheric conditions, climate, 
countries productive of truffles, &c. The development of truffles, 
signs of their existence, culture in its widest conditions, collection 
by aid of pigs, dogs, or singlehanded, are interestingly treated of, and 
the commercial statistics, alimentary and other qualities, chemical 
analyses, adulterations, methods of preservation and of cooking, 
and even the jurisprudence of the subject, are not forgotten. A very 
useful bibliographical index is to be found at the end of the volume. 
The plates are excellently done, and the whole book is well printed 
— wonderfully well considering its moderate price. 

One cannot conclude without expressing a wish to see our own 
scientific popular literature attain a quality of the kind reached in this 
book, which gives in clear intelligible language a thoroughly good 
account of its subject, without any of the extraneous marvels or 
dissolving views of the universe so stupidly considered necessary 
for the British public. 

Samos: titude Geologique, Paleontologique, et Botanique, par le 

professeur Carlo de Stefani, le docteur C. J. Forsyth Major, 
et William Barbey. Avec 13 planches par Ch. Cuisin. 
Lausanne : G. Bridel. 1892. 4to, pp. 99. 
In this beautifully printed volume we have a complete enume- 
ration of the flowering plants and ferns of Samos, to which are 
added three mosses. A prefatory bibliography and an enumeration 
of -documents botaniques" acquaint us with what has previously 
been done in the way of investigating the island. The first botanist 
to land on the island was Tournefort, but this was m January, a 
season by no means favourable to vegetation, although the authors 
think that a careful examination of Tournefort* s herbarium would 
show some result of his visit. Sibthorp mentions some bamos 
plants, and Dumont d'Urville in 1819 collected 62 species there. 



G. M. 



^ ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 

With the exception of a paper by the Rev. H. F. Tozer, published 
in the Academy in 1886, nothing further seems to have been done 
until Dr. Forsyth Major made three visits in 1886-8, the results of 
which form the basis of the present volume. 

Two new species— Corydalis Integra and Erodium Vetteri—&re 

described by Messrs. Barbey and Major, and a new Rubus—R. 
.Eyceits— by M. Louis Favrat. The flora as a whole does not 
materially differ from that of the neighbouring islands. A word 
must be said in praise of the very beautiful plates, on which are 
hgured the above-mentioned novelties, and some of the more 
interesting species. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 



Hot. Centralblatt. (Nob. 5-8). - G, Holle, « Zur Anatomie der 
haxifrageen und den systematische Verwerthung ' (concl.) 

gJ^LZ^Z^^^ 3 - B ' Smith ' 'Ascribed pknta from 

^xuitema,la, (Sloanea pentagona, Xanthoxylum foliolosum , Ouratea 
podogyna, Hauya Rodriguezii. H. Heydeana, Bumelia pleistochasia, 

n TJ^'rr ymX , conterminum > Ehretia Luxiana, Juanulloa Sargii 
(1 plate), Tytiantlnis guatemalensis, Schlegelia cornuta, Mqiphila 



A. A. 



fatcata spp. nn.). _ F. B. Maxwell, 'Roots of Rammculacei: 
G F. Atkinson « Texas Root Rot of Cotton.' — D. H. Campbell 
' A vacation in the Hawaiian Islands.' ^mpoen, 

Rot. Notiser (haft 1).— N. Wille 

SUrhtl im, «?? gSta S ° CkenS F T ero ^ mer och Ormbunkar.'-K. 
btaioack Sphaenaceai imperfecte cognitea.' — G. Lagerheim 

PtuBucystu, nov. gen., grundadt fra Tetraspora Poucheti Hafv ' 

EndviJ *^ (16 c Jan ')- T W - Grtitter > ' Ueber d en Ban und die 
fm Tlfi lun r F de ^\^7 en ^^n einiger Lythrarieen ' (1 plate).-! 
te der A«W1 V H,1 * ebr »? d » Ueber einige Falle von Abweichungen 
Gerloff <VaZf Geschlecht <* bei Pflanzen.' - F. Kienitz- 
Pflanze.' Plofco P lasmastrom ™gen und Stoffwanderung in der 

A FriLw ' Pf' Fmnce (xxxk ' Comptes rendus 5 : Feb. 1) — 
ltrlesplce 'dan^f ™* %*?*' *""<"*• ^emanthoduJn et 

fc^S^^'gjB Ife*- *°}«- * Biskra A1 (S w , 
l'Aures.' ' but ' Herb onsation dans le massif de 

rJSOZ: J5fcil£** ' Searra„ g e ment of American 
Parish, ■ Morpho ogical Note's ^ 7 on ^T^' ~ S- B. 

-J. ti. Lem r m „ n ,?Note s ° S Weste Tc^Z^ * °" Buffal °' 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 95 

Gardeners' Chronicle (Feb. 11). — H. Boscawen, ' Banier Island, 
N. Zealand.' — J. G. Baker, ' Synopsis of Canna ' (contd.). 

Journal de Botanique (Feb. 1). — L. Mangin, ' Rechercbes sur 
les Composes pectiques' (contd.). — J. Vesque, 'La tribu des 
Clusiees ' (contd.). — J. Miiller, ' Licbeues neo-caledonici a cl. 
B. Balansa in Nova Caledonia lecti.' 

Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bot. xxix., No. 203: Jan. 25). — F. N. 
Williams, ' Monograpb of Dianthus.' 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschnft. (Feb.), — J. Liitkemiiller, 'Beobacb- 
tungen iiber die Chlorophyllkorper einiger Desmidiaceen ' (2 plates: 
concl.). — P. Ascberson, ' Sjyarganium neglectum' (concl.). — P. 
Magnus, ' Ueber das monstrose Auftreten von Blatten und Blatt- 
biiscbeln au Cucurbitaceenfriicbten ' (1 plate). — V. Scbiffner, 
'Bemerkungen iiber die Terminologie.' — A. v. Degen, ' Centaureu 

ajfinis Friv. & Linum thracicum Griseb.' — E. v. Halacsy, Centauna 
Formanekii, sp. n. — A. Han^girg, ' Ueber Chatospharidium Prings- 
heimii & Apluinochate globosa.' 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

The "fifth edition, revised and augmented," of the Guide to 
Miss North's paintings at Kew has recently been published. The 
"revision" is mainly confined to an alteration in the title and 
cover, from both of which Mr. Hemsley's (the author's) name is 
now omitted. The only " augmentation," save for a biographical 
notice of Miss North, transferred without acknowledgment from 
this Journal for 1890, is in the price, which has been raised from 
4d. to 6d. 

We regret to see that Sir Joseph Hooker (Bat. Mag. t. 7277) 
employs (and justifies the use of) Stevemonia as the generic name of 
the palm which is properly styled Phoenicophorium. The matter 
was dealt with in this Journal for 1865, p. 353, where it was 

clearly shown that Stevemonia, a nomen nudum applied to this and 
a palm of another genus by James Duncan in bis Catalogue of the 
Mauritius in 1863, could not stand. The fact that Stevmsonia "had 
been retained in all the 'Kew Guides'," and that Prof. Bayley 

Balfour said in 1877 (Flora of Mauritius, 388) that Phoenicophorium 

"should surely be suppressed," on purely sentimental grounds, 
cannot be allowed to supersede the law of priority, and even the 
authority of the Genera Plantarum is not sufficient to justify such a 
course. We are glad to see that M. Duraud, m his Index, retains 
the proper name, Phoenicophonum. The palm, as is well known, 
owes this name to its having been stolen from Kew Gardens by an 
employe whom Mr. John Smith, then Curator, declares to have 
been a German. It is a little amusing to find that in this Journal 



man 



transferred to " an Irishman. 



Mr. Jackson's great Index continues to progress steadily, and 
with as much rapidity as the nature of the work will allow. It is 



9<i 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 



now printed off as far as the beginning of E ; tip to the end of D 

it occupies 807 quarto pages of three columns each. 

The Report of the Felsted School Natural History Society for 1891 

and 1892 contains a long list of "British plants"— the term is 
understood in its widest sense— which are grown in the Society's 
"weed garden," with some notes upon their permanence or other- 
wise. Such a garden as this is a very useful adjunct to the 
knowledge of our Flora, and should be associated with every school 
Natural History Society. 

Mr. Scott Elliot has published the second part of his Flora of 
Dumfriesshire, the first instalment of which we noticed in this 
Journal for 1891 (p. 883). The present issue brings the work down 
to the end of Rhamnaeea. The help of some additional contributors, 
indicated by curious abbreviations, is acknowledged. We are not 
clear whether the plant or the finder is referred to as a " railway 
passenger" (p. 8— for the paging begins de novo in this parti)- 
but we are sure that the occurrence of Viola cornuta at Dumfries 
station is unworthy of record. V. lactea seems a very unlikely 
plant for the district. J 

The number of the Kew Bulletin dated January, but issued in 
the middle of February, contains a continuation of « New Orchids ' 
and of the ' Decades Kewenses.' Among the latter we notice two 
species of Stachys, which were distributed by Messrs. MacOwan 
(who writes his name thus, not " McOwan," as in the Bulletin) 
and Bolus in the 1890 distribution of their « Herbarium Austro- 
Africanum.' Such distribution constitutes a publication according 
to Art. 42 of the DeCandollean Laws, and the species in question 
date from 1890, not from 1893, as would appear from the Bulletin. 
We learn from the same source that Mr. Thomas Hanbury has 
presented to Kew some thirty volumes, mostly treating of economic 
or medical botany, from the library of his brother, Daniel Hanbury. 
Among these is the rare first edition of the Liber Serapionis (1473) 
a copy of which was secured some time since for the National 
Herbarium by Mr Carruthers, who purchased it from a bookstall 
at the cost of a f ew shillings. The Bulletin, by the way, states 
hat this edition is omitted by Pritzel, but this is no TSe case 
though he gives 1475 instead of 1473 as the date of publication 

The Botanische Zeitung, which has completed its fiftieth year 
has adopted a new departure in its form of issue. Hereafter it will 

to ££»« Sectl ? nS T: 0ne devoted t0 ori g inal memoirs, the other 
to hi W„ Per8 ??f • n ° tlCeS ' &C - A 8 P ecial number wil1 °e devoted 

^^tii ;i:xzr tmt journal ' and an ind - to ^ ** 

mrt T of Tm^ °\* n f e A Instructio » at Sydney has issued 

T TT 11 / f h { l °ff r «P"J of Australian Economic Botany, by Mr 

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PA<*K 

No1 on - I Fresh- water Algae. 
By William V. (I 

Not ? on the Sp >£ 

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NOTES ON SCOTCH FRESH-WATER ALOE. 

By William West, F.L.S. 

(Plate 333). 

During a short botanical tour about some of the mountains of 
Scotland, in July, 1889, I made a large number of gatherings of 
Algre; I had also collected some in August, 1880; Mr. J. Mc Andrew, 
of New Galloway, collected certain plants at my request, the washings 
from which were rich ; and Mr. E. Nay lor, of Bradford, made a 
gathering in the Orkneys. An examination of these collections has 
resulted in a fair list of species, many of them not having been 

recorded before as British. ; ^ 

During the preparation of this list, I ascertained that Mr. J. 
Roy, of Aberdeen, was preparing a list of the Desmids of Scotland; 
I therefore handed over to him a list of those I had noted, about 
200 in number, several of which were new species ; most , oi the 
remainder I learnt had been observed from Scotland before by 

^ Washings and squeezings of Myriophyllum, Hypnum trifanm, 
H. scorpioides, Sphagnum contortion, Xardia emarginata, and similar 

aquatic plants were prolific in the smaller species Some of the 
gatherings were made at elevations of above 3000 ft., and the 
ma ority°were made among the hills at altitudes between 1000 and 
8000 ft Those species that are hitherto unrecorded for Britain 
are prefixed by an asterisk. Those species that . ™ .observed from 
all or nearly all the localities visited are marked frequent. 

Mv son G S. West, has been of the greatest assistance to me 
during the' proration 'of this paper, and the plate ,s entirely his 

W °As the following names of localities are of frequent occurrence, 
they are contracted as follows : — 

B. = Ben Lawers. M. - Meal Odhar. 

C. = Craig-an-Lochan. N. = New Galloway. 
G. = Carn-na-Glasha. S. - (Hen Shee. 
Gm. = Glas Maol. T. = Glen Tilt. 



I. — Alg.e. 



Conft 



(Edogoniace*: 



(Edogonium 



* 

Var cum 



cellulis angustioribus et oosporis minoribus. Crass, cell, veget. 
6-6-5 u; altit. 8-11 plo major; crass, oogon. 30 p; altit. 28-30 p ; 
crass oospor. 18-20 p\ altit. 18-20 p. Orkney Is. 

(E. platygynam Wittr. S. _ . 

(E sp. Aberdeen. Crass, cell, veget. 10-12-5 p. ; altit. 6-7 plo 
major; crass, oogon. 24 p; altit. 40 p\ crass, oospor. 20 p; 

altit. 80 p. 

Joubnal of Botany.— Vol. 81. [April, 1898.] h 



98 NOTES ON SCOTCH FRESH- WATER ALGM. 

p 

Class Confervoidea Isogavia. 

Ord. Confervace^. 

Conferva pachy derma Wille. N., Orkney Is. 
C. bombycina Ag., f. qenuina Wille. B., Ben Nevis, Ben McDhui, 
Aberdeen.— f. minor Wille. B., C, Gni., Ben Nevis, Orkney Is. 
C. floccosa (Vaucli.) Ag. Orkney Is. 

C. Raciborskii Gutw. (La Nnova Notarisia, 5 Aprilo, 1892, p. 17). 
S., N. Perhaps this species may be but a large form of C. Lofgrenii 
Nordst. (Alg. Exsic. No. 421, p. 17), but the specimens examined 
are nearer the plant described by Gutwinski. Lat. 24-25 /x ; crass. 

membr. 4-5 /x. Fig. 9. 

Cladophora glornerata (L.) Kiitz. S., Glen Lochaidh. 

Draparnaldia glomwata (Vauch.) Ag. B. 

D. plumosa (Vauch.) Ag. Glen Lochaidh. 

Ord. Ulotrichace^:. 

Hormiseia zonata (Web. et Mohr.) Aresch. T. 
H. moniliformis (Kiitz.) Rabh. G. 
Ulothrix tenerrima Kiitz. M. 

Class Conjugate. 

Ord. MESOCARPEiE. 

Mougeotia nmmmdoides (Hass.). B. Crass, cell, veget. 13-5- 

15 /x ; diam. spor. 28-37 /x. 

*,U. gelatinosa Wittr. in Wittr. et Nord. Alg. Exsic. No. 957, p. 26. 

Crass, cell, veget. 15-16-5 /x; long spor. 42-47 /x ; lat. spor. 33-36 /x. 

Glen Lochaidh. 

M. recurva (Hass.), var Scotica, nov.var. Fig. 1. Var. paullo 
major, canalibus copulationis multe inflatis. Crass, cell, veget. 
17-5-21 /x; diam. spor. 25-28 /x. Glen Tummel. The conjugating 
canal is distinctlv visible all round the snore, as in M. Minnesotensis 



M, 



Ord. ZYGNEMACEiB. 



Spirogyra vaiians (Hass.) Kiitz. G. Crass, cell, veget. 30 /x ; 
long zygosp. 50-56 /x ; lat. zygosp. 34-36 /x. 

Zygnema sp. (ster.). Killin. Crass, cell, veget. 20-24 /x ; long 
1^-4-plo major. Several attempts at lateral conjugation were seen, 

but no mature zygospores. 

Z. sp. (ster.). C. Crass, cell, veget. 25-26 /x; long l|-plo major. 

Z. sp. (ster.). C, B. Crass, cell, veget. 33-37 /x; long 1-1|- 
plo major. 

Class Ccenobiem. 

Ord. PANDORINEiE. 

Pandorina morum Miill. C. 

Ord. Pediastre-e. 

Pediastrum angulosum (Ehrnb.) Menegh. N. 
P. Boryanum (Turp.) Menegh. B., S., Aberdeen. — Var. granu- 
latnm (Kiitz.) A. Braun. C, S. 

P. bidentuhim A. Braun, Aberdeen. 



NOTES ON SCOTCH FRESH- WATER ALG.E. 99 

P. duplex Meyen. (P. pertusum Kiitz.). C, S. 



P. tetras (Ehrnb.) Ealfs. S. 



hft 



Diam. eoenob. 37-40 //, ; diam. cell. 13-15 /x. Glen Tummel (1880). 
Fig. 2. 

P. integrum Nag. B. Fig. 4. 
*P. Stimuli Reinsch [Die Algmjlora mitt. TheiL von Franker*, 
p. 90, taf. 7, f. 1). Forma aculeis brevioribus. Diam. ccenob. 
(c. acul.) 52 /A ; diam. cell. 10 /z. Fig. 3. Ben Laoigh. 

Ord. SORASTRE-E. 

Sorastrum spinulosum Nag. M. 

Staurogenia rectangularis (Nag.) A. Br. S. Long. cell. 5-7'5/x; 
lat. cell. 3-5-6 /*. 

Ccelastrum spharicum Nag. Aberdeen. 

C. cambricum Arch. Aberdeen. Diam. ccenob. 42-50 /z; diam. 
cell. 19 ix. Fig. 14. 

C. microporum Nag. S. 
C. cubicum Nag. Aberdeen. 

II. — Protophyta. 

Class Protococcoidea u 

Ord. Eremobie^e. 

Ophiocytium cochleare (Eichw.) A. Br. N., Aberdeen. 

Hormospora mutabilis Breb. C. 

DictyosphcBrium Ehrenbergianum Nag. C. — Var. minutum, nov. 

var. Figs. 16 & 17. Var. cellulis minutis globosis. Diam. cell. 

8-3-4 /i. C. 

Nephrocytium Agardhiannm Nag. S., M. 

N. Nagelii Grun. M., Glen Lochaidh. 

Oocystis solitaria Wittr. B., G., M., Orkney Is., Aberdeen. 
Long. 15-20 /x ; 27-5-32-5 /* ; lat. 9-5-11 p ; 13-5-17-5 /x. Fig. 12. 

O. Xdgelu A. Br. S., Ben Chiurn. Long. 28-30 /x; lat. 17 /*. 
This is somewhat smaller than the published dimensions of this 
species, and may be O. geminata Nag., which only appears to differ 
from the former in always being in pairs, and in its smaller size. 
In the specimens observed the cells were in pairs ; we do not know 
of any published dimensions of O. geminata Nag. 

O. apiculata, nov. sp. Figs. 7 et 8. O. in familias e 2-4 
cellulis formatas consociatis, oblongis, diametro duplo longius, 
subapiculatis et incrassatis ad tmumquemque polum. Long. cell. 
11-15 n ; lat. cell. 5-6 p ; diam. fam. 2-cell. 22-24 /x. Orkney Is. 

The nearest species to this is 0. Norm Semlia Wille (Ferskv. 
Alg.fra Nov. Sem. p. 26, t. 12, f. 3 et 4) ; it differs in being rather 
more than twice as long as broad, and in its more oblong shape, 
with thickened pointed ends. 

Ord. Protococcace^;. 

Pleurococcus vulgaris Menegh. Ben Lawers, &c, common. 
Trochiscia paucispinosa, nov. sp. Fig. 5. T. parva, cellulis 
solitariis vel in familiis parvis associatis, subglobosis vel leve sub- 

h 2 



100 NOTES ON SCOTCH FRESH- WATER ALGJ3. 

angularibus ; membrana cellularum crassa, aciculis brevibus paucis 
(peripherics 7-14) ornata. Diam. sine acul. 15-17 **; diam. cum 
acul. 18-20 fi ; crass, membr. 1-5-2 /x. B. 

T. insignis (Keinscb) Hansg., t minor. Orkney Is. Diam. cum 

proc. 28 /x. 

Chlorococcum gigas Grun. Frequent. 

C . friistulosum (Carm. ?) Eabh. B. 

C. humicola (Nag.) Rabh. G. 

Glceocystis ampJa (Kiitz.) Rabh. B., 0., S. Orkney Is. 
G. vesiculosa Nag. B., C., Aberdeen, Glen Tummel. 
G. rupestris (Lyngb.) Rabh. B., Orkney Is. 

Schizochlamys gelatinosa A. Br. B. 

Palmella mucosa Kiitz. C. 

P. hyalina Breb. S. 

Eremosphara viridis DeBary. B., C., N., Glen Lochaidh. 

Botryococcus Braunii Kiitz. C. 

Urococcus insignis (Hass.) Kiitz. N., Aberdeen, Orkney Is. 
Palmodactylon sp. S. The plant observed might have been 
referred to P. subramosum Nag., but the cells varied from subglobose 
to elliptical. Long. cell. 5-6 /x; lat. cell. 4-5 //. 

Rhaphidium polymorphum Fres., var. aciculare (A. Br.) Rabh. S. 
VdjY.falcatum (Corda) Rabh. B., S., C. 
*Geminella interrupta (Turp.) Lagerh. (Bidrag till Sveriges Ahj. 

Flor. t. 1, figs. 1-35). Long. cell. 11-15-75 /x; lat. cell. 6-8-75 /x. 

Fig. 10. Glen Tummel. 

Scenedesmus bijugatus (Turp.) Kiitz. C. 

S. alternant Reinsch. C. 

S. denticulatus Lagerh., var, linearis Hansg. (var. lineatus West). 

S., Ben Chiurn. 

*S. aculeolatus Reinsch., forma brevior. Fig. 13. Forma cum 
cellulis brevioribus quam forma typica. Long. cell. (c. spin.) 10 /x ; 
long. cell. (s. spin.) 8 /x; lat. cell. 5 /x. C. 

S. quadricauda (Turp.) Breb. B„ C., Edinburgh Botanical 

Gardens. 

S. acutus Meyen. Frequent. — Var. obliquus (Turp.) Rabh. B.,C. 

Tetraedon minimum (A. Br.) Hansg. Aberdeen. 

T. enorme (Ralfs) Hansg. B. 

Class Phycochroinacece. 
Sub-class Nostochinece. 

Ord. NoSTOCACEiE. 

Nostoc Linckia (Roth) Bornet. A form with trichomes and 
heterocysts rather stouter than in the type. Diam. cell. 3-5-4-5/x; 
diam. heterocyst. 6-5-7*5 /x. B. 

N. spharicum Vauch. B., C. 

A 7 , microscopicum Carm. (,V. hyalinum Benn.). B. 

Anabcena sp. B. The material was insufficient for determi- 
nation. The filaments were straight, with cells oblong, and one 
and a half times longer than broad ; spores cylindrical, straight (or 
very slightly curved), with rounded ends. Crass, cell. 5 /x ; long, 
spor. 40-46 /x; lat, spor, 12-14 /x. 



ALG 



iol 



A. sp. Ben Laoigh. Crass, cell. 5-5-7 /x ; crass, heterocyst. 

10 p. 

Ord. Rivulapjace.e. 

*Dichothrix Nordstedtii Born, et Flali. (Revision des Nostocacees 
Heterocystees, Ann. des Scien. Xatur. 7e ser. tom. 3, p. 374). Crass, 
fil 12-15-5 /x; crass, trichom. 6-5-8 /x. Fig. 11. B., T., Ben 
McDhui. On dripping alpine rocks. This species seems to be well 
marked by the total absence of heterocysts. 

Gheotnchia Pisum (Ag.) Tlmret. Orkney Is. Crass, fil. 9-10 /x; 

crass, trick. 6 /x. 

Ord. SCYTONEMACE.®. 

Tolypothrix distorta Kiitz. Ben Chiurn. Crass, fil. 11-5-13 /x; 
crass, trich. 5-7-5 /x; crass, heterocyst. 6-5 //. 

*Scytonema tolypotrichoides Kiitz. B. Crass, fil. 15-lb*5 /a; 

crass, trich. 10-11 p; crass, heterocyst. 10 p. Fig. 15. The cells 
were mostly subquadrate, but some of the younger specimens had 
the cells up to four times as long as broad, the heterocysts being 
very variable, and the younger sheaths constantly hyaline. 

S. figuratum Ag. Ben McDhui. Crass, fil. 20-23 «; crass, 
trich. 5-7-5 p; heterocyst. 15-18 x 10 /x. This occurred mixed 

with Stigonema turfaceum Cooke. 

Ord. SlROSIPHONIACE-E. 

Stigonema pamiiforme (Ag.) Born, et Flah. Glen Tummel. 
8. turfaceum Cooke. Ben McDhui, Orkney Is. • 

Ord. Oscillariace^:. 

Oscillaria Frblichii Kiitz. B., Ben Laoigh. 
O. nigra Vauch. B., C, Ben Chiurn. 
Q. tennis Ag., var. viridis Kiitz. B. 
O. Uptotrkha Kiitz. C. 
O. tenerrima Kiitz. S., C. 
Lyngbya inundata (Kiitz.). C. 

Sub-class Chroococcacem. 
Ord. Chroococcacem. 

Chroococcus minor (Kiitz.) Nag. B. 

C. paUidm (Nag.)- Ben Chiurn. 

C. tumidus (Kiitz.) Nag. yery frequent 

C. colLrens Nag- 0., Come Ceandor, Aberdeen. 

Glceocapsa polydeimatica Kutz. B. 

G. rupestris Kiitz. C. 

Sinurhococcus anujinosm Nag. B. , 

Merimopedia glauca (Ehrnb.) Nag. S. C Glen Tummel. 
][. irreauiare Lager h. S. Diam. cell. 2-2-5 jx. 



Aphanoeapsa rivularis (Carin.) Rabh. B„ Gin. 

4 GrmfW (Berk.) Rabh. Forma cum celluhs dispersionbus 
quam in forma typica. Lat. famil. 38-42 p ; lat. cell. 3 p.. Ben 



Chiurn. 



Microcystis protogenita (Bias.) Rabh. C, Glen Tummel. 



'OSCOpl 



Aberdeen. 



102 Notes on scotch fresh Water alg^e* 



A. mxicola Nag. B., C, Glen Tumrnel, Ben Laoigh. 
Ccelosphcerium Kutzingianum Nag. B., C. 
Gomjihosphccria aponina Kiitz. B. 

Class Diatomacece. 

Cyclotdla opercutata (Ag.) Kiitz. Glen Tummel, Orkney Is. 
Melosira varians Ag. B., G., Edinburgh Botanical Gardens, 



Aberdeen. 

M. gramdata (Elirnb.) Pritch. C. 

Suttrella linearis W. Sm. B. f G. 

S. biseriata (Ehrnb.) Breb. B., G., Gm. 

S. splendida (Elirnb.) Kiitz. Ben Cbiurn. 

Cymatopleura elliptica (Breb.) W. Sm. Aberdeen. 

C. Solea (Breb.) W. Sm. S. 

Epithemia turgida (Elirnb.) Kiitz. B., S., M., Corrie Ceandor, 
Ben Laoigh. 

E. Westermanni (Elirnb.) Kiitz. S., C, Ben Chiurn. 

E. Hyndmanni W. Sm. S. 

E. gibba (Ehrnb.) Kiitz. Frequent. 

E. ventricosa Kiitz. S. 
E. Zebra (Ehrnb.) Kiitz. B., S. 

E. gibberula (Elirnb.) Kiitz., var. rupestris (W. Sm.) Rabh. N., 
Gm., Ben Chiurn. 

K. An/us (Ehrnb.) Kiitz. B., T., C. 
E. alpestris .W. Sm. B., C, S., G., T. 
Eunotia incisa Greg. B., N. 
E. Diodon Ehrnb. D. 
E. Triodon Elirnb. B. 

E. Tetraodon Ehrnb. B., Gm., M., Ben Laoigh. 
E. Pentodon Elirnb. C. 
E. Diadema Ehrnb. C. 

E. Arcns Ehrnb. B., C, Gm., G. 

E. majus W. Sm. Frequent.— Var. bidens W. Sm. N. 

E. gracilis Ehrnb. C, M., N., Corrie Ceandor, Glen Lochaidh, 
Orkney Is. 

E. monodon Ehrnb. G. 

E. pectinalis Dillw. B., T., Corrie Ceandor. — Var. undulatum 
Ealfs. B., S., N., Corrie Ceandor. 
E, Soleirolei Kiitz. Corrie Ceandor. 

Ceratoneis Arcus (Ehrnb.) Kiitz. Corrie Ceandor, Glen Lochaidh, 
Ben Chiurn. 

C. AmpMoxys Babh. S., T., M., Corrie Ceandor. 

Cymbella cuspidata Kiitz. C. 

C. turyida Greg, S., C, M. 

Cocconema lanceolatum Elirnb. Common. 

C. cymbiforme (Kiitz.) Ehrnb. Common. 

C. Cistula Hempr. S., B„ M., T., Corrie Ceandor. 

C. parvwn W. Sm. S., C, G., Corrie Ceandor. 

Ennjonema caspitosum Kiitz. Glen Tummel. 

Amphora oralis Kiitz. T. 

Cocconeis Placentula Ehrnb. C, S., Corrie Ceandor. 



NOTES ON SCOTCH FRESH-WATER XLGM. 103 

C. Thwaitesii W. Sm. Very frequent. An auxospore was seen 
from Craig-an-Lochan (fig. 6). Long, auxosp. 34 p.; lat. auxosp. 

Achnanthidium microcephalum Kiitz. C. 

A. lanceolatum Breb. S., Glen Tummel, Ben Chiurn. 

A. lineare W. Sm. C. 

Achnanthes exilis Kiitz. Common. 

Denticula sinuata W. Sm. B., S., T. 

Odontidium hyemale (Lyngb.) Kiitz. B., Glen Lochaidh, Corrie 

Ceandor. # 

O. mesodon Kiitz. B., C, T., G. 

0. mutabile W. Sm. B., C G., M., Aberdeen, Edinburgh 

Botanical Gardens. 

tragilaria capucina Desmaz. B., M., G., Corrie Ceandor. 

b\ virescens Ralfs. N. 

F. comtruens (Ehrnb.) Grun. B., Ben Chiurn. — Var. binodis 

Rabh. C. 

Diatoma vulgar* Bory. S., G., Corrie Ceandor. 

D. elo?igatum Ag. B., S., Corrie Ceandor, Edinburgh Botanical 

Synedra lunaris Ehrnb. Frequent.— Var. undidata Rabh. N. 

8. biceps Kiitz. N., Aberdeen. 

S. pulchella Kiitz. M., S. 

S. vrinutissima (Kiitz. ?) W. Sm. B., 0., M., Glen Tummel. 

S. Ulna Ehrnb. B., S., M., T., Glen Lochaidh, Come Ceandor. 

S. splendent Kiitz. Very frequent. 

S. capitata Ebrnb. Edinburgh Botanical Gardens. 

S. Acus Kiitz. B., C. 

Asterionella formosa Hass. C. 

J mphipleura pellucid a Kiitz. B. 

Xitzschia Amphioxys (Ehrnb.) W. Sm. B., Ben Chiurn. 

N. sigmoidea (Nitzsch) W. Sm. B., Glen Tummel, Edinburgh 

Botanical Gardens. 

.V. linearis (Ag.) W. Sm. B. 

N. tenuis W. Sm. S., N., Glen Lochaidh, Orkney Is. 

Navicula rhomboides Ehrnb. Frequent. 

A. serwns (Breb.) Kiitz. C, N. . .. . 

xV. «Uipt»M Kiitz. Frequent. — Var. coccomoides Rabh. Corrie 

Ceandor. 

A. p#r/w/<?rt Kiitz. [.V. ininutula W. Sm.J . 1. 

A. ZtmoMt (Kiitz.) Grun., var. bicuneata Grun. C. 

.V. hebes Ralfs [A T . obtma W. Sm.] . T. 

A. Amphiskena Bory. Corrie Ceandor, Glen Tummel. 

A. anglica Ralfs. C. 

A. Snnen Ehrnb. T. 

N. rhynchocephala Kiitz. Orkney Is. 

A. ajjinis Ehrnb. B., Corrie Ceandor. 

N. Amphirhyncus Ehrnb. B., Ben Laoigh. 



W. Sm. S. 



X. exilis (Kiitz.) Grun. B., C. 
A. aiujustata W. Sm. C. 









lOl NOTES ON SCOTCH FRESH-WATER ALGJE. 

X. cnjptocephala Kiitz. S., Orkney Is. 

A T . dicephala Ehrnb. C, Orkney Is. 

Pinnularia nobilis Ehrnb. B., N., Aberdeen, Glen Lochaidh. 

P. major Kabh. Frequent. 

P, Rabenhorstii Kalfs. B. 

P. Tabellaria Ehrnb., var. acrosplmria Babh. C, Aberdeen. 

P. gihba Ehrnb. C, N., M., Ben Laiogh, Aberdeen. 

P. viridis (Ehrnb.) Rabh. Common. 

P. alpina W. Sm. C, M., Gm., Corrie Ceandor. 

P. radiosa (Kiitz.) Rabh. C, Orkney Is., Aberdeen. 

P. borealis Ehrnb. Ben Chiurn. Long 56 /x; lat. 12 /x ; striis 

10 in 25 ix. 

P. acuta W. Sm. S. 
P. mesolepta W. Sm. B. 

P. divergent W. Sm. C, G., Gm., Corrie Ceandor, BenLaoigh, 
Edinburgh Botanical Gardens. 

P. Brebissonii (Kiitz.) Rabh. Orkney Is. 

Friistulia saxonica Rabh., forma aquatica Rabh. Frequent. 

Stauroneis Phamicenteron (Nitzsch) Ehrnb. Frequent. 

S. anceps Ehrnb. C. 

Gomphonema tenellum Kiitz, T., S. 

G. dichotomum Kiitz. C, G., M., Gm., Glen Lochaidh. 
G. Vibrio Ehrnb. S., C. 

G. capitatum Ehrnb. S., C. 

G. constHctum Ehrnb. S., M. 

G. gemination Ag. S., M., Glen Lochaidh. 

G. acuminatum Ehrnb. Frequent. 

G. olivaceum (Lyngb.) Kiitz/ B. 

G. intricatwn Kiitz. G., Gm., T., Glen Lochaidh. 



Meridian circulars (Grev.) 
M. constHctum Ralfs. T. 



G., M., T. 



/ 



Jiocculosa (Roth) Kiitz. . Common. 

Frequent. 



Tetracyclus emaryinatus (Ehrnb.) W. Sm. M. 



Explanation of Plate 333. — Fig. 1. Mourjeotia recurva (Hass.), var Scotica, 
nov. var. x 400. 2. Pedia strum tricornutum Borge. x 400. 3. P. Sturmii 
Reinsch forma, x 400. 4. P.integrum'R&g. x 520. 5. Trocltincia paucispino<a, 
nov. sp. x 520. 6. Cocconeis Thwaitesii \V. Sm., auxospore. x 520. 7 & 8. 
Oocystis apiculata, nov. sp. x 520. 9. Conferva Eaciborskii Gutw. x 6*20. 
10. Geminella interrupt a (Turp.) Lagerh. x 400. 11. DichotJirix Nordstedtii 
Born, et Flah. x 520. 12. Oocystis solitaria Wittr. x 400. 18. Scenedesmus 
aculeolatus Reinsch, forma brevior. x 520. 14. Ccelastnim cambricum Arch, 
x 400. 15. ScyUmema tolypotrlchoides Kiitz. x 400. 16. Dictyosphcerium 
Ehrenbergianum Nag., var. minutum, nov. var. x 520. 17. Ditto, x 520. 



105 



NOTES ON THE BRITISH SPECIES OF CAMPYLOPUS. 

By H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S. 

C vvriformis Brid., var. MiMeri (G. Mullen Jur.).-I find this 
form'at Kingsthorpe, Northamptonshire, with the calyptra qiute 
Zire at the base, or, in a very few cases, very slightly J obed indeed 
Leaves very deciduous; in the type they are rarely so, I think, to 
any Seat extent in the fertile plants, though the condition is a 
very prevalent one when barren. 

J ^ L ,• m- -d j, a TV, fruit Pmsnn Glen. Don 



gal. 1890.— A 



form, or state of this moss gathered at Ecclesbourne, near 
Sings, has numerous ramuli crowded in tufts among the comal 
leaves, S each bearing a number of small undeveloped, hyahne 
lpaves • giving to the plant a very peculiar facies. 

C. 'sZn^ri MildeV-There appears to be considerable diversity 
of opinion among authors concerning the [f^^V^ol 



nXs C. TS^iTSSSi 5T5 ^tter ^^^^ 
for which there certainly appears considerable us ifacat o n lhe 
characters usually relied upon to distinguish tl e twoue£ ) the 

stem tomentose above in C. Schmpen, ^ lth } c fZ "t^tlsZe 
on the upper branch-leaves, while in C. «***" the ems are 
devoid of tomentum; (2) the broader nerve in £7 . *?»"'£" es W 
the ereater height of C. Sckmperi, attaining to three inches as 
Igaint about half an inch in C. sululatu, (4) the Stance m 
nerve -section ; that of C. subulatiis showing two anterior strata , oi 
We hyalne cells, C. Sckonperi having only a single row o f the* 
cell* • (5) the presence or absence of basal auricular cells , (6) the 

^•5!^£S£* ***** from the - tom f e fi tose rr 

lil» Wimens of C. Schimperi, moreover, gathered m 1890 
•n tZ* nor?rofTie and (for- the correct naming of which I have the 
in the north 9J u !} an ^ u and otue rs), have the stems entirely 
authority ^/^^^t th e ve ry base where they are very few. 

spe iS, ^nd n the **- £— Ml tST^dTjI 
£ Sven SSA£ Si; same plant, of 0. *** or 

of C *«%% tbink much weigUt can be attributed to this char- 
acter. Specimens of C. ScKmperi from Kabenhorst's exsiccata 
i «,« ontprinr row of hyaline cells to be here and there 
a e ?*"aXl specimens of C *%*» from Fern 
SSu Brechin, I find this stratum to be distinctly composed o a 
Se row w th two rows of small opaque cells at the back and the 
same HJ case with plants of the same species gathered in 
Belgium by Grave t. 



106 NOTES ON THE BRITISH SPECIES OF CAMPYLOPUS 



(5). There is a remarkable diversity of opinion among authors 
as to the presence or absence of auricular cells in these species. 
With regard to C. subulatus, Schimper says, " auriculis excavatis 
nullis " ; Braithwaite writes, u Leaves not auricled"; Hobkirk 
{Synops. of Brit. Mosses), " Leaves not auricled at base " ; Boswell, 
in describing the var. elongatus, speaks of the " cluster of dia- 
phanous vesicular cells (of C. Schimperi) near the base of the leaves 
on either side, absent in brevifolius." Husnot (Muse. Gall.) has 
M pas d'oreillettes distinetes." On the other hand, Boulay (Musci* 
nees de la France) writes, " cellules basilaires un peu gonflees, le 
plus souvent incolorees, donnant lieu a des oreillettes semblables a 
celles du C. brevipilus les moins caracterisees." This latter condition 
is exactly what I find in specimens gathered by the Rev. J. 
Fergusson at Fern, while in Gravet's specimens and in plants of 
this species gathered in 1889 in the New Forest, I find the auricles 
even more distinctly developed, quite as much so as is sometimes 
the case even with C. jiexuosus, and more defined than in any 
specimens of C. Schimperi that I have seen. Indeed, in original 
specimens of C. brevifolius var. elowjatus, kindly sent me by Mr. 
Boswell himself, I find in the upper leaves especially most distinct 
tufts of vesicular basal cells, sometimes wider than the leaf-base, 
so as almost to deserve the name of auricles. The truth seems to 
be that in both plants there is the same variableness, in this 
respect, as is found in C. brevipilus, where the auricular cells are 
sometimes barely distinguishable, at others very highly developed. 

(6). The straight seta certainly seems a point of more import- 
ance, but I am not aware that the fruit of C. Schimperi that has 
been found shows the young seta to be cygneous ; if not, no con- 
clusions can be drawn from it as to the relative standing of the 
plants in question. I am inclined to think, therefore, that Husnot 
is justified in reducing C. Schimperi to a variety. 

The following are, I believe, new records for the two plants : 
C. subutatus, near Lyndhurst, New Forest, 1889. G. Schimperi, 
Dalwhinnie, Inverness, 1883; Giant's Causeway, Co. Antrim, 
1890. (Recorded doubtfully in Joum. Bot., Dec. 1891, and since 
confirmed.) 

C. flexuosus Brid. — Few writers call attention to the variable 
nature of this species, which is the most common and the most in- 
constant of the genus. Besides the vars. paradoxus and paludosus, 
there is to be found almost every conceivable variety of habit, 
colour, and form of leaf. I have in my herbarium plants of every 
shade of green, from pale yellowish to almost black ; some in habit 
exactly similar to the most silky, delicate forms of C. fragilis, not 
half an inch high ; others in fine tufts, as much as four inches in 
height, more robust and more tomentose than, but in other respects 
much like the var. palmdmm ; one with the leaves regularly falcate, 
and the aspect of a Dicranum; another almost identical in habit, 
colour and leaf-form, with the var. falcatus of C. atrovirens. The 
leaves vary from a short, rigid form, almost exactly as in C. subu- 
latus, to another with long tiexuose points, rarely becoming setose 
and hyaline, as in C. set if alius ; they are sometimes entire, or very 



ray's herbarium. 107 

nearly so, often serrated sharply for the whole length of the 
subula; sometimes flattened for a great part of the length of the 
leaf, at others becoming incurved and tubular from the base ; the 
nerve varying from one-fifth to two-thirds the width of the leaf at 
base often from a quarter to more than a half in the same plant ; 
the auricles frequently most distinct, beautifully coloured, large and 
wider than the rest of the leaf, but occasionally hardly at all de- 
veloped ; while similar variations occur in the areolation ot the 

rest of the leaf-base. 

A form from Doocharry Bridge, Donegal, deserves notice. 

With the habit and the shining leaf-bases of C. fydi*, it has the 
nerve from half to two-thirds the width of the leaf at base, and the 
point running out into a fine, slightly-toothed arista, winch is 
sometimes hyaline; when dry, flexuose. The lid of the frui t, in 
the only specimen where it is retained, is short and conical, baldly 
rostellate, and not more than one-third the length of the capsule. 

The var. paludmns seems to be of fairly general occurrence ; I 
have found it, for instance on Cynicht, N. Wales i; near ■Lynd- 
hurst in the New Forest ; and on Gurnard's Head, W. Couroall. 

Var. paradox. - Helvellyn, 1891. Tyn-y-groes, Dolgelly, 

1890. Walberswick, Suffolk, 1885. 

G. atrovirms var. epilosits Braithw.-Penmaenniawr, 1892. 

C. atrovirms var. /alcatus Braithw.-Doocharry Bridge, Donegal 
Growing in the same tuft with a fairly typical form and with other 
stems showing various intermediate stages of the fa cate condition. 

C. levipills B. & S.-Also a very variable species One form 

iPi-ed in the New Forest, from its general habit and the 



gathered in the New 



introflexiis . Another 



Sty plant, o°f a dark bronze-green, with the hair-points almost 
obsolete, the auricles distinct (perhaps var. aunndatm Ferg.), and 
tiie leaves tubular from the base upwards, grew in almost the same 

SP ° This species appears to be rare in Wales, but I found it in 1888, 
near Llyn Idwal, Carnarvonshire. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

I. — Ray's Herbarium. 



i 



En Resa tilXorra Amerika) contains a passage winch throws an 
interesting light upon the present condition of the Rayan Her- 
barium imw preserved in the Botanical Department of the British 



Museum. 



This Herbarium, as stated in this Journal for 1863, p. 32, was 
transferred from the Apothecaries' Company's Garden at Chelsea 
to the British Museum in 1862. It may be worth while, as many 
present readers of the Journal do not possess the earlier volumes, 



108 RAY' 



RAY S HERBARIUM. 



which have long been out of print, to transcribe the account which 
was then given : — 

"The herbarium of John Ray is still in existence. It was bequeathed 
by him to his friend Samuel Dale, apothecary, at Braintree, wbo was 
about forty-five years old at the time of Eay's death (1705), and survived 
him till the year 1739, when he left his books and plants as a legacy to 
the Apotbecanes' Company. Suitable presses were erected for their con- 
servation at Chelsea Gardens, under the direction of Sir Hans Sloane. 
Isaac Rand, the assistant, and in tbe end the successor to Petiver, as 
botanical demonstrator to the Company, was officially connected with the 
Gardens for more than twenty years before Dale's herbarium was deposited 
there. He was then making an extensive hortus siccus, which at his 
death was placed along with those of Ray and Dale. These three herbaria, 
containing collections of British and foreign plants, with the Rayan names 
attached, have remained ever since in suitable presses until lately, when, 
through the exertions of the Keeper of the Botanical Department of the 
British Museum, seconded by N. B. Ward, Esq., one of the Court of the 
Apothecaries' Company, they have been secured for our National Her- 
barium. The herbarium of Ray— certainly the most interesting memorial 
existing of that great and good man— is contained in 19 thin quarto or 
small folio fascicles, each characterized by a letter of the alphabet. The 
plants, most of them still in excellent condition, are sewn on the paper, 
and labelled in the peculiarly neat and plain handwriting of Ray. They 
are put together apparently without order, probably as they were collected. 
Accompanying them is a manuscript index, also in Ray's handwriting ; 
it is entitled ' Horti Sicci Raiani Catalogus,' and contains an index to the 
fascicles as far as letter S, arranged alphabetically, in this manner, 
' Cyclamen autumnale hederce folio, K. 4, M. 5, 0. 8, S. 6.' The importance 
of this collection in determining precisely what are Ray's species cannot 
be over-estimated ; and with those of Dale and Rand, both of whom 
helped Dillenius in his edition of Ray's ' Synopsis,' added to the collections 
of Sloane, Petiver, Sherard, Buddie, Richardson, and others, already in 
the British Museum, will supply ample materials to the committee of the 
SPw £ 8S0 " atl0n ' consisting of Dr. Gray, Prof. Babington, and the Rev. 
W. W. Newbould, to prepare a valuable report on • The Plants of Ray's 
Synopsis titirptwn' as determined by an examination of the original 
herbaria of Ray and others." 

In the Journal for 1870, pp. 82-4, Dr. Trimen gives a further 
account of Ray's Herbarium, in the course of which he corrects one 
or two details, and supplies additional information. He says :— 

41 It consists of 20 books of different sizes, each containing about 
30 sheets of thin rough, paper, on which the specimens are sewn. The 
parcels are distinguished by letters of the alphabet, and a MS. alphabetical 
catalogue (apparently written by Dale, and not, as was stated in the 
[previous] notice, by Ray) gives references to all the specimens but those 
m the last three fasciculi, which, perhaps, do not form really a part of 
Rays herbarium. The collection has been badly used; many of the 
specimens have been cut out. Probably, some of the labels, too, are in 
Dale s writing, which it is difficult always to distinguish from Ray's. 
There is no apparent order in the collection, the plants having probably 
been laid in as they were collected. 

"The bulk of the species are European. Switzerland, Italy and Sicily 
are best represented : there are a few from Belgium, Holland and 
Germany. The extra Luropean species are probably from Continental 
gardens. Localities are not generally given, but many specimens from 
the Jura and Sicily are very definitely localized. There can be little 



ray's herbarium. 109 

doubt that these were collected during Ray's foreign tour in the years 
1663—1665, of which he has left us an interesting account in his 
' Journey/ published in 1673, in which book lists of the plants found are 
given, which agree well with those in the ' Hortus Siccus.' These lists 
were afterwards extended and improved in the Stirpium Extra Brit. 
Nasc. Sylloge (1694). With these are a few British plants of which some 
have localities affixed.' ' 

These localities Dr. Trimen proceeds to quote, but I do not think 

it necessary to repeat them here. 

With a view to the better preservation of this interesting relic, 
the leaves have been mounted upon sheets of stiff paper of a 
uniform size, and placed in solander cases, and are now easily 
accessible to students. The book lettered " T " is composed of 
Jamaica plants given to Eay by Sloane, and has names in the 

handwriting of the latter. 

When laying out the sheets, the damage which the collection 
had suffered by the removal, sometimes of specimens of which the 
names remained, at others by portions of the sheets having been 
cut out, was very noticeable : and we owe to Kalm the explanation 
of the occurrence. In the translation of his Visit to England, which 
I have mentioned at the head of this paper (pp. 106-111), is an 
account of his visit to "the Chelsea Physick Garden, which," he 
says, "has, as regards herbs, one of the largest collections of all 
rare foreign plants, so that it is said in that respect to rival the 

Botanic Gardens of both Park and Leyden : at least it is believed to 

overgo them in North American plants. It is laid out at Chelsea, 
a short English mile from London, because a great many plants 
cannot thrive in London for the coal-smoke." He proceeds :— 

" In a room up in the Orangery there is preserved as a great rarity, 
the collection of plants which the great Historians Naturalis, Joh. Raj us 
or Ray himself collected and arranged, and with his own hand wrote the 
names under. Mr. Ray presented this collection a week before his death, 
which took place the 17th January 1706, to his good friend and neighbour, 
Mr. Samuel Dale, author of the well known Pharmacologic. Mr. Dale 
afterwards in his old age gave them as well as his own collection of 
plants to the Physic Garden at Chelsea, to be preserved for ever. The 
plants in Mr. Ray's Herbarium were sewn with cotton on to the paper m 
lar^e paper books. The whole collection consisted of about eight or 
twelve such paper books in folio. In some places the plants had been 
cut out for Dr. Sherard had borrowed this collection from Mr. Dale, and 
when he had found any plant, which was either rare, or he thought much 
of, it was said that he had either clipped or cut it out, so that the books 
had been sufficiently mutilated." 

Mr. Druce informs me that these plants cannot be traced in the 
Sherard's Collection at Oxford. 

It is much to be regretted that the Report on "the Plants of 
Ray's Synopsis" never saw the light ; there are few British botanists 
who could bring to such a task the knowledge and other qualifica- 
tions which Mr. Newbould possessed in so eminent a degree. 

James Britten, 



110 



A PROVISIONAL LIST OF THE MARINE ALG.E OF 

THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

By Ethel S. Barton. 

(Continued from p. 84.) 

Zonaria lobata Ag. Knysna, Boodle ! Algoa Bay, Ecklon, 

Areschoug, Hoi ub ! *Port Natal, Krauss ! 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic (Brazil, West Indies, Canaries). 

Species inquirenda. 

Z. marginata Suhr. (/ Dictyota). Algoa Bay, Ecklon. Cape, 
fide Agardh. Agardli considers this a doubtful species of Zonaria. 
I have not been fortunate enough to see any specimen of the plant. 

Padina pavonia Gaill. Port Natal, Hb. Shuttleworth ! 

Geogr. Distr. General in temperate and warm oceans. 



Hauseris 



Ecklon . 



fid 



H. serrata Aresch. Port Natal, Hb. Areschoug ! 

H. dichotoma Suhr. Omsamculo, Drege. Port Natal, Hb. Ares- 
choug ! Gueinzius ! Cape, Drege. 

H. macrocarpa Aresch. Port Natal, Hb. Areschoug ! Gueinzius ! 

H. polypodioides Ag. Algoa Bay and Port Natal, Ecklon. 
hraitss. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic, West Indies, North Sea, Mediterranean, 
Tasmania. 

H. delicatula Lam. Port Natal, fide Areschoug. 
Geogr. Distr. Brazil and West Indies. 

EcTOCARPACEiE. 

Ectocarpus parvulus Kiitz. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! No. 364. 
Geogr. Distr. Adriatic. 

E. confervoides Le Jol. Kalk Bay, Boodle ! 
Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. Mediterranean. 

E. simpliciusculus Ag. Kalk Bay, Boodle ! 
Geogr. Distr. Adriatic. St. Vincent, C. V. Britain. 
E. siliculosus Lyngb. Cape, Harvey ! Tyson ! South Africa, Drege I 
Geogr. Distr. Atlantic (from Faroe to Cape Horn), Australia, 
Mediterranean. 

E. granulosus Ag. Cape, Harvey. 

Geogr. Distr. North and South Atlantic. New Zealand. 

Sphacelariaceje. 
Sphacelaria tribuloides Menegh. Port Natal, Kraun, 



* This specimen is too fragmentary \ 
sporangia, I doubt the correctness of the 



MARINE ALGiE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. HI 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Mediterranean, 



West 



fid 



S. furcigera Kiitz. On Sahria vittata and Ecklonia buecinalis, 

Grunow. 

Geogr. Distr. Indian and other oceans. 

Stypocaulon paniculatum Kiitz. Port Natal, Krauss. (Reinke 
doubts the authenticity of Cape specimens.) 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. New Zealand. 

S. scoparium Kiitz. Table Bay, Drege, Boodle ! Cape Point, 
Boodle ! Robben Island, Wenek ! Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. No. 154. 
Port Natal, Krauss ! Cape, Harvey ! Scott Elliot ! Reinke queries 
the Cape as a locality, but I think the specimens I have examined 
leave no doubt as to the occurrence there of this species. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic from Iceland to Spain. Mediterranean. 



Canaries. 



S. funiculare Kiitz. 



(fid 



Geogr. Distr. South Pacific and South Atlantic. 

Phxoiocaulon squamulosum Geyler = Ch*:topteris Suhrii J. Ag. 
Port Natal, Krauss. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack.l No. 503. Algoa 
Bay, Ecklon. Port Natal, Ecklon. 

Chordabiace^:. 

Leathesia difformis Aresch. Cape Point, Boodlel Cape, Har- 
vey ! Cape, Scott Elliot ! Sea Point, Harvey ! Boodle ! 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. Baltic. 

Myriocladia capensis J. Ag. Cape, Harvey. 

Mesogloia virescens Carm. Cape Point, Boodle ! Cape,/W,/! 

Geogr. Distr. Shores of Northern Europe. 

Chordaria capensis Kiitz. Cape, Tyson 1 Sea Point Tyson ! 
Cape, Reeve I Harvey I Knysna, Hohenack r. I No. 61 'Drege ! Krauss ! 

Cape Point, Sea Point, Kalk Bay, Boodle ! Cape, Pappe. 

C. flagelliformis Ag. Camps Bay ,Jcklon Table Bay, Kravu. 
Knysna, Krams, Hb. Trin. Coll Dublin \ Cape, Harvey ! Hb 
Dickie I Brand I I believe, if the Krauss specimens were examined, 
they would prove to be Chordaria capensis Kutz. 

Geogr. Distr. North Atlantic. North and South Pacific. 

C. sordida Bory. Table Bay, Harvey. South Africa, Krauss ! 

No 197 

' Geogr. Distr. Warm Atlantic and Pacific. Indian Ocean. 

PUNCTARIACE^: . 

Desmarestia ligulata var. herbacea. Camps Bay. Amsterdam, 
Ecklon. Cape, Hb. Dickie ! 
Geogr. Distr. North Pacific. 
Var. firma. Cape, Laland, Harvey, Pappe. 

D. aculeata Lam. Cape, Harvey \ 

Geogr. Distr. North Pacific, North Atlantic, and warm Atlantic 

Black Sea. 



112 MARINE ALG.E OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



Sporochnace^e. 

Asperococcus sinuosus Both. Cape Poiut, Boodle ! Knysna, 
Boodle ! Port Natal, Kraxiss. 

Qeogr. Distr. Throughout warm oceans. 

A. bullosus Lam. Cape^A? J. Agardh. 

Geogr. Distr. Adriatic, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic, 
South Pacific. 

- 

A. compressus Griff. Cape, Harvey. 
Geogr. Distr. Britain, Mediterranean. 

A. clathratus Bory. Mostevts Bay, /(te Grunow. 
Geogr. Distr. Warm Atlantic. Bed Sea. Australia. 

Laminariace^: . 

Laminaria pallida Grev. Table Bay, Pappe ! Table Bav. Dreae » 
Cape, Scott Elliot I ' 

L. Schinzii Foslie. Walfisch Bay, Schinz. 

Ecklonia exasperata J. Ag. Table Bay, fide Areschong. Cape 
Agulhas, Hohmack. ! No. 164 ; Steel ! Algoa Bay, fib. Dickie \ 
Omsamculo, Drege. 

Geogr. Distr. North Atlantic (Canaries), New Holland, and 
New Zealand. 

E. buccinalis Hornem. Table Bay, fide Areschong. Camps 
Bay, Gordon's Bay, Ecklon. False Bay, fide Areschtmg. Cape, 

Harvey ! Hb. Dickie ! D' Urcille, Gaudichand, Koenig. 

Geogr. Distr. South Atlantic and South Pacific. 



PlNNARIA 



Port Natal, Hb 



This genus is placed by Prof. Agardh next to Ecklonia. He has 
not seen the plant himself, but judges it to be closely allied to E. 
buccinalis Hornem., if not identical with it. 

Lessonia nigrescens Bory. Cape Agulhas, Hohmack. ! No. 162. 
Geogr. Distr. South Pacific. 

Macrocystis pvrifera Ag. Sea Point, Tyson ! Boodle ! Cape, 

Brand. G&pe,fide Areschoug, Drege ! HoJienackA Scott Elliot ! 
' Geogr. Distr. Indian Ocean. 

M. planicaulis Ag. Cape, Harvey, Pappe, Pfeiffer. 

Geogr. Distr. Indian Ocean. Canaries ? 

M. pelagica Aresch. Cape, Hb. Agardh. Hb. Areschoug. 

Ralfsiace-e. 
Ralfsia verrucosa Aresch. Sea Point, Kalk Bay, Knysna 




Boodle I 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic 

Kamtschatka. 



Baltic and 



FlORIDE/E. 
P0RPHYRACE;E. 



Porphyra vulgaris Ag. Robben Island, Boodle I Table Bay 
Vrege Krauss : Tyson\ Sea Point, Boodle ! Tysonl Kalk Bay, Boodle ! 
Geogr. Distr. General. 



MARINE ALGiE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 113 

P. laciniata Ag. Seal Island, Challenger ! Table Bay, fide 
Areschoug. Knysna, Krauss. Port Natal, fide Areschoug. Cape, 
Qaudichaud, B. Brown ! 

Geogr. Distr. Temperate Atlantic. 

P. capensis Kiitz. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! No. 492. Knysna, 
Boodle ! Cape, Harvey ! 

Geogr. Distr. Indian Ocean. Cape Horn. 

P. Augustine Kiitz. Kobben Island, Boodle ! Cape, D'Urville 

& Lesson. 

Bangia Harveyi Aresch. Cape, Harvey. 

B. fusco-purpurea Lyngb. Cape, Harvey ! Tyson I 
Geogr. Distr. Northern seas. 

m 

Ceramie^e. 
Griffithsia coiullina Ag. Table Bay, Krauss. Sea Point, 

Tyson ! 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic (Europe). Mediterranean. W. Indies. 
G. secunda Harv. Muysenberg, Harvey ! 
G. cespitosa Harv. False Bay, fide Suhr. Cape, Harvey ! 
Ptilota Pappeana J. Ag. Table Bay, Pappe I Tyson I Kalk 
Bay, Pappe ! Cape, Harvey ! 
. Haloplegma Africanum Kiitz/ South Africa,/^ Kutzing. 
Ceramium gracillimum Harv. Cape Point, Kalk Bay, Knysna, 

Boodle ! 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. Mediterranean. W.Indies. Australia? 

C. strictum Grev. Kobben Island, Boodle ! 

Geogr. Distr. North and South Atlantic. Mediterranean. 

Black Sea. W. Indies. 

C. cancellatum Ag. Table Bay, Pappe ! Cape Point, Boodle ! 
Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! No. 543. Cape, Gaudichaud, Harvey I 

G. diaphanum Roth. Table Bay, Zederberg ! Pappe ! Boodle ! 

Cape, Fcklon, Harvey ! 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. W.Indies. Australia? 

C. rubrum Ag. Cape Point, Boodle ! Natal, Krauss. Cape, 

Brand ! Scott Elliot ! 

Geogr. Distr. General. 

C. capense Kiitz. Cape,^^ Kutzing. 

C. obsoletum Ag. Bobben Island, Tysonl Boodlel Seal Island, 
Challenger f Table Bay, Ecklon. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! No. 
540. Knysna, Krauss. Cape, R. Trimen ! The specimen in the 
British Museum from Seal Island, collected by the 'Challenger' 
Expedition, and named C. capense Kiitz., is so fragmentary that it 
is difficult to identify it. I believe it, however, to be C. obsoletum Ag. 

C. circinnatum J. Ag. Cape Point, Boodle ! 

(irogr. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe. Mediterranean. 

C. pulchellum Grunow. Table Bay, fide Kutzing. Cape, 
Harvey I On C. cancellatum. 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 31. [April, 1893.1 i 



114 MARINE ALG^ OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 

C. Poeppigianum Grun. Port Natal, Jelinck. "On Amphiroa 

ephedracea." 

Centroceras clavulatum Ag. Seal Island, Challenger ! Robben 
Island, Boodle ! Table Bay, Pappe ! Sea Point, Tyson ! Cape 
Point, Boodle ! Kalk Bay, Boodle ! E. Young ! Scott Elliot ! 

Muysenberg, Harvey I Knysna, Boodlel Krauss. Cape, Hb. Heppl 
Hohenack. ! No. 538. 

Geogr. Distr. In all warm seas. 

Carpoblepharis minima, n. sp. Frons ramosa, \ poll, alt, 
pinnis suboppositis egredientibus, majoribus compositis minori- 
busque simplicibus mixtis, utrinque attenuatis ; favellte interiore 
latere pinnularum sessiles, ramellis involucratas ; sphaerospora in 
primulis laneeolatis immersaB. 

Hab. ad Prom. b. Spei. In speciminibus Laminaria a W. 
Tyson com. 

C. flaccida Kiitz. Robben Island, Boodle ! Tyson ! Table Bay, 
Harvey ! Cape Point, Boodle ! Green Point, Hb. Hance ! Kalk 
Bay, E. Young ! Camps Bay, Reynolds ! Knysna > Krauss. Cape, 
Ecklon, Drege ! Brand ! Areschoug, Phyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 20. 
Hb. Wenek ! Hb. Dickie ! Hohenack. ! No. 544. 

Halothamnion Harveyanum J. Ag. Cape, Harvey. 

H. filicinum Harv. Cape, Harvey. 

H. ?ramulosum J. Ag. Cape,ywfe J. Agardh. 

Aristothamnion purpuriferum J. Ag. = Callithamnion pur- 
puriferum J. Ag. Cape Point, Boodle ! Kalk Bay, Boodle ! Table 
Bay, Pappe ! Cape, Harvey ! 

Pleonosporium Borreri Nag. Muysenberg, Harvey ! 
Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. Mediterranean. 

Callithamnion humile Kiitz. C&j>e f Jide J. Agardh. On Iridaa. 
C. constrictum Her. Port Natal, Krauss. 
C. verticillatum Suhr. Cape, Ecklon. 

C. gracile H. f. & Harv. ? Simon's Bay, Challenger I 
Geogr. Distr. Campbell Islands. 

C. stuposum Suhr. Cape, Ecklon. 

C. variegatum Suhr. Algoa B*j t Jide Suhr. 

C. densum Suhr. Ca,$e, Jide J. Agardh. 

C. Sertularioides Suhr. Table Ba,y,Jide Suhr. 

C. striatulum Suhr. C&$e,Jide Suhr. 

(To be continued.) 









115 



NOTES ON BRISTOL PLANTS. 

By James W. White, F.L.S., and David Pry. 

This paper continues the enumeration of plants not included 
in the Flora of the Bristol Coalfield, or in the supplemental notes 
hitherto published ; and presents the more interesting observations 
made by us in the district during the year 1892. Species and 
varieties not yet recorded (so far as we are aware) for vice-counties 
6 or 34 are distinguished by an asterisk. 

A rather important correction has to be made. The peat-moor 
bramble, which there seemed to be excellent reason for publishing 
as R. Cariensis Rip. & Genev (Journ. But. 1892, p. 11), is not that 
species ; and the record must be cancelled. Several other names 
have been suggested for this remarkable plant, but none of them, 
however, can be positively assigned to it. More investigation is 
needed to settle its identity. 

Trigonella purpiirascens Lam. In West Gloucester. This is 
cited in Top. Bot., ed. 2, for the above vice-county on the authority 
of the late Dr. G. H. K. Thwaites. In his time it undoubtedly 
grew at Shirehampton, on the Gloucestershire bank of the Avon, 
below Clifton, but has not been found there for many years past, 
though repeatedly and carefully searched for ; therefore its dis- 
covery in fair quantity, last summer, on Brandon Hill, which is 
situated in that part of Bristol included in West Gloucester, may 
be worth placing on record. Several of the plants with which T. 
purpurascens is associated on Brandon Hill, e. g., Trifolium sub- 
terraneum and T.filiforme, are uncommon in the Bristol district. 

Lat/u/rus tuberosm L. Alien. On the Avon bank near Sea 
Mills, West Gloucester. During the last two years several persons 
have drawn attention to the presence of this plant in a spot where 
its introduction is difficult to explain, especially as it is not one of 
the common waifs of ballast or cultivation. 

Rubus carpinifolius W. & N. Hedges at Downhead Common, 
N. Somerset, in some abundance. Considered typical by the Kev. 

W. Moyle Sogers. 

*i2. Sprengelii Weihe. On this interesting plant, which grows 
abundantly on Yate Common, West Gloucester, Dr. Focke, to whom 
specimens were sent, made the following note: — M A variety that 
may be called lon<jistamineus. It is distinguished from the typical 
Sprmgelii by having filaments exceeding the styles, and by the want 
of glandular bristles. It is the R. Spremjelii as it has been described 
by Genevier." 

*JR. Borreri Bell- Salter. This well-marked bramble occurs at 
Mangotsfield, W. Gloucester, somewhat sparingly over a space of 
about 150 yards ; and very abundantly at Brislington, near Keyn- 
sham, N. Somerset. At the latter locality it has been known for 
many years, and has from time to time received a great variety of 
names ; but the true position of this plant was not ascertained 
until last summer, when owing to the untiring zeal and great 
acumen of the Rev. W. Moyle Rogers its identity with the original 

i 2 



U6 NOTES ON BRISTOL PLANTS* 

jR. Borreri Bell- Salt, was clearly established. Mr. Rogers was well 
acquainted with this Rubus in Dorset before specimens from W. 
Gloucester and N. Somerset were submitted to him. 

*R. anglosaxonicus Gelert. On the borders of King's Wood, 
towards Congresbury, N. Somerset. Dr. Focke says of this that it 
is a little different from the usual forms, but not in any essential 

point. 

The bramble, abundant on Clifton Down, that stands as Radula 
in the Flora, p. 60, having been so named by the late Mr. Briggs 
some years before anglosaxonicus was found to be British, has since 
been considered by the best authorities to be more nearly related 
to the latter. It is the var. raduloides of R. anglosaxonicus 
described by Mr. Rogers in his ' Essay.' Precisely the same thing 
occurs also by the Avon under Sneyd Park, at Henbury, and at 
Hanham in West Gloucester ; and at Brislington, Clevedon, 
Stanton Drew, Woollard and Leigh Wood in N. Somerset. 

*iJ. rosaceus W. & N. var. d. infecitndus Rogers. A handsome 
bramble, to which Mr. Rogers has given the above varietal name, 
occurs in W. Gloucester, at Hanham, and by the Avon below 
Clifton ; in both localities abundantly. In N. Somerset it has been 
found at Brislington. Observation extending over several years 
proves that this variety fails to mature its fruit, excepting rarely in 

very small quantity. 

*U. fuscus W. & N. A strong luxuriant form of this aggregate 

grows near the Avon below Sneyd Park, W. Gloucester. 

*R. Kaltenbachii Metsch. Well distributed on the skirts of 



Wood 



and found to 



agree exactly with the plants already known in the northern 
division of the district. 

*Sedum Telephium L. b. Fabaria Koch. Very sparingly in woods 
above the Avon at Hanham, in W. Gloucester; and abundantly at 
Brislington, N. Somerset. Much smaller in all its parts than a. 
purpurascens, from which it seems quite distinct as a variety, and 

does not alter in cultivation. 

Anchusa officinalis L. Alien. Near Fox's Wood, Brislington, 
N. Somerset. Observed by Mr. Withers, who has known it several 
years, and who showed us two or three plants. These are probably 
derived from sweepings of railway waggons deposited at the place. 
Aspemgo procumbens L. Alien ; with the last. Also observed 
by Mr. Withers several seasons, and no doubt derived from the 
same source. Mr. Withers, too, found this plant last summer in 
an arable field at Twerton, near Bath, rather plentifully. 

* Symphytum officinale L. var. patens Sibth. This variety, which 
occurs in N. Somerset, at Brass Knocker Wood, near Bath, differs from 
the typical form by its larger and more globular corolla, of a lighter* 
blue colour mixed with white ; somewhat shorter and blunter calyx- 
teeth; broader (more ovate-lanceolate) leaves, abruptly rounded 
at the base, and only slightly decurrent; and lastly, by its tougher, 
less succulent, and more stiffly hairy stem, which has only raised 
lines instead of very prominent wings as in S. officinale. From the 
above it will be seen that patens is a much more distinctly marked 



Distribution of lejkune^; in Ireland. 



117 



variety than might be inferred from the descriptions to be found in 
the text-books. That of Dr. Boswell in E. B., ed. 3, is the most 
complete, though incorrect in some particulars and wanting in 
others. The corresponding figure of the plant, however, is very 
good ; the shape of the leaves, wingless form of stem, as well as 
the remarkable colour of the in florescence— red in bud, changing 
to light blue and white in the fully-expanded corolla— being all well 
rGnd-GrGci. 

Chenopodium lujbndum L. in N. Somerset. Found last Septem- 
ber in Bath, growing on rubbish heaps and waste ground, at three 
localities somewhat widely apart. Quoted for N. Somerset in Top. 
Dot., ed. 2, only as a probable error. 

Salix triandra L. That both N. and S. Somerset are quoted in 
Top. Bot., ed. 2, as exceptions for this willow is the reason for the 
following records of its occurrence in N. Somerset, where it has 
been found at Berrow ; near South Brent ; Clevedon ; Compton 
Dando; Saltford and Walton-in-Gordano. The trees at Clevedon 
and Walton-in-G-ordano are typical and female. Those at Saltford, 
which are also female, show a slight approach to fnujilis in the 
shape of the leaves, but none whatever in that of the capsules. 
At Compton Dando, Berrow, and near South Brent all the examples 
are male, and agree well with specimens from other counties 
which have been referred by competent authorities to var. b. 

Hoffmanniana. 

*Scirpus Tabernamontani Gmel. An addition to the blora. 
Abundant for sixty yards or so in one of the marsh ditches between 
Draycott and Wedmore. This is not on record for N. Somerset. 

* Car ex paludosa Good. var. subulata Doell. (1843) = C. spadicea 
Both. Found by us for the first time at the end of May last, in 
wet ditches below Cheddar, N. Somerset. The examples were con- 
sidered by Mr. Bennett to be unusually characteristic and typical. 



DISTRIBUTION OF LEJEUNE^l IN IRELAND. 

By the Rev. C. H. Waddell. 

In this Journal for 1887 Dr. Spruce gave a most interesting 
account of the distribution of Lejeunea in the British Isles. In 
trvin* to account for the present distribution of Mosses especially 
in Ireland, I think more attention ought to be directed to the 
altered state of the country, once covered with woods, whose shady, 
humid recesses probably furnished a home for many of the rarer 
species. The woods (which were the fastnesses of the ancient 
inhabitants) have disappeared, the drained country has become 
drier, and these damp-loving species are now rarities, only to be 
found in the recesses of a few shady ravines to which they have 
retired. Is it not probable that these were common plants in the 
Ireland of St. Patrick's days? Even in the time of Mr. John 
Templeton, who diligently studied the Moss-flora of Autrim and 



own 



118 ADDITIONAL KECORDS FOR THE SCILLY ISLES. 

Down during the years 1801 to 1825, some species were more 
plentiful than they are now, and some have disappeared. 

Let me give an illustration of this process. In 1885 Jubula 
Hutchinsia (Hook.) and Colo-Lejeunea calcarea Lib. were growing by 
Shenina river, in Tollymore Park, Co. Down ; in 1891, and again 
in 1892, no trace of them could be found in that place. A great 
many trees had meanwhile been felled, and the place opened to the 
sunlight. Fortunately I found J. Htitchmsm about a mile farther 
up the park, on the Spinkwee river, so that it is not extinct in that 
neighbourhood. 

I would record the following localities for a few species (some 
of them noted in Stewart & Cony's Flora of N. E. Ireland) as ad- 
ditional to those given by Dr. Spruce : 

Homalo-Lejeanea Mackaii (Hook.). 
Gobbins (Antrim) ; Omeath (Louth). 

Rarpa-Lejeunea ovata Tayl. Slieve Donard (Down) ; Glenariff 
(Antrim). 

DrepanO'Lejeiinea homatifolia (Hook.). Slieve Donard; Tolly- 
more Park; Collin Glen; Glenariff; Omeath. 

Eu-Lejeunea fiava (Sw.). Tollymore Park; Glenariff. — Eu- 
Lejeunea patens Lindb. Tollymore Park ; Glenariff. 

Micro -Lejeunea ulicina Tayl. Gillhall (Down). 

Colo-Lejeunea calcarea Lib. Tollymore Park; Glenariff; 
Omeath. 

Coluro-Lejeunea calyptrifoUa (Hook.) It appears from a MS. of 

Mr. Templeton's that this rare species was found at Luttrellstown 
(Dublin). 

Acrobolbus Wihoni Tayl. c. fr. Collin Glen (Antrim). 

Jubula Hutchinsia (Hook.). Tollymore Park; Eostrevor (Down); 
Lodore (Cumberland). 

Badula aquilegia Tayl. Slieve Donard. 

Adelanthm decipiens (Hook.) Mitt. Plish Wood (Sligo). 



ADDITIONAL RECORDS FOR THE SCILLY ISLES. 

By A. Somebville, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

Since the publication in the Journal of Botany for 1864 
(pp. 102-120) of the valuable contribution by Mr. F. Townsend, 
M.A., towards a Flora of the Scilly Isles, the only further commu- 
nication in these pages on the botany of the Group seems to have 
been that by Mr. M. A.Lawson in the Journal for 1870 (pp. 357-358), 
wherein are enumerated some twenty-five additions to the known 
flora of the islands, observed by that gentleman during a visit in 

I8by. 

Twenty-one years later, at the end of July, 1890, I made a 
short stay on St. Mary's, visiting while there all the other in- 
habited islands, viz., St. Martin's, Tresco, Bryher, and St. Agnes, and, 
in the course of botanical search, met with altogether 300 vascular 



ADDITIONAL RECORDS FOR THE SCILLY ISLES. 



119 



plants. This is fewer by about fifty than were enumerated by 
Mr. Townsend, but is a large number to have been observable 
during a few days not exclusively devoted to work of the kind, and 
when, too, it is remembered, that, as Mr. Townsend points out, the 
whole group of the Scilly Isles is included in an area of about ten 
miles by five, and that the highest land does not rise to over 200 
feet above sea-level. 

Of the plants obtained by me examples were, at the time, 
transmitted in the fresh state to Mr. Arthur Bennett, F.L.S., for 
the favour of his confirming their identification, and among them 
there were found by him to be, in all, some forty-four species and 
vars. unmentioned by Messrs. Townsend or Lawson, or otherwise 
recorded as occurring on the islands. It may be the case that 
some, or even the majority, of these may have been included in the 
Flora of Cornwall, prepared by the late Mr. Ralfs, but this remains 
as yet in MS., and it is not known whether the Penzance Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society intend to undertake its pub- 
lication. 

The following is a list of the new records referred to, and for 
which I have not thought it necessary to indicate localities, viz. : 

Ranunculus Lenormandi F. Sch. \G. Parthenium Pers. 
R. sardous Crantz. b. parvulus Anagallis cceridea Schreb. 



(L.). 

Fuma ria pallid iflora Jord. b. Borcei 

Jord. 
Raphanus Raphanistrum L. 
Polygala serpyllacea Weihe. 
Geranium Robertianum L. 
Medicago denticulata Willd. 
\Trifolium incarnatum L. 
T. scab rum L. 
+T. hybrid um L. 
Vicia sepium L. 
Primus insititia L. 
Rubus discolor (auct. angl.). 
Potentilla procumbens Sibth. 
Callitriche hamidata Kuetz. 
C. obtusanyula Le Gall. 
Peplis Portula L. 

Epilobium palu.stre Li. 
Pimpinella Saxifraya L. 
Filago spathulata Presl. 
Pulicaria dysenterica Gasrtn. 
( 'hrysanthemum Leucanthemuvi h. 



Myosotis ccespitosa Schultz. 
Veronica montana L. 
Pedicularis palustris L. 
Orobanche amethystea Thuill. 
\Calamintha officinalis Moench. 
Planta(fo major L., b. intermedia 

(Gilib.). 
Polygonum Roberti Loisel. 
Rumex conglomeratus Murr. 
Jnnciis effusus L. 
Potamogeton pusillus L, 
Ruppia rostellata Koch. 
Zostera marina L. 
Scirpus Tabernamontani Gmel. 
Carex muricata L. 
Alopecurus pratensis L. 
Agrostis alba L., c. maritima Mey. 
A. alba L., var. major. 
Deschampsia caspitom Beauv. 
Festuca tiniglumis Soland. 
Agropyron repens Beauv., b. bar- 

batum Duval-Jouve. 



Of the above only one, viz., Festicca uniglumh Soland., had not 
been previously recorded for Cornwall West. 

Mr. Townsend, when he wrote, alluded to the fact of the wealth 

chiefly derived from the export of early 



being 



of the islands 

potatoes. Of recent years a fresh and valuable industry ha 

sprung up, in the cultivation and export, in early spring and later, 



120 ix MEMORY OF BENJAMIN CARRINGTON. 

of flowers, maiuly lilies of all kinds, to markets throughout 
England and Scotland. This now absorbs the attention of large as 
well as small holders, and on St. Mary's there are many flower 
farms to be seen. The industry is especially important in view of 
the declining returns from the lobster and other fisheries on which 
the inhabitants at one time so greatly depended. I have it on good 
authority that from the beginning of February till the end of 
April, despatches of flowers in crates and boxes, to the extent of 
about forty tons measurement weekly, leave the islands by steamer 
for Penzance, where the nearest railway connection is to be had. 

This increased gardening, with cultivation generally, will 
doubtless account for the introduction, since Mr. Townsend wrote, 
of some at least of the above plants, and will probably lead to 
further additions, while the extensive marsh-lands of St. Mary's 
and the large total of shore tract around the Islands, seem likely 
to retain hold of the numerous aquatic and maritime plants 
peculiar to, and at present occurring on, them. It would seem 
therefore that the flora of Scilly may increase rather than diminish, 
even though such rare species as Omithopw ebracteatus Brot. are 
becoming scarcer, due, in part, it is to be feared, to the incon- 
siderate rapacity of collectors and so-called botanists. 

I desire in closing to express my obligations to Mr. A. Bennett, 
for critically examining at the time the species obtained during my 
visit, and for kind trouble taken by him in connection with them 
since. 



IN MEMORY OF BENJAMIN CARRINGTON. 

Benjamin Carrington was born at Lincoln on January 18th, 
1827. He studied at Liverpool and the University of Edinburgh ; 
was apprenticed at Liverpool to Br. M'Nicoll ; graduated M.R.C.S. 
Eng., 1850, and M.D. Edin., 1851 ; practised first at Radcliffe, 
near Manchester; then in succession at Lincoln, Yeadon, South- 
port, and Eccles. Twenty years ago he settled at the latter place, 
where he became Medical Officer of Health, a position which he 
resigned about two years ago, on account of continued ill-health. 
He removed to Brighton, where after much patient suffering he 
passed away, on the 18th of January, his 66th birthday, and was 
buried in the Carlton Hill Cemetery. 

Whilst studying at Edinburgh, Dr. Carrington wrote a mono- 
graph of the British grasses, and illustrated it with a set of speci- 
mens, with dissections of the minuter organs, so beautifully and 
accurately prepared that they won for him the admiration of the 
leading botanists of the University. Here he made the acquaint- 
ance of Greville, Hooker and Balfour, and no doubt his life's 
devotion to cryptogamic botany was influenced originally by these 
distinguished tnends. J 

He was an enthusiastic naturalist, but it is of his contributions 

o botanical science, and more particularly to Hepaticology, that 

I wish to write. In a letter I received from him some years ago, 



IN MEMORY OF BENJAMIN CARRINGTON. 121 

referring to Anthelia julacea var. claruliyera, he remarks : — M Curiously 
enough, it was the first Jungermannia I ever collected, having met 
with it on the mountains near Glen Shee, August, 1850. I remember 
the circumstance, because I could not make out at first whether it 
was a moss or hepatic." For some years following, short papers, 
chiefly on mosses, appeared from his pen, and he began a corres- 
pondence with nearly all the leading cryptogarnic botanists of 
Europe, who were interested in Mosses and Hepaticas, — De Notaris, 
Gottsche and Lindberg, on the Continent ; and Wilson, Hooker, 
Spruce and others, here. In 1861 he visited the south of Ireland: 
the result of this visit was the appearance of his interesting 
11 Gleanings among the Irish Cryptogams," published in Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edin. in 1863 — an extensive list of Lichens, Mosses and 
Hepatieae, with valuable notes on many species, especially of the 
latter order. It is illustrated by two beautiful plates, which 
indicate the skill he had attained in the art of delineating crypto- 
garnic plants. Another result of this visit to Ireland was the rich 
contribution he made to Rabenhorst's Bryotheca Europaa, and 
Gottsche and Rabenhorst's Hepaticce Europece, one part of the latter 
being almost composed of the doctor's collecting. 

In 1862 appeared Miall and Carrington's Flora of the West 
Riding, for which he compiled the list of Cryptogams. About this 
time he began to prepare a work on the British Hepaticae, corres- 
ponding with all collectors and those interested in this group. In 
1874 appeared the first part of what promised to be the most 
important work since the publication of Hooker's magnificent 
British Jiui'jermannia in 1816. The fourth part had an ominous 
note appended, which stated that in consequence of the indisposition 
of the author the letterpress was some pages short. For some time 
he continued in a very low state of health, and about the years 
1880 and 1881 he had to undergo several painful operations, under 
which his friends were afraid he would succumb. He rallied, how- 
ever, and was for several years longer able to pursue his favourite 
studies, but never with the same ardour ; and he seemed to shrink 
from the task of completing his valuable work, although friends 
offered to assist him. He wrote the article " Hepatic* " in the 
Encyclopedia Britannica. In 1878 we issued the first part of our 
Hepatic® Britannica E.rsiccatce, in the preparation of which Dr. 

Carrington took great delight. 

In 1876 he spent some time in the neighbourhood of the 
Trossachs, and there made what Dr. Spruce describes as one of his 
happiest finds, Hygrobiella myriocarpa. This he published, with 
several new species, in the Trans. Bot. Soc, Edin., vol. xiii. (1879). 

In 1886, two Manchester botanical friends who had gone to the 
Antipodes, — Mr. Thomas Whitelegge to New South Wales, Mr. R. 
Bastow to Tasmania — sent large collections of Hepaticae, which we 
studied together. The results were published : those of Mr. 
Whitelegge's collection in the Proc. Linn. Soc. of X. S# Wales t 
illustrated by twelve plates, the cost of which was generously 
defrayed by the late Sir William MacLeay ; those of Mr. Bastow 
in the Proc. Royal Soc. of Tasmania for 1887. These were the two 



122 



SltORT NOTES. 



last papers published by Dr. Carrington. In the same year he was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the Linnean Society of N. S. 
Wales and of the Royal Society of Tasmania. On the resignation 
of the first President, Mr. John Whitehead, he was elected President 
of the Manchester Cryptogamic Society, which position he held 
till his death. Many years ago he was elected F.R.S.E., and he 
was at one time F.L.S. 

The following British Hepaticae were either found or identified 
as British by him:— Cesia crenulata (Gott.), sent to Dr. Gottsche as 
a new species. C. corallioides (N.), detected under the name of C. 
concinnata in Dr. Greville's herbarium. C. cmssifolia (Carr.), col- 
lected near Ben Lawers by the late Dr. A. 0. Black. MarsupeUu 
sphacehtta (Giesecke), collected by the late G. E. Hunt on Ben 
Mac Dhm and Loch Kandor, 1868. M. Nevicencis (Carr.), col- 
lected on Ben Nevis by Mr. John Whitehead, July, 1875. 
bcapama Bartlingii (Hampe), first recorded as British from speci- 
mens collected on rocks near the Strid, Bolton Woods, Yorkshire 
1858. Hygrobiella myriocarpa (Carr.) Spruce, discovered near Ben 
Venue, July, 1876. Riccia glaucescem Carr., discovered at Barmouth, 
a. Wales. R. tumida Lindenb., collected by Mr. Joshua, near Mon- 
mouth, May, 1877. B. sorocarpa Bischoff, collected by B. M. 
Watkins ou Great Doward Hill, near Boss. 

One of our rarest and most beautiful hepatics was named in his 
honour by the late Prof. Balfour, and Herr J. B. Jack, in his 
monograph of the European Radula:, named one of the rarest 
Radula Carringtoni, after him. ' 

About twelve months ago his valuable collection was acquired 
for the Manchester Museum by the Owen's College authorities, and 
under the care of Prof. F. E. Weiss it has been arranged and is 
now accessible to students. 

I may conclude this inadequate memoir by recording my con- 
viction that had he enjoyed moderate health and more leisure, the 
name of Benjamin Carrington would have ranked amongst the 
greatest of our cryptogamic botanists. What he has done? under 
circumstances the most adverse, has, however, been 
addition to the scientific knowledge of the century. 



no mean 



W. H. Pearson. 



SHORT NOTES. 



w Wilson, 1843-4, may be added to the stations mentioned by 
nlt^ri™ AS J are he P a " c ' ^ 1889 I collected t in 



Pearson 



W 



ALCHEMiLLA.-Mons. R. Buser, of Geneva, is desirous of bavin* 

f'*hi\Z L l l ?7 c ? rres P°«d to named Continental vars. 
I shall be happy to take charge of any specimens that reach me 



BOTANY AND OUTLINE FLORA OF LINCOLNSHIRE. 123 

(at Crymlyn, Bournemouth) during April, and forward them to 
M. Buser. Botanists sending specimens will please make it clear 
whether they wish their specimens returned, and will number those 
that are not required back. — Edward F. Linton. 

Epilobium Lamyi F. Schultz. — This is omitted from the list of 
" First Records," and, if intentionally, I fail to see on what grounds. 
It cannot well be passed over as an alien, since it has all the 
appearance of being native in Surrey and E. Kent (teste Bev. E. S. 
Marshall), and in Worcestershire (teste Mr. B. F. Towndrow). It 
can hardly have been left out as unworthy of specific rank or 
mention, in a list in which E. alpinum L. and E. anagaUidifoUum 
Lam. are both admitted ; considering the convincing testimony 
Messrs. H. & J. Groves (Joitm. Bot. 1889, 109) and the Bev. E. S. 
Marshall (Joum. Bot. 1889, 146 ; 1890, 6) have given to the view 
adopted by Nyman and Prof. Haussknecht, that these are two 
names for one plant. The discovery of E. Lamyi for Britain must 
be credited to Haussknecht, who recognised specimens in the 
British Museum from a "brick-field, Middlesex/' as this species, 
and also found it growing near Hampton Court (probably in 
Surrey) ; date, 1884, when his monograph of the genus was 
published. Mr. B. F. Towndrow tells me that it was through his 
being shown the sheet in the British Museum, by Mr. H. N. 
Bidley, that he recognised in 1885 the plant in Worcestershire. 
The distinction between E. Lamyi and its nearest congeners, E. 
adnotum Griseb. and E. obscurum Schreb., is well drawn out in this 
Journal (1889, 5; and 1890, 145) by Mr. Marshall, who tells me in 
a recent letter that the offspring of these species, viz., E. adnatum 
X Lamyi and E. Lamyi x obscurum, is, in his experience, uniformly 
sterile. — Edward F. Linton. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Botany and Outline Flora of Lincolnshire. By F. Arnold Lees, 

M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.Lond. Reprinted from White's History, 
Gazetteer, and Directory of the County. 1892. 

The author of the Flora of West Yorkshire is entitled to the 
thanks of Lincolnshire botanists for attempting to supply that long- 
felt want, a complete list of the Phanerogams and Cryptogams of 
Lincolnshire. It is to be regretted that through unforeseen cir- 
cumstances he has failed to fulfil his purpose : such a list should 
be accurate and complete, and Mr. Lees' Outline Flora possesses 
neither of these essentials. As examples of inaccuracy I may point 
out that the records for Medicago minima and Didymodon si)iuosu$ 
are both incorrect ; that Bay's record for Sempervivum tectorum is 
for v.-c. 53 (South Lines.), not North Lines. ; that Lastrea Oreopteris 
has been recorded for v.-c. 54 (North Lines.) by Mr. Fowler; and 
that Bay's Tetford Wood Geum was (x. intermedium, not typical 

rival*. Of minor importance is the fact that in several cases first 



"4 THE YEAR -BOOk OF SCIENCE* 

records can be traced back to an earlier date and authority ; thus a 
Linos, record for Stratiotes aloides is to be found in Johnson's 
Gerard (1636) ; Kay recorded Salicomia herbacea for Lines, in the 
Historia Plantarum (1686) ; and Chara vulgaris was found in 1876 

by Dr. H. P. Parsons. In some cases the authorities quoted are 

incorrect; thus Aulacomnium palusfre var. imbricatum was Mr. 

Teacock's " find," not mine ; and several other mosses attributed 
to me were collected by Mr. J. Larder, of Louth, and merely passed 
through my hands on their way to Dr. Braithwaite, who kindly 
named them for us. Mr. Lees must stand sponsor for Rosa canina 
var. tomentella ; I saw the plant when he found it, but knew nothing 
of the Roses at that time. 

The thanks of Lincolnshire botanists are due to Mr. Lees for 
placing a mark (!) against those plants which he has himself seen 
growing m the county ; also for having cleared up such doubtful 

•— "" i as Sibthorpia europaa and CEnanthe pimpinelloid.es : but I 



canno 



> -«_ -"-»^c lB , ■mis-conceptions," "ambiguities," &c. 

1 could wish that the very interesting and useful prefatory remarks 
had been amplified at the expense of the space devoted to " First 
Records." 

A great deal of drudgery will still have to be undergone by 
someone in the form of wading through volume after volume of 
topographical and botanical works, and herbaria (more often than 
not perhaps, quite fruitlessly), before a complete Lincolnshire 
plant-list can be produced. To give some idea of what yet remains 
to be done, I may mention the following among other herbaria 
which contain Lincolnshire specimens, and which still require 
examination :— First and foremost is the herbarium of the British 
Museum (Natural History), South Kensington, which I have only 
examined as far as Fumaria Vaitlantii; then come Herb. Buddie: 
Herb. Plukenet ; Herb. Merrett ; the York Museum Herbarium, 
containing Rev. J. Dalton's Botanist's Guide record specimens, as 
well as others from Lincolnshire; an old herbarium formed at 
Lincoln and now (or lately) in the custody of Mr. C. Simpson, of 
gueengate, Lincoln ; a collection of plants made in the Gainsboro 1 
neighbourhood by Miss Stanwell ; and Herb. Carr and Herb. Salt 



West 



In addition to these herbaria, 



I have the titles of over seventy books which should be looked 
through before it can be said that every record has been searched. 



J. Burtt Davy. 



The Year-book of Science. Edited for 1892 by Prof. T. G. Bonne y, 

Prfce'Vs 6d ^'^'^ ^^ & °°' 8V °' PP * viii ' 519> 
bpcnm! TZ g n A w W ^ lc ? me the se °ond annual issue of what may 

E 1 11 ' ^ CM "' ° r W^er'sAhnanac of science 

^mnWp t7 / • a tamS that positlon ' il wil1 re q iure t0 be m °re 
n?Z w t U lt 1S at Pre8ent - Wh,le fo 11 * ^cognising the merits 
of the work, we propose to draw attention to a few of its deficiencies. 



THE YEAR-BOOK OF SCIENCE. 125 

11 Biology" is divided into " Animal " and " Botanical " ; and 
while our remarks apply almost exclusively to the latter section, we 
cannot but wonder in which division such a book as Darwin's 
Origin of Species, or Weismann's Essays upon Heredity, would have 
been classed. Books and papers do still appear on general bio- 
logical principles, and a section should have been set apart for 
their reception ; Prof. Bomanes' Darwin and after Darwin, reviews 
of which appeared in this Journal and elsewhere, might then 
have been mentioned ; and Karl Pearson's Grammar of Science, 
though of course not purely biological, might be recorded some- 
where in the book. A similar criticism will apply to the Botanical 
section. Under a "general 11 heading would fall text-books, surely 
sometimes worthy of record, as, for instance, Frank's estimable 
Lehrbiich, the first volume of which appeared last year. 

there are four divisions : — Systematic and Geographical Botany, 
by W. B. Hemsley ; Morphology and Biology, by G. Massee; Minute 
Anatomy, by D. H. Scott ; and Physiology, by F. E. Weiss. Each 
division is subdivided, and in the first three the subdivisions are 
again divided. In " Minute Anatomy " the arrangement is rational 
enough; of the two subdivisions, Histology and Anatomy, the 
second includes the two headings, General and Special; but Messrs. 
Hemsley and Massee are not happy in their grouping. The 
Systematic and Geographical division contains the following sub- 
divisions, all, at any rate typographically, of the same value :— 
Nomenclature, Descriptive, The British Flora, The Asiatic Flora, 
New Chinese and Japanese Plants, Australian and Polynesian 
Flora, The African Flora, The American Flora, Geographical, 
Orchids, Figures of Plants, Miscellaneous, and — the Kew Bulletin 
of Miscellaneous Information! From the three lines of text 
under Descriptive, it is evidently a large subdivision including 
the following " Floras," and comparable in importance with 
Geography, Orchids, or the Kew Bulletin. "Miscellaneous" con- 
sists chiefly of monographs or revisions of Orders, and is very 
incomplete ; no mention is made of the several parts of Engler and 
Prantl's valuable and well-known Pjlanzenfamilien, or the two 
parts of Baillon's Histoire des Plantes. We recall, too, a classifi- 
cation of Solanacea suggested by Wettstein, and reported in the 
Centralblatt, but omitted here. Of course, in so small a volume we 
cannot expect to find anything approaching a complete biblio- 
graphy, but the omission of many important works and papers is 
in striking contrast with the mention of not a few of but little im- 
portance. Mr. Hemsley places " Nomenclature M first, " because 
there has been unusual activity in this direction/' Unfortunately, 
instead of giving the rules proposed by the Berlin botanists, he 
writes a summary of the points at issue as these appear to him, 
and seems to approve of those who H would continue to use names 
that have long been current, regardless of the law of priority, 
though they would observe priority in all recent work M (!). 
Nothiug more is needed to show the absurdity of such a com- 
promise, but it would be interesting if Mr. Hemsley had given the 
date from which " recent work " may be supposed to start and 



126 THE YEAR-BOOK OF SCIENCE. 

priority is to be observed. If the few lines in which Dr. Dyer (in 

Nature) expresses Ma opinion are worthy of record, Mr. Britten's 
exhaustive paper in Natural Science should have been mentioned- 
but that journal is entirely ignored throughout the botanical 
section of the Year-book. Mr. N. E. Brown, by the way, appears 
to have discovered the secret of perpetual youth, for Mr. Hemsley 
refers to him as « a young botanist," although he has completed 
twenty years' work in the Kew Hebarium. 

Cryptogams are poorly represented in the Systematic portion, 
where, moreover, we should expect to find Massee's monograph of 
the Myxogastres rather than in the next division. In the absence 
° n °f- 5?i™r k ^Algie the two papers forming the first part of 
vol. xi. of the Ann du Jard. Bot. de Buitenzorg might have found 
place, m. Portmorel's « Diatomees de la Malaisie," of 58 pp and 
Tin plates, including descriptions and illustrations of nearly fifty 
new^spedes, and Solms Laubach's account of three Genera of 

™/^ e f onfu ? ion of headings in the part devoted to Morphology 
and Biology is even greater. The subdivision Phanerogams is 

3 n^^ °* ****«» ^ 



Xanth 



(a short paper again mentioned under Anatomy, where indeed a 
cross reference * given), and Biology. This subdivision too, is 
curiously incomplete, for while under Biology short papers on 

and ffSS f Cl l St0 ^ m ° US fl0W6rS iD -W of IZonZ 
and the effect of earthquakes on plant-life are noticed, nowhere is 

« Z£ZJ ! fe ; n eDCe • t0 ^ J f U Lubb ° ck ' S im P° rtant *«* on 
beedhngs comprising two large volumes, or to Schenck's ex- 

exhaustive BeUrage zur Biologie der Lianen, nor under Morphology 

n ST t Val fr e Morphologische Studien, in which he con* 
tinues his work on the Inflorescence. 

♦nJ^Art 6 7 aS S ular CjyP^gams there is a worse muddle ; if we 
turn to the heading " Phycological Memoirs," we find it is « a nJw 

mtht tve SSITV^ f ° ll0Wing W™" edited ' M - M-sel 
might have added, by Mr. George Murray. But apparently the onlv 

paper is one « On Splachnidmm rugosumGrev., £1 type of a new 

headL Tf ' VS" ^ ° f which a PP ears in itahcs "*** *« 
^tf f f? ll °J' aS three new headings, the titles of as 

EE Pa ?f S by "5 H™?* 7 ' Miss Barton - and Mr. Batters respec- 
tvl .v, . S u COnd of these is ^ferred to "Brit. Assoc, 1892" ; 
fact the e v lTl° f. aVe n ° ? laC / ? { P ublic ^on. Now as a matter of 
Assoc Iftqi »f^ Pa .f ° f , the ********* Mevvoirs, the -Brit. 
W?™ lu evidentl y/efernng to a communication by Schmitz 

foS ZstiTtlT^' T f t reSt ° f the WOrk on Alg^Zt 
i« ♦ fc? w ? ? e , headm g of Mr. Batters's paper. Moreover 

misuL 1 1™* 6 ° n the important Splachnidiui paper a serious 
Se suSiLTT g t ™r 88i0n ° f the result ' The authors make 
quotes a g n g d savs H° the " ature of the fruit, which the recorder 

blunder, for the authors dispose of the first and second and adopt 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 127 

the third, a new order being founded on this and other characters 
not mentioned by the recorder. Confusion such as this is apt to 
shake one's confidence in the value of the record. 

The record of Physiology might have been fuller. With few 
exceptions it consists of short accounts of papers which have 
appeared in half a dozen well-known German periodicals. 

It is curious that Mr. Hick should have forgotten Seward's 
Fossil Plants as tests of Climate, which he reviewed for this Journal 
but omits from his Palaaobotanical record. 

A. B. Rendle. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 

Bot. Centralblatt. (No. 9). — R. Franze, ' Ueber die feinere 
Structur der Spermatozoen von Chara fmgilis. 1 — (No. 10). H. 
Eggers, ' Marantaceae nonnulhe Ecuadorienses' (2plates). — (No. 11). 
A. Schober, ' Ueber eine doppelte Secretion bei Xanthorrhaa.' 

Bot. Gazette (Feb. 15).— F. B. Maxwell, ■ Comparative study of 
roots of Raminculacea' (3 plates). — C. Robertson, 'Flowers and 
Insects.' — J. M. Coulter & J. N. Rose, 'N. American Umbellifera ' 
(Enantiopkylla, gen. nov. : 1 plate). — A. Schneider, 'Influence of 
anaesthetics on plant transpiration ' (1 plate). — 0. F. Cook, ' Is 
Polyporus carnivorous ? ' 

Botanical Magazine (Tokio). — (Jan. 10). R. Yatabe, Dianella 
straminea, sp. n. 

Bull, de VHerbier Boissier (March). — P. Hennings, ' Fungi 
iEthiopico-arabici' (2 plates). — C. DeCandolle, ' Sur les bractees 
floriferes ' (1 plate). — P. Paiche, ' Zannichellia tenuis.' — J. Mxiller, 
1 Lichenes Arabici et Amboinenses.' 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France (xxxix : Session en Algerie). — A. Bat- 
tandier, 'Les anciens botanistes algeriens.' — E. Guinier, 'La 
vegetation sous le couvert des arbres.' — J. Vilbouchevitch, 
' L'etude geo-botanique des terrains salants.' — L. Trabut, ' Ger- 
mination du Cocos nucifera.' — Id., ' Dehiscence des capsules dans 
les Eucalyptus.' — L. R. Clary, ' Herborisations dans le Djeleb 
Amour. 1 — Podanthum aurasiacum Battandier & Trabut, sp. n. 
(1 plate). 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club (Feb.). — T. Morong, Listera borealis, 

sp. n., and notes on Orchids. — G. B. Sudworth, Nomenclature. — 
P. A. Rydberg, ' The American Black Cottonwood ' (Popuhts 
angmtifolia James & P. acuminata, sp.n. : 1 plate). — - B. D. Hal- 
sted, ' A Century of American Weed Seeds.' — A. A. Heller, ■ Flora 
of Luzerne County, Penn.' — N. L. Britton, Rushy a (gen. nov. ; 
Vacciniacece). 

Erythea (March).— E. L. Greene, 'Observations on Composita?.' 
— A. Davidson, ' Immigrant Plants of Los Angelos County.' — F. v. 
Mueller, ' On Jussuea of Linnaeus.' — W. L. Jepson, ' Studies in 
California!! Umbelliferae.' — M. A. Howe, ' Monterey Bay.' — F. T, 
Bioletti, ' New Californian Plants/ 



128 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

Gardeners' Chronicle (Feb. 25). — Galanthus byzantinum Baker, 
sp.n. 

Irish Naturalist (March). — K. LI. Praeger, ! Flora of Co. Armagh ' 
(cont.). — W. Swanston, ' Silicified Wood of Lough Neagh.' — N. 
Colgan, ■ Flora of Aran Islands.' 

Journal de Botanique (Feb. 16, Mar. 16). — L. Guignard, ' Sur le 
developpement de la graine' (cont.). — (Feb. 16). J. Vesque, 'La 
tribu des Clusiees ' (cont.). — G. Poirault, ■ L'oxalate de calcium 
chez les Cryptogames vasculaires.' — P. Hariot, 'Sur quelques 
Ustilaginees.' — (Mar. 1). P. v. Tieghem, 'Classification des 
Basidiomycetes.' — E. Belzung, 'Sur les sulfates et les nitrates 
des plantules en voie de germination/ — (Mar. 1, 16). J. Miiller, 
' Lichenes neo-caledonici ' (cont.). 

Midland Naturalist (March). — W. Mathews, ' County Botany of 
Worcester ■ (cont).— J. E. Bagnall, ' Notes on the Flora of Warwick- 
shire ■ (cont.). 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

The Biographical Index of British and Irish Botanists is now 
printed off, with the exception of the introductory matter and list 
of authorities cited, and will be issued to subscribers shortly after 
Easter. The work has been greatly enlarged since its appearance 
in this Journal in serial form. Those who have not yet sent in 
their names, but are desirous of obtaining the book at subscriber's 
price (4s.), should communicate at once with the publishers of this 
Journal (Messrs. West, Newman & Co.), .as the cost will be con- 
siderably raised on publication. The edition is limited to five 
hundred copies. 

The British Museum Catalogues have just received a notable 
addition in the Guide to Sowerby's Models of British Fungi in the 
Department of Botany, which has been prepared by Mr. Worthington 
G. Smith. The history of these models, which will be found at 
length in this Journal for 1888 (pp. 231, 268), is briefly summarised 
by Mr. Carruthers in a prefatory note. Mr. Smith's Guide is much 
more than its title implies : it is indeed a popular handbook to the 
better known of our larger fungi, and as such will be useful apart 
from the collection to which it refers. It is illustrated by nearly a 
hundred figures, many of them prepared by Mr. Smith especially 
for this work : and contains descriptions of 210 species, with such 
information concerning them as is likely to be of interest to the 
general reader. The work contains 82 beautifully printed pages, 
and costs fourpence ; the Trustees of the British Museum are to be 
thanked for having produced so excellent a guide at so low a price. 

We regret to announce the death of Mr. Charles Pierpoint 
Johnson, author of British Wild Flowers, which occurred at Cam- 

berwell on March 6 ; also of the Bev. Dr. Woolls, of Sydney, of 
Dr. George Vasey, whose works on American Grasses have often 
been noticed in this Journal, and of Dr. Prantl, 


















NOW 1 iDY, PRICE Is. OJ. 



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the Genera 



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BRITISH 



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MOSSES 



BY THE REV. H. G. JAMESON, MA. 

Reprinted from the ' Join \jl of Botany' b 16 1. 



LONDON: WEST, NEWMAN & CO., I, HATTO GARDEN 




BIRDSNESTING AND BIRD-SKINNING: 

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its Past, Present, and Future. 



By G. Massee, of Kew Gardens. With 56 Illustrations. 3s. Gd 



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Tab 334. 







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Gyromitra gigas, Fr. 



West. Newman, imp 



129 



GYROMITBA GIG AS (Krombh.) Cooke. 

By William Phillips, F.L.S. 

(Plate 334.) 

The occurrence in England of so rare a species of the Disco- 
mycetes as GyromUra gigas (Krombh.) not only justifies a record in 
the Journal of Botany, but affords an opportunity of revising the 
descriptions previously published by the light of living examples. 
Everyone engaged in the study of the fleshy fungi must have 
frequently felt how unsatisfactory it is to be limited to dried herbarium 
specimens, which refuse to reassume any near approach to their 
natural condition when soaked in water, and the consequent im- 
possibility of restoring the more evanescent characters they once 
possessed. In the case of the species under consideration this 
applies in an especial manner, on account of the great diversity of 
form it assumes in the same group of specimens. Size, colour, 
folding of the hymenium, presence or absence of a stem — all vary 
within wide limits, so that from only one or two figures of an 
author a very inadequate idea can be formed of its polymorphous 
characters. 

Gyromitra gigas was originally described by Krombholz as an 

Helvetia 9 from which genus it was removed by Dr. Cooke in his 
Mycographia sea Icones Fungorum, on what appears to be very 
sufficient ground, viz., the form of the folds of the pileus. There 
are two records of its appearance in England ; the first by the late 
Mr. Frederick Currey, in a paper entitled " Notes on British Fungi," 
read before the Linnean Society, June 18th, 18G3,* in which he 
said, "This fine species has occurred once only, in a garden in 
Blackheath Park. It would seem from Krombholz' s figures to vary 
a good deal in colour. My specimen was brownish yellow." Not 
a word is said by Mr. Currey in reference to the size of the plant, 
an important character, nor yet of the form of the pileus, which in 
so variable a species should have been described ; and unfortunately 
the original specimen cannot be traced at Kew. A figure is given 
of an ascus with its eight sporidia, magnified 220 diameters, from 
which it appears the sporidia are elliptic, as in G. esailenta, filled 
with granular protoplasm, and an unusually large size. The second 
recorded occurrence of the species is in the Annals & Magazine of 
Nat. Hist. 1875 (No. 1476), by Messrs. Berkeley and Broome, in 
these words: — "On the ground. Coed Coch, Mn. Lloyd Wynne, 
March, 1874." Here again we are not informed what were the 
more striking features of the plant, and no drawing, as far as I can 
learn, was made at the time. The original specimen is in the Kew 
Herbarium, and from it the sporidia are drawn in Dr. Cooke's 
figure 327, in Mycographia; but the figure of the plant which is 
given in that work is derived from another source ; the sporidia 
are represented as fusiform, and the dimensions 82 x 10-12 /x. Now, 



* Linn. Tram. xxiv. p. 152, t. 25, fig. 25. 

Journal of Botany.— Vol, 81. [May, 1893.] k 



■ 

130 GYROMITRA GIGAS (XROMBH.) COOKE. 

if we turn to Krombholz's figure of the sporidia of gigas, we find 
they are elliptic, and furnished with two guttse, which characters 
forbid the idea that the Coed Coch specimen can be the same 
species. I am informed that Mr. Berkeley had in his herbarium 
specimens under the name of H. gigas, from Professor Trog, of 
Bern, which have the same fusiform' sporidia as the Coed Coch 
specimen ; hence it is probable that, accepting the Swiss plant as 
the true H. gigas, he was induced to refer the British plant to the 
same species. 

Before I proceed to describe a Gyromitra found in Oxfordshire, 
which I regard as the undoubted H. gigas of Krombholz, it will be 
well to reproduce the very ample description of it given by its 
author in his valuable work. 

Gyromitra gigas (Krombh.) Cooke, was described by Krombholz 
in 1834 as follows :— "Helvetia gigas Klz. Mit grossem, gelappten, 
gefalteten oder krausen, blassen, weisslichen oder ochergelben 
Hide, an den Strunk fast angewachsenen, angedriickten , etwas hin- 
und hergebogenen Lappen; mitdickem, zellichten, wachsahnlichen, 
weisslichen, von aussen grubigen, fast glatten Strunke; mit grossen 
Schlauchen und eiformigen grossen Sporen ; und mit einem dicken, 
verbreiteten, wachsartig-filzigen Wurzelgeflechte. 

" Helv. pileo magno, lobato, undulato, plicato vel crispo, pallido, 
albido vel ochraceo : lobis stipiti subadnatis adpressis subundulatis ; 
stipite crasso, celluloso, ceraceo, albido, extus lacunoso, subglabro ; 
ascis majusculis ; sporis magnis, ovalibus ; mycelio ceraceo-tomen- 
toso, crasso, effuso. 

" Beschreibung. Der Hut dieses grossten unter den bei uns 
vorkommenden Laurichen ist 4 bis 12 Zoll breit und hoch, hochst 
wandelbar und unregelmassig. In der Jugend und bei sehr kleinen 
Lxemplaren ist er 3 Zoll breit und hoch, und bildet dann gewohnlich 
20 bis 30 Falten ; seine Lappen sind dann an einigen Stellen in die 
Hohe gezogen, an deren innern Flache mit ihren Falten an jene 
des Strunkes theilweise angewachsen, und ihre freien Rimder 
immer dem Strunke angedriickt. In altern Pilzen wird der Hut 
vielfaltig und endlich fast kraus. Die Falten beobachten (wie bei 
alien Arten der Gattung) keine Norm ; sie sind verschieden gross, 
laufen nach den manigfaltigsten Richtungen, anastomosiren jedoch 
seltener als bei den Morcheln. Die F elder sind daher hochst 
irregular und nicht mehr mit diesem Namen zu belegen, da sie 
blosse Falten, und keine regelmassig geschlossene Felder bilden. 

"Die Hutsubstanz ist eine Fortsetzung jener des Strunkes, 
jedoch mehr wassrig, gebrechlich, fast wachsartig und durch- 
schemend. Sie erreicht oft £ bis f Linie Dicke, und ist unmittelbar 
mit der Schlauchlage (dem Hymenium), welche £ Linie Hohe 
erreicht, verschmolzen. Das Schlauchlager ist ganz ochergelb 
geiarbt, und besteht aus grossen, keuligen, 6- bis 8 sporigen 
Schlauchen mit Nebenfuden. Die Sporen selbst sind gross und 
vollkommen oval. 

" DerStnmk ist 2 bis 3 Zoll hoch, und 2* bis 8-1 Zoll breit, aus 
einer wachsartigen, in dunnen Lagen etwas" durchscheinenden, bis 
1 Lime dicken Masse gebildet. Sie ist vielfach zellig und grubig, 



GYROMITRA GIGAS (KROMBH.) COOKE, 131 

und bildet da, wo der Zellendurchmesser sehr gering ist, eine 
flockige, weisse, undurchsichtige Substanz, niit welcher audi die 
Hohlen der grosseren Zellen flockig ausgekleidet sind. Der gauze 
Strunk ist so wie der Hut hochst unregelmassig, und sowohl in 
Hinsicbt der Grosse als des Umfanges verschieden ; er ist urn viel 
hoher als der Hut selbst, und die Hutlappen gehen rneist bis auf 
die Erde herab, oder in das untere Drittheil des Strunkes. 

"Das Mycelium scheint die unmittelbare Verlangerung des 
Strunkes zu seyn, und ist gleichfalls zellig, wachsartig, und 
verbreitet sich tief in die Erde* Nalie deni Mycelium, oder 
vielmebr von ihm aufwarts, ist der Strunk sammtartig, weiss, 
welcber baarigkleiige Ueberzug hoher hinauf ebr zart wird. 

"Die Art ist ibrer Grosse wegen zur Speise sebr anwendbar; 
und kommt haufig im Marz und April auf bemoosten Waldplatzen 
in der Nalie von Prag vor. Sie lasst sich an der Luft gut trocknen, 
der Hut wird dunkelbraun, der Strunk aber bleibt weiss und dicht."* 

In July, 1891, Mrs. S. Coker Beck, of Crowell Eectory, sent 
me some specimens of an unknown and remarkable fungus gathered 
at Slierbourne, Oxfordshire, on Lord MacclesfiehTs property, in a 
field on a hill-side, under beech trees, having somewhat the appear- 
ance of Sparassis crispa. The pilei varied in size from 3 in . to 3 ft. 
in circumference, being in form globose, hemispherical, fusiform, 
or irregular ; in a young stage the folds of the hymenium were of 
the typical form of Gyromitra, but when older they became flattened 
into broad pendent crisped flounces, resembling fig. 327 in Cooke's 
Mycographia; while young they were creamy-white, often tinged 
with pale purple, passing with age into pale ochre, and then to 
fulvous-brown ; stem short, thick, or sometimes absent. The flesh 
was somewhat waxy, and exceedingly brittle. In section there was 
no sterile axis above the stem, the pileus consisting within of 
irregular cavities, divided and subdivided by double walls which 
were clothed with the hymenium. I found the asci to be cylin- 
drical, furnished with eight elliptic sporidia, 10-12 x 6-7 p.; 
paraphyses slender, somewhat thickened at the apices. In odour 
and taste it very much resembles the mushroom (Agaricus cam* 
pestris), and the flesh is very slpw to decay. 

The two young specimens represented in the Plate 334 accom- 
panying these notes have been selected with the intention of 
showing that the structure of the pileus is that of Gyromitra ; had 
a more advanced specimen been selected, it would not have enabled 
the reader to determine to which genus, Helvetia or Gyromitra, it 

should be referred. 

In conclusion, I venture to think that the many points of 

agreement between the Oxfordshire specimens and the elaborate 
description and figures of JET. gigas given by Krombholz will be con- 
sidered a sufficient justification for my regarding the two as 
identical. As regards the plant from Blackheath and from Coed 
Coch, there is so little light to guide us to a just conclusion, first, 



* J. V. Krombholz, Naturgetreuc Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der 
essbaren schddllchen und verdachtiqen Schwamme, iii. 28, t. 20, tigs. 1—5. 

K 2 



132 , NOTES ON POTAMOGETONS. 

as to whether they belong to Helvetia or Gyromitra, and, secondly, 

whether they are both the same species, that I will not on this 

occasion offer any conjecture on the subject, but may return to it 
again hereafter* 

Finally, one word of thanks to Mrs. Coker Beck for taking the 
trouble to make a long journey to obtain additional specimens 
when the first were damaged in transit ; to Dr. Cooke, for informa- 
tion respecting specimens in the Kew Herbarium ; and to Mr. G. 
Murray, for the like favour with regard to the British Museum. 



Description of Plate 334.— Fig. 1. A young specimen of Gyromitra gigas 
(Krombh.), showing the typical gyrose structure of the hymenium, nat/size. 
2. A section of the same, showing the cavities of the interior of the pileus, 
which, like those of the exterior, are clothed with the hymenium. 3. An older 
sessile specimen, to illustrate one of the many forms the species assumes. 
4. Ascus and paraphyses, x 400. 5. Sporidia, x 400. 6. Cells of the pseudo- 
parenchyma, x 400. 



NOTES ON POTAMOGETONS. 

By Arthur Bennett, F.L.S. 

(Continued from Journ. Bot. 1892, p. 230.) 

In trying to get together information respecting this genus, 
there are still several forms about which no satisfactory facts can 
be ascertained, and it is difficult to ascertain whether there are 
specimens of these in any herbaria. I shall be grateful for the 
slightest hint referring to any of these, especially for the loan of 
specimens. 

Potamogeton^ Gaudichaudii Chamisso in Linnaa, ii. 199 (1827), 
("In rivulo dulcis aquas urbem Agana in insula Guajan percurrente 
legit amicissimus Gaudichaud") is one of these.— Chamisso often 
intimates in what herbaria he has seen his plants, but here he 
gives no clue, aud there are no specimens at Berlin (teste Dr. 
Schumann). In the Memoirs of the Boston Society of Nat. Hist. 
i. 538 (1869), reproduced in this Journal for 1869, p. 179, Horace 
Mann names P. Gaudichaudii Cham, as found in the Hawaiian 
Islands, but whether from description, or seeing original examples, 
I know not.* Of the other species described by Chamisso, I have 
seen original examples of all, except P. Nuttalii and P. americanus. 
I have not succeeded in tracing where the specimens are on which 
these were founded. 

A re-reading of the description of P. Gaudichaudii has induced 
the belief that this may really be conspecific with P. mucronatus 



^ * I ," n ,^ emS t0 - have included ^ in his list under the mistaken notion 
that the locality was in the Sandwich Islands. Hillebrand (Fl. Hawaiian 
Islands, p 459) says :-'• H. Mann enumerates also P. Gaudichaudii Cham., 
which is referred to P. lucen* by Kunth (Enum. iii. 131), but a reference to his 
quotation (Lmn<ea n. 199) shows that Gaudichaud's plant was collected on the 
island of Guam or Guajan of the Ladronea."— Ed. Journ. Bot 1 



NOTES ON POTAMOGETONS. 



133 






Presl. The Ladrone Islands are quite in the area of its growth, 
and though Chamisso's description may not exactly agree, still 
the imperfect material he had to deal with will fully explain the 
difference ; hence I am strongly inclined to think that P. Gaudi- 
chaudii CI) am. will prove to be the proper name for P. nntcronatus 
Presl = /'. malaina Miquel, as it antedates Presl's name by twenty- 
two years. 

P. anceps Muhlenberg, Cat. PI. Amer. Sept. No. 9 (1813). 

I see that Mr. N. E. Brown (Suppl. Eng. But. p. 50), under 
Impatient bijiora Walt., accepts the above Catalogue for a publi- 
cation of a name. Is this generally so recognised ?* If so, it may 
alter the nomenclature of several North American species of 
Potamoyeton, which I feel sure my friend Dr. T. Morong will be 
glad to have discussed. I know of no safe reference for this species 

of Muhlenberg. 

Rafinesque, in the New York Medical Fiepositonj, v. 350, t named 
several species of N. American Potamogetons ; his specimens were 
apparently lost when he was shipwrecked off the United States 
coast. Some at least of them have been traced by various 
means, but about the following I have no certain information : 
P. boreal is, P. epihydrum, P. petiolare, P. tenuif alius. 

P. trichoides Cham. var. coleophyllus Franchet, and P. pecti- 
natus L. var. enantrophyllus Franchet (Camus, Cat. Plantes de 
France, Suisse et Belyique, p. 278, 1888) are two curious errors, 
arising from M. Camus having mistaken sections for varieties in 
Franchet's Flore de Loire-et-Cker, p. 633 : for the knowledge of this 
I am indebted to Dr. Bonnet, of Paris. 

Many of the species described by Wolfgang in Koeiner & 
Schultes Mantissa, 3, 1827, have been ascertained, but < 4 P. dimri- 
catus = P. setaceus Herb. Gilibert" is still unknown. Kunth 
{Enum. iii. 139 (1841) ) suggests " P. obtnsifalio aftinis ? " P. rigid** 
is another doubtful plant: according to Nyman, Snpp. Consp. FL 
Europ. p. 286, Liudemann refers this to P.jiuitans, while Schmal- 
hausen assigns it to P. petiolatus— two names that may well 
mean the same thing. Probably both these species are contained 
in Lindemann's herbarium, so rich in Russian plants. If not, the 
species to which they should be referred could likely enough be 
ascertained from the MS. of Wolfgang's monograph of the genus in 
the Moscow Library. Neither Nyman nor Richter mention P. 

divaricatas. 

Of P. reptans Humnicki, Cat. PL Lu.veuil, 61 (1876), nothing is 
known at Paris (jide Dr. JL5onnet). Can anyone throw any light on 

this obscure plant ? 

P. drupaceus 0. F. Lang in Flora, p. 472 (1846), is a form of 
pectinatus, identified by Lang himself with «' P.pectinatus L. /3. dm- 

paceus Koch in litt.'' 

P. elegans Wallich, List, 5178. — The type specimens of this in 



* The list is merely one of names, without either descriptions or synonymy, 
and has no claim to recognition. — Ed. Joukn. Bot.] 

f This paper is translated by Desvaux in his Joxmu de Botanique, ii. 166-178. 



134 



NOTES ON POTAMOGETONS. 



Wallich's herbarium at the Linnean Society prove it to be P. 
polygonifolius Pourr. ! 

P. sereulatus "Kegel et Maack (?)" [Tent. Fl. Ussur. p. 139 
(1861 )).— " Habitus omnino P. obtusifoUi." This is exactly the 
plant that has often been named P. obtusifolius in Britain; Mr. 
Watson's herbarium at Kew contains specimens so named by him. 
The likeness to obtusifolius is remarkable, and the error may well 
be excused. It is, however, a form of P. crispus L. P. serrulatus 
Bunge, "Asia temp.," I have not seen, unless it be the same as 
Kegel and Maack' s plant. 

P. Gaspabyi F. Kohts in Oesterr. Bot. Zeit. xx. 291 (1870). 

Is this the same as P. alpinus Balbis = P. rufescens Schrad. ? 
Richter (PL Europ. p. 13) makes it a full species, limited to 
Germany. I should be glad to see a specimen. 

Weyl, in Oesterr. Bot. Zeit. 1870, p. 321, says, on Dr. Ascher- 
son's authority, that this species is nothing more than P. alpinus 
Balbis. This merely adds another synonym, and Dr. Ascherson 
might have been safely followed by Dr. Richter. 

By the kindness of Dr. Magnin, I possess a specimen of P 
caspitosm Humnicki, Cat. PI. Luxeuil (1876). The specimen is not 
sufficient to speak with any confidence as to its being a distinct 
species. It is evidently a departure from puxillm L. in the direction 
of my P. Sturrockii, and is decidedly badly placed as a subspecies 
under rutilus, of which it has none of the characteristic marks. It 
will be better placed under pusillus. 

Mr. Clement Reid has called my attention to the names given 
under Potamogeton in Schimper's Paleontologie Vegetale, vol. ii. 
pp. 462-469 (1871), where the following should be renamed by 
paleontologists as bearing names belonging to recent plants ; i. e., 

P. acwninatus Ettingsh., P. ovalifolius Ettingsh., P. filiformis 
Saporta, P. lucidus Saporta, P. enantophyllus Saporta ; this last 
hardly differing from the name of the section of the genus in 
Franchet's Flore de Loire-et-Cher, p. 633 (Enuntiophyllum). It is 
greatly to be desired that paleontologists would ascertain whether 
proposed names are preoccupied by recent plants. Personally, 
I should be glad to give them this information in Britain, and 
I have no doubt Prof. Ascherson, of Berlin, would do so for Europe, 
and Dr. T. Morong, of Columbia College, New York, for America. 

Another plant that Chamisso names as from the Isle of France ' 
I have from the Mauritius, by the kindness of Dr. H. H. Johnston, 
but unfortunately there are no flowers or fruit on the specimens ; 
this may be the plant named "P. lucent" in Mr. Baker's Flora of 
Mauritius, but I have not yet seen specimens of that plant. 

(To be continued.) 






I 



135 



COLLECTORS' NUMBERS. 

By C. Baron Clarke, F.R.S. 

The citation of collectors' numbers was carried far by Nees in 
Wight's Contributions as long ago as 1834 (and very likely before 
that date), but it has now become # a prominent feature in systematic 
monographs, as see DC Monog rapines, vv. 6, 7 (in v. 7 the index to 
collectors 1 numbers is unfortunately wanting). 

It is supposed that each collector affixes his field-numbers con- 
tinuously, during his whole life, not repeating any number twice; 
that he places the same number on all the pieces cut from one tree 
or shrub ; and that, in regard to small plants, he affixes the same 
number to a series of these only when, from their being collected 
at the same time and place, he feels morally certain that they are 

all one species and one form. 

Supposing this method of numbering carefully followed, the 
utility of the citations of such numbers (when indexed) is great. 
Firstly, in a large herbarium one is enabled, with regard to all 
fairly common species, to find out very accurately what the mono- 
grapher understood by some named species or variety he adopts. 
Secondly, in regard to the rare species, it is frequently possible to 
get "the type" described from. Thirdly, in the common case 
where a large collection is distributed with numbers, not (or only 
partially) named, the assistants in the large herbaria can name up 
quickly plants described by a monographer subsequent to the 
distribution. This is a great saving of labour ; if the assistant has 
to name up a genus of numerous closely-allied species from the 
descriptio7is of the monographer (without numbers), much time is 
occupied in doing the work of examination over again, and in the 
result the plants are not named so satisfactorily as by numbers, 
t. e., if the collectors' numbers are properly affixed, as above 

QPSCriuGCl* 

But unfortunately, while many of the best collections, as 
Balansa, Mandon, Cuttiss, Thwaites, are properly numbered, the 
majority of collections, especially the European collections, are not. 
Moreover, it has been customary in many of the foreign herbaria to 
destroy or cut off the collectors' tickets, and to affix herbarium 
numbers instead. The citation of these herbarium numbers, as of 
Willdenow's herbarium numbers, has been disastrous, and has 
brought the citation of good collectors' numbers into 
disfavour. The second-hand botanic writers, proceeding on their 
favourite theorem that things which are equal to the same thing are 
equal to one another, have evolved out of these citations of herbarium 
numbers, reductions and new species. This artificial synonymy is 
largely erroneous, and most tedious to correct. 

I am somewhat surprised, on referring to Bentham's (and some 
other) directions about collecting, no distinct instruction given how 
the field- tickets should be numbered ; and the object of this letter 
is to supply this instruction (till more authoritative be issued). 



unmerited 



136 * 



COLLECTORS NUMBERS. 



The best way to commence may be perhaps to show first bow not 
to do it right. 

The worst of all plans is that adopted by Wallich and by many 
modern European collectors. In this plan a quantity of material 
from various localities is got together ; it is then sorted into genera, 
then into species ; all the material of one (supposed or estimated) 
species is well mixed, and then issued under one number. If a 
sheet of this kind has to be named, it is necessary to examine every 
scrap on the sheet (a tedious waste of time). If it happens that 
several species (or varieties, or even "forms") are mixed under the 
number, it is useless for citation. The numbers of Wallich, as to 
the "type" sheet in his large-paper collection, are cited sometimes 
in the Flora of British India; but the chief value of such citations 
is to direct a person in London where to go to see the "type" of 
the species described. It is not at all safe to name Wallich's sheets 
at Calcutta from such citations. 

Another favourite plan with collectors since the days of Sieber 
is to commence a fresh numbering from No. 1 on every excursion. 
We thus get a specimen numbered (instead of 8375, say) " Iter 
Madagascarense Secundum, series 3, n. 91." The effect of this is 
that so long a number is rarely worth citation ; our monographs 
have become laboured even with the citing of simple numbers, and 
it is quite impossible to cite these series and centuries generally. 
Where they have to be cited, I usually cite the number "94" only; 
it is true that there may be other plants numbered 94 ; but if I cite 
the n. 94 for a sedge, the other 94s may be roses or onions ; if 
another 94 is a sedge, it may be a Sctrptu, while my cited n. 94 is 
a Carex ; it is very rarely that the two 94s will be two sedges so 
closely allied as to cause any confusion. It is where externally 
similar plants have been sorted together and then numbered alike 
that the mischief has been done. 

It would be tedious to enumerate the varied plans of authors for 

making their field-numbers useless ; some use fractional numbers— 

often with very high denominators. In some cases the numerator 

may represent the number of the genus in the collector's own 

private index to genera, while the denominator may represent the 

number of the species in the genus, or in some private list of the 

collector. At all events, such large complex numbers can very 

rarely be worth citing— indeed, only when the plant happens to be 

some very critical form which the monographer wishes to fix down. 

But of all the field-numbers I have encountered, the European 

collectors are far the worst. I can rarely, in all the herbaria I have 

journeyed to, get enough field-numbers for a common European 

beirptu or Eleocharis to present a good or sufficient picture of the 

geographic area of the species. I should estimate that not one 

European plant in seven in the large European herbaria, Berlin, &c, 

has a field-ticket on it to show the three poiuts-(l) collector's 

name; (2) number; (3) where collected. Many of the plants do 

not pretend to this minimum of information-they are ticketed, 

oiS » £ ermau y and France, second distribution of Meyer, 

n. 4171. Here there is no attempt at deception ; it is told one 



collectors' numbers. 137 

that it is useless for any object to occupy space by citing the 
number. But it is still more disheartening, after getting together 
(apparently) "good*' numbers of various collectors from various 
localities, to find at the end of the labour, from the remarkable 
identity in the numbers, that they are not field-numbers at all; 
that they are taken from some list, and that the utmost they prove 
is that the collector supposed his plant (or one of the plants so 
numbered) to be included in the binominal symbol of that list. It 
is troublesome to find the list used; difficult (and rarely worth 
while) to discover what were the supposed limits of the species in 

that list. 

The outcome is that, in the case of Europe, I often find it 

impossible to decide what is the geographic area of some common 
well-defined species, say, Eleocharis mitlticaulis Smith, even to 
within a possible error of 200-400 miles. I can of course determine 
the area by the arm-chair-and-coffee method — by simply compiling 
the authorities. But the best authority is not to be trusted one 
inch in such a matter. 1 should not wish to state that Eleocharis 
midticaulis grew in the Atlas unless I had seen a specimen collected 
there, and I should wish then to cite that specimen with the 
collector's name and genuine field-number. As a matter of fact, a 
very considerable percentage oi Eleocharis multicmdis was (six years 
ago) named wrongly in Kew and South Kensington, and I need 
therefore add no further statement how it was named elsewhere. 

But, says Mr. J. G. Baker, "you work on critical weeds, sedges, 
Commelinaceae, and such-like—your experience in mixed numbers 
is exceptional." To which I reply, are your Crocus and Iris less 
critical, and are your ferns better numbered ? The South American 
and Indian ferns are much better numbered than the European. 
There are not many plants in herb. H. C. Watson that have a field- 
ticket showing the collector, the place of collection, and the field- 
number. My own field-tickets run continuously from 1 to 47388 ; 
they have been almost invariably placed on each sheet within 
twenty-four hours of collection. Where the specimens were all cut 
from one tree, the sheets are numbered 2883 A, 2383 B. And 
small plants, collected at one time and place (I always collect with 
my own hands), are similarly numbered 2384 A, 2384 B— where 
I felt morally sure that I had exactly the same form. But where a 
male tree was supposed to belong to a female hard by, I always 
gave them different numbers, and added a note that I supposed 
them one species. I do not know that I could, even from long 
experience, greatly improve on this plan; I believe it would be 
better, after reaching 9999, to begin at 1 over again ; five digits 
cause a sensible delay, in transfer and citation, over four digits ; as 
explained above, the having two numbers 2773, referring one to a 
sedge, the other to something widely different, would lead to no 

confusion. 

I have generally cut oat from my present work all citations of 
my own herbarium numbers ; for, as I issue all my plants named 
up my own way, no person who gets one can ever be assisted by the 
citation of the number. I am led thus to the curious conclusion 



138 MARINE ALG.E OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 

that, unless numbered plants were issued named either wrongly or 
not at all, no number would be worth citing.* 

I may add, for the guidance of collectors, that different collectors' 
numbers (t. e., good numbers) serve different purposes under different 
systems of collection. 'Glaziou, for instance, often collects one or 
two pieces only of a species at each locality, though he may collect 
the species over and over again. Such numbers are very useful for 
defining the area of a species; but when they get scattered (as they 
do) in distant collections, it is difficult to ascertain a species founded 
on one of them ! On the other hand, Balansa appears, when he 
had an opportunity, to have laid in a great quantity of one plant 
finely collected under the number. Such numbers are very valuable 
for "finding where you are" in a large and critical genus in any 
herbarium. No doubt collectors endeavour to attain both objects; 
but the opportunities of collecting and carrying off large quantities 
of well-preserved specimens in remote solitudes are rare. To make 
the most of such requires in the collector strength, zeal, judgment, 
experience, but, and beyond all, a good general acquaintance with 
the Flora, so as to be able to recognise a new or uncommon form 
when he comes upon it. 



A PROVISIONAL LIST OF THE MARINE ALG^ OF 

THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

By Ethel S. Barton. 

(Continued from p. 114.) 

Phlebothamnion squarrosum Kiitz. Cape,>te Kiitzhuj. 

Spermothamnion Schmitzianum, n. sp. Frons nana, filis 
primariis repentibus, secundariis tenuissimis, erectis, ramosis, ramis 
suboppositis simpliciusculis ; sphaerosporis terminalibus. 

Hab. in Halimedm fronde, ad Prom. b. Spei. Coll. H. A. Spencer. 

I have named this species after Dr. Schmitz, of Greifswald, who 
has kindly assisted me in many difficulties about Floridea. 

Chantransia secundata Thur. On Laminaria, near Cape Town, 
Tyson ! 

Geogr. Distr. North Sea. Atlantic. 

Cb YPTONEMIACE-g; . 

Schizyjienia eeosa J. Ag. Simon's Bay, Pappe. 
S. apoda J. Ag. Table Bay, Pappe. 



m. * u t 1S ^ ex , oe Ption to this which I have lately met with so frequently 
that it must modify the above conclusion : viz., that new species are not rarely 
founded on a single specimen issued, say, as 8375 E. Scirpus lacustris Linn., 
and this number cited as the type of the species. There is thus a very possible 
advantage in citing the numbers of the very commonest species, even when 
issued correctly named. r 



MARINE ALGJE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



139 



S. obovata J. Ag. Cape, Pappe. 

S. undulata J. Ag. Table Bay, Pappe. 

Nemastoma lanceolata J. Ag. Cape, Harvey, Pappe. 

Pachymenia carnosa J. Ag. Camps Bay, Pappe \ Cape Agulhas, 
Hohenack.l Nos. 175, 372. Cape, T. Steel ! Hb. Kewl Areschong, 
Phyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 55. 

Polyopes constrictus J. Ag. Cape Point, Boodle ! Cape, Harvey ! 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

Grateloupia filicina Ag. Sea Point, Harvey, Tyson ! Cape 
Point, Boodle I Kalk Bay, E. Young ! Boodle I Cape Agulhas, 
Hohenack. ! Cape, Harvey ! Knysna, Krauss, 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. W. Indies. Indian Ocean. Mediter- 
ranean. 

G. hieroglyphica J. Ag. Table Bay, Pappe. 



Thamnoolonium latifrons Endl. et Dies. Port Natal, Poppig* 
T. natalense J. Ag. Port Natal, Gray. 

GlGARTINEiE. 

Chondrus scabiosus Kiitz. G&ipe,fide Kutzing. 
C. divaricatus Grev. Cape, Kunth. 

C. crispus Lyngb. Table Bay, Ecklon. Port Alfred, W. Carrl 

Geogr. Distr. North Atlantic. W. Indies. 

C. agathoicus Kiitz. (non Lam.). G^e,Jide J. Agardh. 

Irid2ea orbitosa Suhr. Cape, Drege ! Harvey ! 

I. Augustinje Kiitz. (non Bory). Cape, Gaudichand. 

I. serratifolia J. Ag. Table Bay, Pappe ! 

I. capensis J. Ag. Seal Island, Challenger ! Table Bay, 
Simon's Bay, Hb. Greville, Suhr, Pappe. 

I. lanceolata Harv. = I. capensis J. Ag. ? Table Bay, Harvey \ 
Cape, Pappe ! Zeyher I 

I. cordata J. Ag. Cape, Drege ! 

Geogr. Distr. North Pacific. 

I. curvata Kiitz. Cape, Pappe. 

L cornea Kiitz. Cape Agulhas, fide Kutzing. 

I. laminarioides Bory. Cape Point, Boodle \ Sea Point, Boodle \ 

Geogr. Distr. North and South Pacific. 

I. undulata J. Ag. Table Bay, Pappe ! 

L gigantea Kiitz. Cape, fide Kutzing. 

I. insignis Endl. et Dies. (? « Gigartin* sp.). Port Natal, 

Poppig. 

Gigartina pistillata J, Ag. Algoa Bay, Ecklon. 
Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. 

G. fastigiata J. Ag. Eobben Island, Sea Point, Cape Point, 
Boodle I Kalk Bay, E. Young ! Natal, Krams. Cape, Harvey ! 
Geogr. Distr. Mauritius. 

G. volans Ag. Cape, Chammo. 



140 



ALUM 



G. Eaduxa Ag. Eobben Island, Boodle I Kalk Bay, Sea Point, 

Boodle ! Knysna, Krauss, Boodle ! Cape, John Starew burgh ! in 

Hb. Sloan. 257, fol. 167, Ecklon, R. Brown \ Jreschoug, Phyo. 

extraeurop. exsicc. No. 50, Hb. Dickie I Harvey ! Robertson, John 
Reeve ! 

Var. Hystrix. Eobben Island, Boodle ! Cape, Hohenack. ! 
Harvey ! 

Var. clathrata. Eobben Island, Boodle ! Cape, Hohenack. ! 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

G. stiriata J. Ag. Table Bay, fide Suhr. Sea Point, Cape 

Point, Kalk Bay, Boodle ! False Bay, Challenger ! Cape Agulbas, 

Huheuack. ! No. 564. Cape, Thunbery, Ellis ! Menzies ! Areschoug, 

Pbyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 12, Harvey ! John Reeve ! #fc. Dickie ! 

W6. Shutth'worth I .ScoM EHi'ot ! Reliquitc Brebissonianeel Ser. 2, 
No. 188. 

G. Burmanni J. Ag. Simon's Bay, Challenger. Sea Point, 
Tyson \ Areschoug, Pbyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 51. 

G. nodifera Her. Natal, Krauss. 



G. Teedii Lam. Port Alfred, Slavin ! 

Geoyr. Distr. Warm Atlantic. Mediterranean. Bed Sea. 

Gymnogongrus corymbosus J. Ag. Cape Point, Boodle ! False 
Bay, McMillan ! Cape, Harvey ! 
Geoyr. Distr. Indian Ocean. 

G. glomeratus J. Ag. Cape, Lalande, Pappe. 
Geoyr. Distr. Ceylon. Mauritius. 

G. capensis J. Ag. Table Bay, I'appe ! Cape Point, Boodle ! 
Kalk Bay, Boodle ! Cape Agulbas, Hohenack. ! Knysna, Boodle ! 
Cape, Harvey ! Ecklon. 

Geoyr. Distr. W. Indies. Mauritius. 

G. vermicularis J. Ag. Cape Town, Burcheli ! Gordon's Bay, 

Ecklon. Cape, Harvey ! 

0«yr. Distr. Mauritius. Soutb Pacific. 

G. polycladus J. Ag. Kalk Bay, Boodle ! Cape, Jib. Kew ! 

G. dilatatus J. Ag. Table Bay, Pappel Green Point, Harvey ! 
Cape Point, Boodle ! Gordon's Bay, Ecklon. . Cape, Drege, Brand, 
I Met, Areschoug, Pbyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 46, Harvey I Hb. 

Hooker I 

Geoyr. Distr. W. Indies. 

Phyllophora diversifolia Subr. Cape, Dreye. 



Kallymenia capensis J. Ag. = Euhymenia capensis Kiitz. Cape, 

lib. Holmes ! 

K. erosa Harv. Green Point, Harvey \ 

K. reptans J. Ag. Algoa Bay, Ecklon. Natal, Krauss. 

K. dentata J. Ag. Cape Agulbas, Hohenack. I No. 222. Algoa 
Bay, Ecklon. Cape, lib. lie/,,, \ 

K. Harveyana J. Ag. Table Bay, Harvey ! Cape Point, Boodle ! 

Cape, Hart, y [ 9 r 



MARINE ALGjE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



141 



SCHIZOPHYLLA 



Table Bay, Harvey ! Port 



Natal, Keil ! 



K. ? lubrioa = Halymenia lubrica Suhr. Algoa Bay, Ecklon. 
? Euhymenia filiformis Kiitz. Cape, Wenek ! 
Callophyllis fastigiata J. Ag. Cape Agulhas, Hohenarh: ! 
(ieoyr. Distr. Falkland Islands. 

C. laciniata J. Ag. Batterie Amsterdam, Ecklon. 

Qeogr. Distr. Atlantic and North Sea. West Indies. Pacific ? 

C. discigera J. Ag. Table Bay, Pappe ! Sea Point, Boodle ! 
False Bay, Villet\ Knysna, Krauss. Cape, Gueinzius, Harvey ! 
Areschowj, Phyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 49. 

Qeogr. Distr. W. Indies. Mauritius. 

DUM0NTIACE«. 

Halosaccion ramentaceum J. Ag. Cape, Chavin ! I have only 
seen one specimen of this plant from the Cape, and can find no 

other record of it from there. 

Qeogr. Distr. Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans. 

SPYRIDIEiE. 

Spyridia squalida J. Ag. Port Alfred, Slavin ! 
Qeogr. Distr. South Australia. 

S. cupressina Harv. Algoa Bay, Holub ! Port Alfred, Slavin ! 
Kei Mouth, Flanagan ! 



S. insignis J. Ag. Port Alfred, Slavin ! Port Natal, Krauss. 



Qeogr. Distr. Indian Ocean. 



FILAMENTOSA 



Port Natal, Krauss. 



Geogr. Distr. Throughout tropical and subtropical seas. 

Champieje. 
Champia compressa Harv. Kalk Bay, Boodle I Muysenberg, 



Harvey \ Cape Agulhas, lluhenuck.l Knysna, Boodle I Algoa 
Bay, Ecklon. Port Alfred, Slavin ! - - 

Geogr. Distr. Indian Ocean. Warm Pacific. Australia. 

C lumbricalis Ag. Robben Island, Boodle ! Table Bay, 
Ttaon\ Sea Point, Cape Point, Boodlel Cape Agulhas, Hohenack.l 

No. 567. Cape, Thunberg, Koenig, Drege I Brand 1 ^fsl Ares- 

choug, Phyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 44; Harvey ! Hb. Dickie \ Hb. 
Shnitleuorth ! W. Ferguson ! Gourlie ! Hofmmt-Bang I ReJ^mtf 
Brebissoniana ! 

RhODYMENI ACEjE . 

Hymenocladia polymorphs J. Ag. Port Alfred, Slavin I 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

Epymenia obtusa J. Ag. Table Bay, Muysenberg, Haney ! 

Cape, Dreg*. 

Geogr! Distr. South Pacific. Cape Horn. Marion Island. 
Rhodymenia Palmetta J. Ag. Algoa Bay, Ecklon. 
Geogr. Distr, Atlantic. Adriatic. 



142 MARINE ALGM OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

Plocamium coccineum Lyngb. Table Bay, Wenek ! Kalk Bay, 
E. Young ! Boodle ! Algoa Bay, Ecklon. Natal, Kraus*. Cape, 
Harvey ! Scott Elliot ! 

Geogr. Distr. N. Atlantic. N. Pacific. W. Indies. Australia. 
Tasmania. 



Kew ! 



Hb 



P. glomeratum J. Ag. Cape, Hb. Kew ! Scott Elliot ! 

P. subfastigiatum Kiitz. Natal, fide Kutzing. 

P. costatum J. Ag. Cape, Hb. Dickie ! 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. Tasmania. New Zealand. 

P. Mertensii Grev. Cape, Hb. Dickie ! 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. Tasmania. 

.P. corallorhiza J. Ag. Robben Island, Tyson I Cape Point, 
Boodle I E. Young ! Cape Agulhas, Hohmack. ! No. 196. Knysna, 

Boodle ! Cape Recife, Bower bank ! Port Alfred, Carr ! Slavin ! 

Kei Mouth, Flanagan ! Natal, Krauss. Cape, Ecklon I Gueinziusl 
hind, Harvey I Hb. Wenek ! Hohenack. ! No. 596. 

P. nobile J. Ag. Simon's Bay, R. Brown ! Cape Recife, 
Bowerbank ! Cape, Hb. Dickie ! 

P. cornutum J. Ag. Table Bay, Harvey ! Sea Point, Tyson ! 
Kalk Bay, Pappel Boodle I E. Young \ Camps Bay, Ecklon. Cape, 
Agulhas, Hohenack. ! No. 597. Natal, Krauss. Cape, Burchell, 
Harvey ! Hb. Dickie I 

P. procerus Suhr. Cape, fide Bory. Algoa Bay, Ecklon. 
Natal, Krauss. 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. Tasmania. 

P. membranaceum Suhr. Cape, Suhr, Freycinet. 

Desmia tripinnata J. Ag. Natal, Krauss ! No. 321. St. Sebastian 

Bay, Mm Borcherds ! 

D. Hornemanni J. Ag. False Bay, Mm McMillan ! Cape 
Agulhas, Hohenack. ! No. 398. Algoa Bay, Ecklon, Holub I Port 
Alfred, Slavin I Carr 1 Port Natal, Gueinzius, Sanderson ! 

Ochtodes capensis J. Ag. Cape, Hb. Crouan. 

Rhodophyllis capensis Kiitz. Cape, Hb. Hofman-Bang, Snhr, 

Areschoug f Pajipe. 

Squamariace-e. 

Peyssonelia squamaria Dene. Natal, Krauss, Gueinzius ! 
Geogr. Distr. Atlantic (Europe). Mediterranean. 

P. replicata Kiitz. Natal, Gueinzius. 
P. major Kiitz. Port Natal, Gueinzius. 

P. caulescens Kiitz. Natal, Gueinzius. Agardh regards these 
three species of Kiitzing as doubtful. 

HlLDENBRAN DTIACEJE . 

Hildenbrandtia rosea Kiitz. Sea Point, Boodle I 
Geogr. Distr. Shores of Northern Europe. 



MARINE AUiK OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 143 

Sph^erococcoide^:. 
Tvleiophora Beckeri J. Ag. Cape, Hb. Holmes ! Port Alfred, 

Slavin ! 

Phacelocarpus oligacanthus Kiitz. Cape, fide Kiitzing. 

P. tristiohum J. Ag. Port Alfred, W. Carr ! 

P. Labillardierii J. Ag. Port Alfred, Slavin I Cape Hb. Dickie I 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. Tasmania. New Zealand. 

P. tortuosus Endl. et Dies. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! No. 247. 
Port Natal, Pfippig. Cape, Hohenack. ! No. 450. 

Dicubblla affinis J. Ag. Robben Island, Kalk Bay, Cape 
Point, Boodle ! Cape, Hb. Dickie 1 Scott Elliot \ 

D. flabellata J. Ag. Table Bay, Pappe ! Cape Point , Boodle \ 
Sea Point, Tyson \ Cape Agulhas, UohmackA Nos. 246 501 
Cane, AreschompMZ- extraeurop. e«icc. No. 39; Harvey \ Hb.Dichel 

D. fragilis J. Ag. Robben Island Boodle ! Table Bay Pappel 
Tytonl Cape Point, Boodle ! Cape Agulhas, ffohenack.l No. 245. 
Knysna, Krauss. Algoa Bay, flcttcm. Port Alfred Slavm Cape 
Gaudichaud, Areschoug, Phyo. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 14; florwy ! 
Ifow ! Hi. Dickie ! 

Gracilaria multipartita J. Ag. Natal, Krauss. 

(?^r. 2Ks*r. Warmer Atlantic (Europe and America). Indian 
Ocean. W. Indies. New Zealand. 

G. confervoides J. Ag. Cape, Gaudichaud, Hb. Dickie ! 

Geogr. Distr. Tbrougbout all seas. 

Sarcodia capensis J. Ag. Cape, Holub I Hb. Kew ! 

Calliblepharis fimbriata J. Ag Cape Agulbas Hohenack \ 

No 393 (This specimen is labelled C. orntita Kutz., but tne 

species does not bold good, being merely a form of 0. fimbria 

T As ) Aleoa Bay, Ecklon, Burchel! ! Port Alfred, Carr ! S/atr»i ! 

Cape , Gaudichaud, Zeyher ! Trmm ! Hb. Wenek \ Kitching I 

Heringia mirabilis J. Ag. Robben Island, Boodle I Pablo 
Bay, Gordon's Bay, Ecklon. Sea Point, Harvey ! Cape Point, 
Tyson \ Camps Bay, Reynolds ! Knysna ArajmWj! Algoa 
Bay, Hotofc ! Port Alfred, Carr I Cape, Gaudichaud, Drege ! #6. 
Dfeto ! Harvey ! Hohenack. ! No. 344. 



Delesserie.e. 



Holmesia capensis J. Ag. Cape, Hb. Holmes ! 

Nitophyllum reptans Crn. Cape Point, Boodle ! Cape, Hb. 

10 Geogr. Distr. North Atlantic. Mediterranean. 
N. platycarpum J. Ag. Robben Island, Bundle ! Table Bay, 
ffanwl Cape Point, tfood/e ! Green Point, Harvey ! Camps 
Bay, W«oW»t 2>on I Cape Agulhas, Hohmuusk. \ No. 598. 
Knysna, Krauss. Algoa Bay, fioluft ! Cape, 4r»*Aoitf , Phyc. 
extraeurop. exsicc. No. 38; Hb. Lenormandl Brand, Drege, Harvey \ 
Reeve ! Scott Elliot I . 

Geogr. Distr. Falklands. Vancouver. W.Indies. 



MARINE ALG;E OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



144 

N. undulatum Kiitz. Simon's Bay, Challenger ! 

N. Fisstnr Grev. Table Bay, Boodle ! Camps Bay, Reynolds ! 
Knysna, Krauss. Cape, Harvey ! 

N. venosum Harv. Table Bay, Harvey, Pajjpe ! Cape, Harvey ! 

Hb. Dickie ! 

N. capense Harv. Table Bay, Harvnj ! 

N. uncinatum J. Ag. Cape, 7?c«ow. Kei Mouth, Flanaoan ! 
, 6feo//r. Dwt/\ Australia. New Zealand. 

N. acrospermum J. Ag. Cape, Harvey, Hb. Suhr, Hb. Areschoug. 

N. pinnatifidum Suhr. Algoa Bay, Ecklon. 

N. serratum Suhr. Cape,.M> Suhr. 

N. maculatum Sond. Cape, HA. Binder, on Cludophora Eokloni. 

Neuroglossum Binderianum Kutz. Hont Bay, Harvey ! Camps 
Bay, Reynolds ! Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! 

Ehodoseris laciniata Harv. Cape, Harvey ! 

Botryocarpa prolifera Grev. Eobben Island, Boodle ! Table 
Bay, Sea Point, Harvey ! Cape Point, Boodle ! Cape, Hornemann, 
Areschong, Alg. extraeurop. exsice. No. 34 ; Reeve I 

Geogr. Distr. Southern seas. 

Delesseria imbricata Aresch. Port Alfred, J". Slavin ! This 
specimen differs slightly from the typical D. imbricata Aresch., but 
not sufficiently to form a new species. 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

D. ovifolia Kiitz. Cape, Suhr. 

D. ruscifolia Lamour. Sea Point, Tyson ! Natal, Krams. 

Cape, Harvey \ 



Distr 



W 



HELMINTHOCLADIACEiE . 



ARICATA 



Cape, lib. Dickie ! 



Geogr. Distr. Atlantic (Europe and America). ' W. Indies. 
Mediterranean. Australia. *""*«». 

Scinaia furcellata Bivon. Cape Point, Boodle I 
Geogr. Distr. Atlantic (Europe and America). W. Indies 
Mediterranean. Australia. - "Hues. 

S. salicornioides J. Ag. Port Natal, Gucn, Hm». 
Galaxaura umbellata Lam. Natal, fide Kutnna 
Geogr. Distr. Warm Atlantic. Australia. 

G obtusata Lam. Port Elizabeth, Spencer I Aleoa Bav 
Bomerbank Port Natal, Krauss I Gueinzius ! " g J ' 



Geogr. Distr. Warm 



(To be continued.) 






145 



BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 

By Edward F. Linton, M.A., and Wm. R. Linton, M.A. 

The plants to which the following notes refer were mainly 
gathered ^between 1889 and 1891, parts of Aberdeenshire, Forfar- 
shire and Dumfriesshire having been worked over in the two earlier 
years, and all the time <jiven to Hawk weed collecting in 1891 having 
been devoted to Mid-Perth. We have already published in this 
Journal the observations on new stations, &c, which were safely to 
be made without waiting for the results of cultivation or further 
study ; and now we would place on record the results attained by 
growing roots of doubtful plants, and careful comparison with types 
of unascertained specimens. These, though they may appear 
numerous, do not embrace all that we have collected of doubtful 
character ; some puzzles still remain unsolved, which we hesitate 
as yet to describe as new species or varieties. 

We take this opportunity of expressing our great obligation to 
Mr. F. J. Hanbury for according us on many occasions the freest 
access to his magnificent collections of Hawkweeds, and giving us 
the benefit of his opinion in frequent discussion and correspondence, 
and also for occasionally forwarding our specimens to Dr. C. J. 
Lindeberg for determination. In a few cases a name occurred to 
us for some of Mr. Hanbury's numerous doubtful plants, and at his 
request we incorporate in our paper some of these identifications 
which appear to extend the distribution of the species. 

It remains to add that the few species and varieties here pub- 
lished for the first time are not described in any case by us 
collectively, but by one or other of us separately ; and for this 
reason the name of the actual author is always appended to the 

n. sp. or nov. var. 

We add the usual * to denote new county or v.-c. records, pre- 
fixing it to the name of the county rather than the species, since in 
several cases more than one county is given for a plant, We must 
also premise that when so many collectors have been at work on the 
genus the last few years, it is not unlikely that some of these 
supposed records may have been published elsewhere before. On 
the other hand, it is possible that some of those not marked with 
an asterisk are new to the county or v.-c. 

H graniticolum, n. sp. A plant gathered in Corrie Etchachan, 
under Ben Muich Dhui, S. Aberdeen, in 1884, and again in 1889, 
belonging to the alpimim section, does not agree with any named 
species. ° It may possibly coincide with Prof. Babiogton's H. 
melanocephalum Tausch., v. insigne, but the description of this in 
the 8th edition of the Manual is too brief to admit of certain 
identification. Our plant being about equally allied to H. graci- 
lentum Backh., H. alpimim Backh., and H. eximium v. tenellum 

Backh., cannot be made a var. of any one of them. It is therefore 
proposed to name it specifically at present, and it will stand as 
11. graniticolum W. R. Linton. Green ; stem 1-3-headed, floccose, 

Journal op Botany.— Vol. 31. [May, 1893.] l 



**G BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 

setose, with many patent black-based hairs ; root-leaves ovate- 
spathulate, with a few coarse teeth in the lower half, and cuneate 
base ; inner leaves lanceolate, with large coarse teeth, rounded or 
blunt at the apex, with white hairs at the margin and partially on 
upper and lower surfaces, narrowed into winged petioles. Stem- 
ieat solitary, linear, with one or two linear bract-like leaves above ■ 
involucre rounded, thickly shaggy, with black-based hairs ; sets 
only at the base; phyllaries (outer adpressed) broad, blunt or 
slightly acute white-tipped; ligules light yellow, strongly pilose at 
the tips ; sty es nearly pure yellow. The leaves form a close 
rosette at the base, the primordial and outer being coriaceous, and 
more or less glabrous on the surface. The stem stands six inches 
clear oi the rosette in well-grown wild specimens. The heads, bv 
their shape, recall H. globosum Backh. ' 

H .gracileutum Backh. Two or three miles N. of Ben Lawers 

Si' 11 T ? M i S °T> .F° ir ? Ard ? n ' Ve ^ fine ; two uew stati °ns, we 
believe, for Mid-Perth, where this species is scarce 

H. nigrescens Backh. var. gracil ifolviun F. J. Hanbury. We 
gathered this on Craig Cailhch, aud on the Cam Chreag rocks, 
near Killm; in Coire Ardran, near Crianlarich ; on Ben Lawers 

M° Ve M°f P ia f", ' and ° n the Glen L y° n side of Bei1 L <™ers 




all in Mid-Perth. 
H, 



Besides the original station, near Loci 



Lee we have found this in Glen Fiagh, 12-15 miles away, and in 

bnl v ?]" T w I** AIS ° ° n Ben - na - B ourd, *S. Aberdeen, a less 
hairy plant but differing in no essential character. This was 
gathered in 1887 and laid in with forms of H. nigrescent. A 
mgrescens-hke > plant with deep yellow flowers, gathered on the Glen 
itefi^l Meal Ghaordie, *Mid-Perth, has eventually been 
identified by us as this species. The colour of the ligules, though 

fr P o P n?FoTf ° " mUCh n eeP -!i Sh ? de ° f * ellow than *** spoken 
hi Ji' agl " eeS WeH Wlth culfciva *ed specimens of the same in 



this respect. 



H. Marshalli Linton, var. cremnanthrs F. J. Hanburv Hero 

l^q .rth/n^l g f he « ed A f S 1 P6CUliar fom ° f IL »*™«» in 

1889 at the Dhuloch, S Aberdeen, which differed from //. Mar- 
shah chiefly in the very dark style and leaf- serration. Cultivation 
of this has produced a very similar plant to var. eremnanth**. 

H ckrysanthum var. microcepludum Backh. Rocks, Glen Lyon 
side of Ben Lawers range, *Mid-Perth. J 

H. sinuam F J .Hanbury. We add three more stations for 
this species m Mid-Perth; Meall-na-Saone, Glen Lochay; rock 
near Lochan-na-Lainge, between Killin and Ben Lawers • and 
rocks on the Glen Lyon side of the Ben Lawers ra„-e. ' 

H eentnpetale F J. Hanbury. Rather plentiful along the Mid- 

Burr 7eLvMoffJ\ G T ¥ T' 8 ™ ' C ^ lh ^' a » d Selcoth 
^urn near Moffat Dumfriesshire. It seemed to us a new and 

S^ru m a t alS °-J° I 1 " Haubur ^ When he nrst Iw'oui. 
specimens. It maintains its characters well in cultivation. 

the A1H blT P^i G i Gn Doll » * Forf;U -> and rock J bed of 

the Allt Dubh Galair, Glen Lochay, *Mid-Perth. Anion- the 



BRITISH HAWKWEfcDS 



147 



Boswell plants we found tins species from " Breadalbane, Perth, 
1851, gathered by Dr. Boswell." We consider a plaut gathered by 
the Rev. H. E. Fox on Helvellyn, in August, 1890, and sent to the 
Bot. Exch. Club, to be this species. Mr. Hanbury has specimens 
of the same plant gathered by Mr. Fox on Dollywaggon Pike, Lake 

District. . 

H. clovense, n.sp. A handsome and uniformly distinct spe- 
cies, fairly abundant in the Clova district, at elevations between 
500 ft. and about 2000 ft.; which would be associated with //. 
Schmidtii or H. muroruin, if judged by its leaves alone, but has the 
involucre of the nigrescens section. It has been gathered in several 
spots in the Clova Valley, in Glen Doll, in Glen Fiagh, along the 
Unich Water, and on Craig Maskeldie ; also by the Rev. E. b. 
Marshall on Craig Rennet formerly, and last year in Glen Canness, 
Forfar, and at Cairnwell, E. Perth; also previously in Glens Fiagh 
and Canness, Forfar, by Mr. F. J. Haubury, for whom it was 
named by Mr. Backhouse on the one occasion H. Schmultu, var., 
on the other, " H. nigrescens, not typical." We give as another 
locality the Midlaw Burn, near Moffat, Dumfriesshire, where we 
gathered several plants in 1890, winch long remained as forms of 
H. nigrescens. Mr. Hanbury was able to show us several specimens 
that seemed to be identical, from another part of Scotland, which 
Lindeberg had named H. nu/reseens, form. This plant of the Moffat 
district has unspotted leaves (unless some small weatlierworn 
specimens from Craigmichen Scaur are the same species), but 
otherwise goes well under H. clovense. We place the species m a 
small group, with H. centripetale, H. subniururum, and H. adlixlo- 
phglluw, at the end of the nigrescens section, to which they are 
allied by their heads, though in some points their affinities are 
elsewhere. The following description is given by E. F. Linton, 
being partly drawn from fresh specimens gathered at Clova in 1890. 
The 'name, having been used in conversation from a time when the 
plant appeared peculiar to the Clova Mountains, Forfarshire, is 
preserved to avoid confusion. . • . ■: . i 

H. clovense Linton. Stem 8-10 in. high, usually blotched with 
purple and subglabrous below, floccose above, more often leafless 
and not much branched, few-flowered. Leaves deltoid-ovate to 
ovate-acuminate, dentate, often with large spreading teeth near the 
base the lowest sometimes reflexed, hairy on both surfaces and 
softly ciliate, but later leaves glabrescent above, much blotched 
with purple as a rule ; stem-leaf when present lanceolate on short 
petiole, dentate or entire; heads 1^-1^ in. diam., broadly ovoid, 
in a lax irregular corymb; the branches of a luxuriant plant 
spreading, few-flowered; peduncles floccose and glandular, not 
hairy, straight or curved; involucre dark green (usually drying 
nearly black), velvety with black simple and many glandular hairs; 
phyllaries broad below, attenuate, acute, moderately floccose near 
the base, porrect in bud ; ligules yellow with a tinge of orange, 
glabrous at the tip ; styles usually pure yellow, sometimes with a 

greenish tinge. 

//. eailistophyUutn F. J. Hanbury. We have this from Glen 

2 



148 



BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 



Doll, * Forfar, and the Midlaw Burn, Moffat, *Dumfriesshire ; but 
in both localities the species appears to have been exceedingly 
scarce. 



H, 



We 



had this sent us by Mr. P. Ewing, collected in the lower part of 

Glen Lochay, near Killin ; and bave seen specimens from Ben Lui, 

collected by Mr. R. Kidston ; both in -Mid-Pertb. We gathered 

poor specimens on rocks by the railway, Strome Ferry, *W. Ross, 

in 1888, and by cultivation of a root eventually proved it to be this 
species. 

H. anglicum Ft., var. acuti/olium Backh. Glen Doll, Forfar. 
H. cerinthi forme Backh. Coire Ardran, Mid-Perth, in small 
quantity. Collected at Tarbert, Harris, by Col. J. W. Rimington. 

«. h L I ^"(f ,v "} leme F - J - Hanbury. A good series of plants from 
the Moftat district, *Dumfriesshire, chiefly from Black's Hope 
but also from the Selcoth Burn, were after a while identified (with 
Mr. Hanbury's approval) with H. Lmiqwellense, a species, we 
believe, only known certainly hitberto from the east coast of 
Caithness, and Sutherland ; though plants of our own have been 
doubtingly suspected to have their place here, which grew near the 
Clunie at Braemar. Cultivation (in the garden at Shirley) has been 
of great service m this case, completely establishing the identity of 
the Moflfat with the Caithness plant. 

H Lima var. Bripantum F. J. Hanbury. A single plant was 
found on the limestone cliff, Scout's Scar, near Kendal, * West- 
morland. A short piece of cliff only was searched. 

H. Schmidtii Tausch, var. eustomon Linton, n. var. This fine 
large-flowered plant has been noticed for some years on and about" 
the ruins of Penard Castle, Glamorgan. The ruins are far away 
from any habitation, and the plant is more likely to have come from 
some of the numerous cliffs in the neighbourhood than any other 
source. It differs from H. Schmidtii in the more solid stem, in the 
more attenuate leaves, which are ovate-acuminate to ovate-lanceo- 
ate, rather fleshy, glabrous above, very glaucous, and in the larger 
temon-ye ow flowers, which are greater in diameter by 4 in. or so. 
Ine phyllanes are proportionately larger. Dr. Lindeberg, on 
seeing mature specimens, sent him by Mr. Hanbury, thought the 
plant referable to H. vogetiacum rather than //. Schmidt*. Later 
he named a very immature specimen (gathered in May !) -forma 
H Schmidtii The living plant is really a good deal off //. 
Schmidtii, m the direction of H. Oreades Fr., but the differences do 
not work out well on paper. 

H. buylossridesAvvet-Toxxvet. Grassy banks about Uig, and the 
Vaternish Chffs Skye; woods south of Braemar, banks of R. Slug- 
gan, and rocky banks by the Linn of Dee, S. Aberdeen ; all these 
with the hgules erect unopened, and of a greenish yellow colour; 

tZfr y A U ftr 8 I all '^ nd Selc0th Burn > and Black '« Hope, in the 

S r fa ^J^' * Du ^"esshire 5 in Glen Lyon and 
^nll, t n y ™ ^ Ild ^ Perth I by the R. Yarrow, * Selkirkshire, and 
M t ?S fJt 7 1 i L ' Watt ? the Kil P atri ^k Hills, ^Dumbartonshire, 
all with the hgules somewhat recurved, and partly but not perfectly 
opened. In reference to Mr. Hanbury's remarks on II. oLmoides 



JjftlTISH HAWKWEfiDS. *^9 



Fr. in this Journal (1892, 181, 132), we may observe that we at 
first made out the Braemar plant to be II. onosmoides Fr. ourselves 
specimens of two of our gatherings so labelled were sent by Mr. 
Hanbury's kindness, to Dr. Lindeberg, who affirmed one (from the 
R Slu4an) to be H. onosmoules Fr., and affirmed the other (from 
the Linn of Dee) to be another species which be knew. , but had not 
named. Later on we became acquainted with the description ol 
Mons. Arvet-Touvet's plant, and sent specimens from Skye, Brae- 
mar and Moffat, enquiring whether they were not his I . buf/lossoides. 
We had M. Arvet-Touvet's distinct opinion in reply that our plants 
were his kujlossoides, and not H. onosmoides Fr. As all our gatherings 
a-ree well with M. Arvet-Touvet's description, and do not nt 
equally well Fries' description or Lindeberg's specimens oiH. onos- 
moides, we prefer to adopt M. Arvet-Touvet's name and also to 
regard this widely dispersed plant of ours as a different species to 
IL onosmoides Fr. We detected among Mr. Hanbury's numerous 
doubtful plants a rather poor specimen ofH.%'«"ui 
Minhiagh, Innisbowen, N. Ireland, collected by Mr. H. C. Hart m 
July, 1891. We think that the Grey Mare's Tail plant which Mr. 



H . saxif 



has shown us, is most probably this species After two caieful 
searches of the rocks so far as they are accessible in the neighbour- 
hood of the Grey Mare's Tail, including an ascent of the rocky 
precipice just east of the fall, a climb which we do not advi e 
anyone to undertake, and a thorough examination of the whole 
burn above the fall, we may say that we found no trace of any 
Hawkweeds at all like H. sa.rifnujum, except this II bwjlossoid e.y 
Our specimens of tins went to Dr. C. J. Lindeberg, queried as II. 
sa.vifrarjum Fr., and were negatived without any name being sug- 
gested. In connection with this question it may be observed that 
Mr H. Dahlstedt has issued in his set of Hieracia (Fasc. in. JNo. lb) 
a plant rather like our shadegrown specimens of II. buglossmdes from 
the Yarrow, near Selkirk, which he names H. sacifnojum Fr. var. 
l>S eudonosv,oides, n. subsp. This is not at all identical with our 
series of Moffat plants, but it shows that there is resemblance 
between forms of the two species A plant which reached us 
through the Botanical Exchange Club, collected by Mr. W H. 
Beeby on the Bergs of Skelberry, Northmaven, Shetland, m July, 
1889; and sent out as II. Schmidt* Tauscli., is, we believe, referable 
rather to this widely distributed species; it scarcely differs from the 
Moffat form of the plant, except in the greater breadth oi the leaves. 
II. Oreades Fr. Bocks, Bettybill, *W. Sutherland. Also from 
Craig Maskeldie, above Loch Lee, "Forfar, where it would appear 



to be very scarce. 
II. argenteum Fr. 



gindall 



S Aberdeen, and from Bettybill, W. Sutherland ; in the latter case 
a possible product of H. Oreades and this species. A very different 
broad-leaved form, a striking-looking plant, comes from rocks near 
Llyn Ogwen, Carnarvon ; Mr. Hanbury has found a similar plant 
to this by the K. Elan, Radnor. 

(To be continued, 1 






150 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS 



COMPILED BY 



William A. Clarke, F.L.S. 

(Continued from p. 88.) 

rmum commutatum 



1713 " rw TO oiii ^ZT^ ,, * vyivng. D pec. umo. y& (1818). 
x/xo. coinwal baxifraere Pp+ T-Toi-k t>,.,* + • \c n 

PetTver 1 ulfs ,V fi:n a more . J"™?' 6 ^^^ : " accuratiorem qnam 
a .British Li f r m i; d ' T f J; VliL " Ifc must W bee " toown 
has i* ll t 1Un J 718 ' for Buddle ' who died in 1715, 



Conium maculatum 



H-S^STHZLro foST (W8) - 1548 - "°" re 



Smyrnium Olusatrum 



raEtt^E«=5a3a*y-A 



Turn. ii. 68. 

eurum 



Wales 



1*£W" betTOue s=S2^S- «5a?AJ2SS: 



ristatum 



1812 FminH in n„ / , , >ven % -oeitr. n. 89 1825). 

Sbv Jal d i9 SSm"? %£ Kev ; Anron Neck ' "* "■» <» 

for same. ( ' 2 ' 68) ' and " ote oa ori 8inal drawing 

*SS? t SP-, P- 288 (1758). 16 63. - Near 



Neotes, also 






falcatum 



Thomas C^de/in 1881 ^t 2, E^S' i 834 " r ° und ^ Mr ' 
and Ongar, E^sex "-E B fif Sf ^^ betWeen Cheh » sf - 1 

-Lob. Adv. 88L Vincent1 '' nobls ?»m niagna oopia repertam." 



Apium 



«£es £**«<« s?C£££ Sate 



Kent and Essex."— Ger. em. 1014. 



nodiflorum 



1632. 



watery place about hSZ^^TS^ " ^^ fa e ™* 

A. mundatum Reiclib f Tp vw< • 

" Hium pus.Jlum foliis vanL n™ 1 f '"' XX1 ' 9 < 1867 )' 164L 
Johns. Merc. Bot. pars alt 8-r < I™ descn P tura > in aquosis."- 
Merrett, 114. P "* In Sra «y "ear Purbright."- 

CicutavirosaL.Sp.P1.255(1753). 1633. "Found by Mr. 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS fc 



151 



Goodyer in the ponds about Moore Parke; and by M. George 
Bowles in the ditches about Ellesrnere [Salop], and in divers 
ponds in Flint-shire. " — Ger. em. 257. 

Carum verticillatum Koch in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. xii. 122 
(1824). 1732. Near Ayr, in Scotland. Mr. W. Houston.— Mar- 
tyn's Tournefort, 154. 

C. segetum Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. i. 892 (1867). 1629. 
"Sium terrestre."— Johns. Kent, 8. First observed by Johu 
Goodyer, who says (Ger. em. 1018), " I took the description of this 
herb the vere 1620, but observed it long afore." 

C. Bulbocastanum Koch in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. xii. 121 
(1824). 1841. Found by Rev. W. H. Coleman in 1839, " near 
Cherry Hinton in Cambridgeshire." — E. B. Supp. 2862. 

Sison Amomum L. Sp. PL 252 (1753). 1548. " Besyde 

Shene" (Middx.). — Turn. Names, G. iij, back. 

Sium latifolium L. Sp. PI. 251 (1753). 1597. "In moorish 
and marshie grounds. "—Ger. 200. 1650. "By Bedding." 

How, Phvt. 114 (1650). 

S. erectum Huds. i. 103 (1762). 1633. " This I first found 
in the company of M. Robert Larkin going betweene Redriffe and 
Deptford." — Johnson in Ger. em. 257. 

JEgopodium Podagraria L. Sp. PI. 265 (1753). 1597. 
"Groweth of it selfe in gardens without setting or sowing." — 

Ger. 849. 

Pimpinella Saxifraga L. Sp. PL 163 (1753). 1568. 

" Groweth commonlye in Englaride." — Turn. iii. 11. 

P. major Huds. i. 110 (1762). 1660. "In the woods about 
S. George Hatley, and many other woods on the borders of Cam- 
bridgeshire towards Bedfordshire. " — R. C. C. 118. 

Conopodium denudatum Koch in Nov. Acad. Nat. Cur. xii. 
119 (1824). 1548. " Groweth plentuouslye in Northumberland 
beside Morpeth." —Turn. Names, B i, back. 

Myrrhis odorata Scop. Fl, Cam. ed. 2, i. 107 (1772). 1777. 
44 Frequent in the low lands [of Scotland] , in orchards, and waste 
places, but always near houses." — Lightf. Fl. Scot. 166. 

Chserophyllum temulum L. Sp. PI. 258 (1753). 1633. 

" Found in June and July almost in everie hedge. "— Ger. em. 1037. 
Scandix Pecten L. Sp. PL 256 (1753). 1562. " Groweth in 

ye corne." — Turn. ii. 130. 

Anthriscus vulgaris Pers. Syn. i. 320(1805). 1632. Hamp- 
stead Heath.— Johns. Enum. ( 4t Myrrhis sylvestris nova iEqui- 

eoloruni "). 

A. sylvestris Hoffm. Umb. 40(1814). 1548. " Myrrhis .. . 

called in ( imbrygeshyre casshes . . . groweth in hedges in every 
countrey." — Turn. Names, E v, back. 

Seseli Libanotis Koch in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. xii. Ill (1824). 
1690. M On Gogmagog Hills in Cambridgeshire."'— Kay, Syn. i. 70. 

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Diet. (17(58). 1677. "By the 

seaside in Cornwal towards the lands end plentifully, " and 4< Pe- 
vensiy Marsh in Sussex and elsewhere." — Ray, Cat. ed. 2, 111. 

Crithmum maritimum L. Sp. PL 246 (1753). 1548. 



152 MUST EECOEDS OF BBIT1BH J'LOWEEING PLANTS. 

hSTo T, m hS. iD r ° CkeS aUd Cliff6S beSide D °ver.»_Tu ra . 



GEnanthe 



1597. " Neere 



the river of t7™7« m f" ' ^°* r ' 0d • 1597 - " Ne ere 

?i5K5K&^ about the Bishop of Loudons house 

<E. pimpinelloides L. Sp. PI. 255 (1753) 1844 « Drv 
179?' SIS P °i licl1 ' *£'' P1 ' Palat ' l 289 ("76). 

OS La^Jli • r IS ! S fe y °" d Ifle y-"-S>'bth. Fl. Oxon, 98. ' 



£& s »t.teSiiE:Sr= 



CE 

fl 



1724. 



stozf £Stf ynapi a r L ; Sp - P1 i 256 p«" &7.^£2S 

unesruDbish . . almost everywhere."— Ger. 905. 



trilobum 



211. ' '• J * c - Melvill in Joum. Bot. 1871, 

lSef^LfF,!? 81 ? ST*-?* Roem - et Sc,lu1 ^, Syst. vi. 36 

Mfliiw, Ai.1 . .° J- UI 11. in. o/. 



Meum Athamanticum 



S^E?R 1 SB^3S5*rS^J5a 



Snes.;- G T^? t ! 1 '. , 5 V! , . e S 62 a ) Sl,OPrik ° f DUm " U «» »J»S- 33 
Ligusticum scoticum L. So PI wn /nw^ too* 

towards Qne^rffil^^ S^ a JaST ^ 

Woods, N. Lincolns C rI™ /%% I 880 ' uear B Wton 
Jour,,. Bot. S pp 9 3 ;T2^ P ° f B0t ReC ' Chlb < 1881 )' ^ 
Angelica sylvestrisL. Sp. PI. 251 (1753) i*«o „« 

here m the lowe woodes -ind lw ♦l.l , * ^'°,^- 1568 - "Groweth 

c wuuues ana by the water sydes."— Turn. iii. 6. 

(To be continued.) 



153 



SHORT NOTES. 

Hermaphrodite Hazels. — I have noticed in this neighbourhood 
(Stonyhurst, Blackburn), during the present spring, three cases of 
hazels bearing male catkins with some of their florets apparently 
bisexual. The phenomenon is most noticeable in the bud, when 
the long red styles protrude from between the closed-up scales. 
By the time the florets have opened, the style is withered, but may 
still be discerned as a black thread among the anthers. In each of 
the three plants a fairly large proportion of the male catkins, 
perhaps about a quarter, exhibited the abnormal growth ; the 
number of style-bearing florets on a catkin varying from two or 
three to fifteen or more. The styles occurred mostly among the 
lower florets. I have seen the hazel quoted as an example of 
proterandry. In these parts the rule seems to be that as soon as 
a plant has matured its first pollen, it has also some mature 
stigmas to receive it ; and that as long as mature stigmas remain, 
there remains also some pollen to fertilise them. — C. A. Newdigate. 

[See Journ. Lot, 1889, 193, for note on another somewhat similar 
form. Specimens of both are in the British Museum Herbarium. — 
Ed. Journ. Bot.] 

Lonicera Caprifolium in West Kent. — Two or three years ago 
I thought I found Lonicera Caprifolium growing in the neighbour- 
hood of Hailing, near Maidstone, but it was too early in the year to say 
for certain. Last week, however, I certified it. It is not, I suppose, 
native, but in this station it has every appearance of one, growing 
on the top of a steep chalky bank on the rough edge of a large 
thicket of hazel, &c, and far from habitations. In the neighbour- 
hood Helleborus fcetidus and Aquilegia vulgaris grow in considerable 
quantity, both, I think, certainly native. The Lonicera may be 
bird-sown, but were it not for the great doubt which appears to 
exist as to its nativity in Britain, I should not for an instant have 
suspected this station. — A. H. Wolley Dod. 

Flora of Kent. — From various causes, the publication of this 
work, projected a good many years ago, has been postponed. The 
available materials are now, however, nearly all incorporated, and 
we hope to see them in print at no distant date. Owing to the 
great advance made recently in the knowledge of critical forms, we 
need, and earnestly invite, the assistance of all botanists who may 
visit the county during the present season, in order that the 
information with regard to such forms may be as accurate and 
complete as possible. Our own occupations, and the fact of our 
being non-resident in the county, make this co operation the more 
necessary and valuable. The Batrachian Ranunculi, Rosa, Rubus, 
Potamogetom, and Char a may be instanced as groups especially 
requiring further study. We shall be greatly obliged by the gift or 
loan of specimens, which should be complete and well-preserved, as 
indifferent material is useless. The Sevenoaks district may be 
expected to promise many brambles of interest ; and the marshes 
of Sheppey and Thanet, as well as the wealden district between 
Cranbrook and Romney Marsh, should repay careful search. The 



l*^ HANDBOOK OF THE IRIDEjE. 

autumnal sea-side vegetation also requires further attention. Any 
information given will receive due acknowledgment, and may be 
sent to the Eey. E. S. Marshall, Milford Vicarage, Godalming. It 
is des.rable to have definite localities for plants, not necessarily for 
precise publication, in the case of any which might be threatened 
with extinction by greedy collectors. — Frederick J. Hanrury ; 



DWARD 



Hieracium Friesii Htn. var. pilosum.— I suggest this as a name 
for the variety described by me under H. Friedi var. hirsutum 
(Joum hot. 1892 P . 369), and I regret that I overlooked the fact 
of the latter varietal name having already been employed by Hart- 
mann lor a different plant.— Frederick J. Hanbury. 






NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Handbook of the bide*. By J. G. Baker. London : Geoi-e 
^ Bell & Sons. 1892. 8vo, pp. xii. 247. Price 7s. 6d. ° 

D1 . « & laa of a handbook or monograph from Mr 

Baker, and regret to learn from the opening words in the preface to 

the present one that -this is the last of a series " ; we can only 

uXXw™ T U T- aUth ° r , wiU S00n sefc t0 work on a sil *ilar 
undertaking. Since his arrival at Kew in 1866, Mr. Baker has 

been busy working up the Vascular Cryptogams and petaloid 

Jo^ SrS^ 8 !* ^ PaperS "^he Linnean Sweety's 
Journal and his handbooks, collections of the latter group can be 

^KSf'M^ C °?« tiVe eaSe ' and the fre *™* dLpfng off of 
Floras before the Monocotyledons are reached, though still a 

Zve™tn«a!\ri y J emedied - Bef ° ie he l *y* dowfhi S s lens 
th.if' ? Mr ' Ba J OT , glVe us a monograph or handbook of 

re^siT ^f SaninT r" 6 "" ^^ ^^ - ™* ^ 

The arrangement in tribes and genera adopted in the work 
Hooked ^P^ 1 ^ lde ^^al with that followed in Bentham and 
^jZ^fc^' J^.f> ^—, contains the large 



genus Ins, with the Dearly allied Mo> 



„i A • , V , **^«iv anicu ±}±vrwa ana eleven small Leonora 

Kent, if It „ y le - b ' 1,uc T lieS °fP 0site ""> stame '« ^ the outer 
2"5.? Pel ' ,a ?" i - , In M P««ti«« «<"•«« from iri« the author 



Africa 



Slight differences 



from 7W/ / / W * w,w ™ w * ar « «"""! ^ Wie separation otHydrotmiia 

etitation* o s™t' a ° C0,mt » ^ cam P a » ulate Perianth, the sub- 
stitution of Sweet s name Herbertia for Bentham's i/ ,/ ((fl the 

S3b±SS£ SSSr- while tlie sma11 c ^ e »bW 

is no longer stigmatised as a "genus anomalum." 

Kr«« r i n 8u ?™ ushie «> differs from the first in having the stvle- 

tZt eS U e r; atmS ^ th f a 1 1 i therS - Ifc is Su " I SS, four ~b- 
tribes .-the CV^e, with a bulb or corm, and oue-flowered spathes; 



HANDBOOK OF THE IBIDEM. 155 

the American Cipurem, with a similar rootstock, but the perianth- 
tube obsolete, and usually more than one flower to the spathe ; and 
the Eusisyrinchiew and Aristea, which have neither bulb nor corm, 
the second being distinguished from the first by its distinct 
perianth-tube. The genus Keitia, queried by Bentham, which was 
founded by Kegel on a species from Natal, is now identified with 

Eleutherine plicata Herb. 

The third tribe, Ixiea, with spicate, non-fugitive flowers solitary 
in each spathe, corresponds exactly with that of Bentham, and 
includes Geissorhiza, Ixia and their allies, with a regular perianth 
and simple style-branches, the Watsonia group with unilateral 
stamens and bifid style-branches, Acidanthera, Tritonia, &c, with a 
subregular periauth-limb, and the irregular Gladiolus group. It 
will thus be seen that Mr. Baker has abandoned the serial arrange- 
ment of his Sy sterna Iridcearum, which preceded that of the Genera 
Plantar urn. He then adopted three series — Ixiea, Iridea, and 
Gladiolece, the first characterised by a regular perianth with 
similar inner and outer whorls and ^equilateral stamens, including 
therefore Ixia and its near allies and the crocuses, and thus scarcely 
comparable with the present tribe of the same name. 

Pax, who elaborated the Iridacece for Engler and Prantl's 
Pjianzenfamilien in 1887, has an arrangement very like that of 
Bentham ; of his three sections, lxioidece corresponds exactly to Imm % 
while the sub-tribe Crocece is separated as a distinct section, 
Crocoidea; the remainder of Shyrinehiea, and the Motmem % are united 
in a third, Iridoidea. 

In the present handbook the same plan is followed as in those 
dealing with the Fern Allies, AmaryllidetE, and Bromeliacea, the 
similarity extending to the convenient size and neat green binding 
of the three volumes. Unfortunately we may push the comparison 
a little further. Mr. Baker is a rapid worker, and gets over a 
great deal of ground, but he lacks a certain fineness of touch, so 
that a want of finish is occasionally evident. We remember to 
have made a similar observation when reviewing his Handbook 
of Bromdiacea. The species of Marica and Sisyrinchium, described 
by Martens and Galeotti (Bull. Acad. Hoy. Brux. x.) from specimens 
collected by the latter in Mexico, are not included, though cited by 
Hemsley in the Biologia Centralis Americana, where it is stated that 
the Sisyrinchium (S. a [fine) is referred to iridi folium (presumably by 
Mr. Baker himself) in the Kew Herbarium. There are some names 
of European species which we cannot find taken up, e. g., Iris tristis 
Rchb. (fig. 327 of his Icon. Fl. Germ.), which in the Systema occurs 
where we should expect to find it, among the varieties of pumila, 
although the other varieties are mentioned. Of course we do not 
look for citations of M. Gandoger's innumerable names — life is too 
short and space too valuable. Again, it would be well in cases 
where the name of a figure is corrected, especially in so w r ell 
known and universally used book as the Botanical Magazine, to say 
exactly what the figure does re present. Thus we have on page 33, 
"Iris apJtylla L. non Bot. Mag." and on the next, " 7. lurida Ait., 
Bot. May. t. 986, non 699 ; but what then are these Bot. Mag. 
figures ? There are a few mistakes in numbers in the references, 



156 



THE CHARACE.E OF AMERICA. — SKT OF BRITISH BUBt. 



Watt 



~~~ .. , r u,„ v , * species dedicated to the collector, Dr. 
have two ts ; it is correctly written in the index. 

beenmin ^ /° UM ii haVe !i een more Useful if more number s ^d 
been quoted, especially m the case of the less-kuown species We 

buUli t^r he ? d ' ^ Citati ° n ° f numbers Panders'to I e azinel 
siderab lv VST* f T ^ ?* an authori ^tive specimen, it does con^ 
orZmovn^f f., des ° n P t101 ?' specially if the latter is not very full 
or is provokingly like its neighbours. . r> -^ 

A. 15. Kendle. 
of Nnella, eight specee being described, of which four are new 

close Tlmi Tv ""• ' Y - y, 'f ""«'">"■ «* -V- »— „°™ail 
Sant bv £," mtr ? d " 06d a , new feat " re in «><* illustration o7 S 

SS5SS ;- jtstt? Co-- 

SK/tttft iT n °' »» m °cred so that they can be 
of prmter s ^rs ' etterpreSS ' 8 di8fi ° Ured b ? a lar «e number 

— H. & J. Groves. 

Set of British Llnbu Faso 9 XTna op *n r» 

Iflis second fasciculus includes several nf fi>„ 

■5-2 * ^n:z: h s, L set ;r ;:s ; -S 

dumetorum var. /« Amrmrrcf *u V Y pallulus, and 

them a 8 pec\m n of ibff W '" be ^ gIad to h »™ l' 1 *"*" ^re 

there ts hSTany ot r tf thT£^ *• 7*"" .^ Ne6S ' for 
diversely Tlf« o«« • ames wlllch we have used so 

and S be taker^r^o? 1 C T f f 3 ; SdeCted and welI ' d ^" 
collect for the exchange Xt °A l ** 5 T* 6 * by those wh ° 
to each subscribL a C0D v of ;i,/<5° ng ^^ Set is dlsfc ^buted 
Bogers which has alS ? , Synopsis by the Rev. W. Moyle 

botanistl^ find f SSSriS,? 1 S?? ent8 b ^ J °? 0aL In this 
genus which has been TonT^ V ^ T 00 ?' ° f work iu tLe 
fasciculus and others since F>,kl" ? "**"*• h *, H* editors of tbe 
has found its waTinto the K % Syn ° P u 1S ° f tbe E »™P*an Eubi 

added materiaUyV th vat of IV ^" K WOuld have 

j " «ic vamc ol the Synopsis if more synonymy 



THE STRUCTURE OF WHEAT. 157 

had been given. It is often difficult or impossible to tell in what 
relation the names here used for the first time as applied to British 
forms stand in comparison with those employed by Babington in 
his Synopsis and in his supplementary papers in this Journal, and 
in the list in the last edition of the London Catalogue. For our 
commonest English hedge bramble the name ulmifolim Schott, 
which is used by Focke, has many years' priority over rmticanus ; 
and horridus of C. F. Schultz, fully described in 1819 (Fl. Starg. 
Suppl. p. 30), has many years' priority over clumetorum ferox. The 
name dumetorum as used by Weihe & Nees is intended to cover 



'yW ( 



J. G. B. 



if Wheat : shown in a series of 



explanatory remarks. By Robert H, Dunham. London: 
Wm. Dunham, Mark Lane. 1892. Pp. 26, and 21 photo- 
graphs. 8vo. 

There are some admirable and instructive photographs in this 
volume, though they are not all equally good. They are chiefly 
devoted to the flower and fruit, but two deal with the stem, and 
one of these is very good, showing the structures through the solid 
portion of a node. The details of the flower do not lend them- 
selves to the production of satisfactory photo -micrographs, but the 
sections of the grain are valuable. The photographs of the gluten- 
containing cells (numbered 17 and 18), which form the outer series 
of the cells of the seed, are unhappily interpreted as being an 
inner skin of the grain. It must however be said that a careful 
investigation of the photographs will supply an accurate idea of the 
structure and parts of the grain of wheat. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Dunham, in issuing his original 
illustrations, did not obtain the help of some one acquainted with 
histological botany. He would have avoided some incorrect inter- 
pretations of the objects photographed, such as making the gluten- 
cells a skin, or treating the walls of the empty cells in his sections 
as " gluten webbing, spread out somewhat after the manner of a 
fishing-net, to which it has a distinct resemblance." " The endo- 
sperm, " he says, " consists of gluten-walls and starch, and the 
gluten is arranged in a fine network, which extends to the centre of 
the berry, forming, with the starch, the inside of the wheat berry." 
The reader will meet with many novel notions in the book, such as, 
to give a single example: — "The hairs of the beard are hollow. 
These hollow hairs are, in effect, conduits, of which it is the function 
to draw off the superfluous moisture that would otherwise cause 
prejudicial fermentation. On the other hand, it is the proper func- 
tion of this moisture to convey to the kernel its mineral and gaseous 
food. Another duty of the beard is connected with the earliest life 
of the plant, for when the seed is first sown, these hair ducts suck up 
the moisture necessary for the process of germination." 

W. 0. 



158 



>/ 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 

A. C. Seward, 



Mye 



Iplon ■ (2 plates). Li D. H /Scott iff. Brebner, < The Secondary 
Oambial Development in EquUehm' (1 plate). — J. R. Green 

n Nuclei of Plants. -P. Groom, - The Velamen of Orchids.' 
Influence of external conditions on form of leaves.' - 



-Id., 
A. P. Swan, 



. W..U1.UUUO TO 1UJ.IJ 

Resisting vitality of spores of Bacillus.' 
Annah Scottish Not. Hist. (April) 



A. Bennett, < Records of 



H. Schenck, ' Ueber Einschliessen 



Botanical Magazine (Tokio : Feb.). 



-Bo*. Centralblatt. (No. 14). 

von grosseren Schmitten zur Herstellung' von DemonstratipnV" 

ntnrima, sp. o. ' '■• K - Y atabe, Sotmi'u ««i- 

mark"'' ^K?>-& Bolllin ' ' Sudriger Mo Pite Lapp. 

R , '; 0fve ' sl 2' af de s "»ska arteroa af slagtet RUriMum . ' 
zu deo ChvWd?»^„ Uebe^ansform voo den Protoeoecaceen 

RapfS £f iMc feS; extraord - en A,g " ie) - 

N. L. Britton, ' J. S. New- 



£««. Torrey Bot. Club (March), 
berry (portrait). - J. H. Redfield, 



I. C Martindale.' 



Grpanrv < a«„* T: MU ' x « '-'.Martindale 

& y '. M Anatom y as a s P ecial department of Botanv ' 
Far ow, 'Notes on Alg*.'-B. D. Halsted. ' SnlZTL 



E. L. 
W. G. 



B. D. Halsted, ' Solanaceous Anthrac- 



noses.'— J. D. Leiber? TH±*i»l "'" aieu ' ooianaceous Anthrac- 

fPP.no. (2 plates) b i rg G D N.'Ber B2 «£**?* 



bit/ mini, sp. nn. 



G. . N. Best, Buxbivumia Piped, Ditriekum am- 



J. Deby 'Fossil Aulisci of California.' 



Hieraci 



I la formosa 



T. F. 



Ert/thea (April). 

Mount Hamilton.' — 

■ Immigrant Plants of Los Angelo7 County/ 

Gardeners* Chronicle (Mar 2 

(n.sp. or hybr. ?).-H. N. Ridiey, - u 
Irisatrofima Baker, sp.n.-(Ap. 15), 
Oneuhum Rmnzlinii O'Brien, spp. nn. 
Irish Naturalist (April). 



M .»' ? r J eene ' 'Vegetation of summit of 
Id., Novitates Occidentales.'_A. Davidson, 

""*■""" Angelos Cnnnf.v ' 

Gardeners' Chronicle (Mar 9^1 n i *i . -~ , 

»> ~ -- u _ xai - *o). — Galanthus maxinms Baker 

(Eceoclades 



Iseffi 



(Ap. 1). 



Armagh.' — W.""Swan7t™ ' 7Z£bJ& S ae f r ' ! Flora of Co ™ty 
N. Cofgan, 'Flora ?If Aran kand^ 6 " W °° d ° f L ° Ugh Nea * h ' " 



- BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 159 

Journal de Botanique (April 1). — P. Hariot, ' Flore crypto- 
gamique de Tile Jan Mayen.' — L. Mangin, ' Recherches sur les 
composees pectiques.' — E. G. Camus, ' Monographie des Orchidees 
de France' (contd.). — (April 16). L. Guignard, ■ Sur le developpe- 
ment de la graine ' (contd.). — A. Francbet, Gerbera Tanantii, sp.n. 

La Notarisia (Oct.-Dec. 1892). — W. West, ' Nonnulhe alga* 
aquae dulcis Lusitanicae.' — F. Del Torre, ■ Alcune altre osservazioni 
sulle Alglie.' — D. Levi-Morenos, 'L'origine della Pietra litografica.' 

E. De Wildeman, < Sur la ' Cyanophilie ' et V '^rythrophilie' 
des noyaux cellulaires.' — F. Castracane, ■ Nuovo tipo di diatomea 
pelagica italiana.' 

Xuovo Oiorn. Bot. Italiano (Ap. 10). — S. Sommier, 4 Risultati 
botanici di un viaggio all' Ob inferiore.' — N. C. Kindberg,^ ' Ex- 
cursions bryologiques.' — E. Baroni, 'Osservazioni sul polline di 
alcune Papaveracee.' 

est err. Bot. Zeitschiift (March). — H. Zukal, ' Hymenobolus 
(gen.nov. Perichaenacearuin) parasiticus ' (1 plate). — R. v. Wettstein, 
1 Die Arten der Gattung Euphrasia. 9 — K. Fritsch, 4 Nomenclatorische 
Bemerkungen.' — G. Evers, ■ Hieracmm Solilapidis & H. pulchrum.' 
V. Schiffner, ' Bemerkungen iiber die Terminologie ' (concl.). — F. 
Arnold, ' Lichenologische Fragmented — (April). A. Kerner, 

Scabiosa Trenta (1 plate). — V. Schiffner, Metzgeriopsis pmilla 
(1 plate). — H. Zukal, Lachnobolus pygmmis, sp.n. — P. Ascherson, 
Veronica campestris Schmalh. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, <tc. 

The death of Alphonse DeCandolle, which took place on the 
4th of April, at Geneva, in his eighty-seventh year, removes from 
us the second, though happily not the last, botanical representative 
of a name which has for nearly a century occupied a prominent 
place in the scientific world. It would be impossible in the space 
just now at our command to offer anything like an adequate tribute 
to his memory ; this will be offered in many other periodicals. But 
we hope in an early number to publish some notes regarding the 
deceased botanist which will be of interest to the readers of this 
Journal, of which he was always a friend, and which was not 
unfrequently honoured by being the medium of his botanical 

communications. 

Death has indeed been busy lately among botanists. In addition 
to those in our last issue, we have to record the loss of Isaac C. 
Mabtindale, of New Jersey, of whom a biography appears in the 
Torrey Bulletin for March. Mr. Martindale was born July 15, 
1842, at Byberry, Pennsylvania ; the date of his death, which took 
place at Camden, New Jersey, is not given. He formed a large 
herbarium, and contributed several papers to American periodicals. 
The same number of the Bulletin contains a biography and biblio- 
graphy t accompanied by an excellent portrait, of Prof. John Strong 
Newberry, who was born at Windsor, Connecticut, December 7, 
1822, and died at Newhaven, Connecticut, on the same day, 1892. 






*°" BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

Edward Parfitt who died at Exeter on Jan. 15, was Librarian 
to the Devon and Exeter Institution— a post which he held for 
thirty-two years. A short notice of him occurs in Natural Science 
tor April, from which we extract the following:— << Bom near 



- — jr--, -x^^ »"^u wc ex bract uie ionowmg : — " .Born near 
Norwich in 1820 the son of a gardener, he had from his earliest 
youth a passion for studying life of all kinds, which led him to go 

%Zl T !, t0 n get f ome ac< l uainta »ce with foreign animals. 
Wrecked near the Cape he was obliged to make a long stay, which 

ZZT f f aSte *X B !° tany and homology, and allowed him to 
make a collection. On his return to England he devoted himself 
to Horticulture, and went to Devon ahnnf. iftift «;„™ *i,^ 



to Devon about 1846. Since then 



p., vfi ;i V a ' .i xt lu ^evon anout 1845. Since then 

Paifitt worked on the Natural History of the county, published 
numerous local papers, and has left a MS. on Devon Fungi in 
12 vols., illustrated by 1530 plates, drawn and painted by himself." 

The deaths of two Italian botanists should also be mentioned • 
Adolfo Targioni-Tozzetxx, who died at Florence on PeSTs in his 
seventieth year, and Giuseppe Antonio Pasquale, who was born at 
Anoja, Calabria, Oct. 80, 1820, and died at Naples on Feb 14 

We are glad to see a ninth part of the useful Manual of 
aceom Plants, issued by Messrs. James Veitch & Sons. It j 



ri i w -, S —"v*"-* 9 * uailica veiLuii <x Dons, it includes 

Lywhdnun Zygopetalum, Lycaste, and a large number of smaller 
genera, with numerous illustrations and an index-the whole 
occupying 194 pages. The tenth and concluding part o t li verv 

some length in this Journal, is announced as in preparation ■ it 
will contain a general review of the Orehidm. P re P aratlon ■ " 

Prof F. W. Oliver has communicated to the Eoval Horti- 
cultural Society his second Eeport "on the Effects of Urban Fnl 
upon Cultivated Plants." It forms a pampM^rfX&Sf 

by fe? .TZ^rT^ °f the -i-ies to p y ian;scau g sed 
oy tog, and the participation in these results of the various 
conditions unfavourable to vegetation which are incident to foT" 
L^l E u^ ^l d6al With the f °S question tott its purely o!al 

S *'« fJ^SF*?- being preliminary to «a ve^detS 
leport or monograph which will appear "in due time." 

The first volume of an important addition to European floras 

Si? 1 * A t S Marmm «> h y M. Emile Burnat-has lateh been 
published. Li arrangement it follows the usual sequence of orders 



The long-delayed Kew Guides formed again the subject of a 
question in Parliament on Feb 1 fi a q «„ ~ j • bUDjecc oi a 
was stated that they were in con it' nf " P re « edln g occasions, it 

published as soon /s JSSTwe tlfffiS "* ^ v 
not be allowed tn ™ JwJ!\i. * , 8t ™ at an^er summer will 



has been i^nerl a„7i mucu neeaea (jtui( ' e t0 the Gardens 

fourpenee. The J&» R„i«. ll „ ', "°f! *? '¥ ° n «»>»l »» m ° f 






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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



OF 



BRITISH 



AND 



IRISH BOTANISTS 



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JAKS BRITTEH, F.L.S., & G. S. BOULGER, F.LS. 




a*-. 



c 



This Index, which has been published i the ' Journal of Botany 
luring the last tour years, ha elicited much more neral intere* 

than its compilers expected. It original d in t e supposition that the 
vant ol ich a reierence-list to bye* work rs in Botai . which we 

ours Ives h felt, m ,ht al e share b • a] 1 the \ 

nun -oo exp ion. of inter. I approval wl b w -ceh 

have shown that we w ally jv ified in our 1 

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NOTICE 



The -JOURNAL OF BOTANY is printed and published 
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^ew Zealand A 




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101 



ON SOME MARINE ALGM FROM NEW ZEALAND. 

By E. J. Harvey Gibson, M.A., F.L.S. 

(Plate 335.) 

In the summer of 1892 I received from Prof. Jeffrey Parker, 
F.R.S., of Dunedin, the first instalment of a series of Marine 
Algae which I had undertaken to examine and name for the Otago 
Museum. The Algae were sent to me in a saturated solution of 
common salt, by which means the natural colour and form were 
preserved. There were in all fifty-one species represented in the 
collection, of which one is new to science. The material however, 
though largely consisting of well-known forms, afforded means of 
adding some new facts to our knowledge of several Phaeophycese 
and Rhodophyceae. The Algae were collected at Cook's Straits, 
Warrington and Brighton, by Prof. Parker and Mr. A. Hamilton, 
Registrar of the Otago University. I have to record my indebted- 
ness to the officials of the British Museum for granting me 
facilities for study in the Cryptogamic herbarium, and also to the 
algologists mentioned in this paper for aid and advice. 



List of Species. 



Cyanophyce^. 

Rivalaria australis Harv. 
Chlorophyce^: . 

Coclium tomentosum (Huds.) 

Stackh. 
Caulerpa articulata Harv. 

C. sedoides Ag. 

Ulva lactuca (L.) Le Jol. 



Rhodophyce^. 
Rhodochorton Parkeri, n. sp. 
Antithamnion Ptilota (Hook, et 

Harv.) Harv. Gibs. 
Pleonosporium Brounianum 

(Harv.) Harv. Gibs. 
Ptilota formosissima Mont. 
Ceramium rubruni (Huds.) Ag. 



Enteromorpha compressa (L.) C. apiculatum J. Ag. 



Grev. 



Microcladia Coulteri Harv. 



Cladophora valonioides Sond. Nemalion ramulosum Harv. 



[named by Prof. Kjellman] . 

PHiEOPHYCE^E. 

Cystophora torulosa J. Ag. 
Hormosira Banksii Dene, and 

var. Sieberi Harv. 
Splachnidium rugosum Grev. 



Gigartina distirha Sond. 
G. stiriata (Turn.) J. Ag. 
G. radula (Esper.) J. Ag. 

G. flahellata J. Ag. 

G. ayujulata J. Ag. [named by 
Prof. Schmitz.] 



Carpomitra cabrera Kiitz. var. Callophyllis HombronianaM.ont. 



Halyseris Hook, et Harv, 

Glossophora Harvey i J. Ag. 
Anisocladus conjestus Rke. 



0. variegata Bory. 
Ahnfeldtia torulosa Hook, et 
Harv. 



Corynophlcea umbellata J. Ag. Gymnogongrusfurcellutus J.Ag- 



0. cystophora J. Ag. 
Adeiiocystis Lessonii Hook, et 

Harv. 
Scytothamnus australis Hook, et 

Harv. 



Gracilaria dura J. Ag. 

G. ramulosa J. Ag. 

Polyzonia cuneifolia Mont. , var. 

bifida Hook, et Harv. 
Polysiphonia dendntica Ag. 



Journal of Botany. — Vol. 31. [June, 1893.] 



M 



162 



SOME MARINE ALG.E FROM NEW ZEALAND. 



BHODOPHYCE.E. Khodophyceje . 

P. Hystrix Hook, et Harv. Pachymenia dichotoma J. Ag. 
P. MallardicB Harv. [named by Prof. Schmitz.] 

P. Gaudichaudii Ag. Dumontia filiformis (Lyngb.) 
P. cloiophylla Ag., var. corym- Grev., var. ? 

bosa J. Ag. Corallina officinalis L. 

Curdiaa laciniata Harv. C. Cuvieri Lamx. [named by 
Hymenocladia lanceolata J. Ag. Graf zu Solms-Laubach. 

Lenormandia spectabilis Sond., Jama micrarthrodia Lamx. 



angtistifi 



lexifi 



Observations on certain species. 



Caulerpa 



0/ Mac Z^fontf, n. p. 261.— This species lias been found, I believe, 
only once previously, viz., by Colenso, on the east coast of New 
Zealand. It is briefly described by Harvey (/. cX Like that of 
Colenso, the present plant has no creeping rhizome. Histo- 
logically it is remarkable for the delicacy of its trabecule The 
plant was kindly identified for me by Madame Weber van Bosse. 
I give a drawing of the plant, natural size, as no figure has, so far 
as 1 am aware, been published. 

HnnwTn A CABB r ER * K T utz - var - Halyseris Hook, et Harv. ; 
Hooker & Harvey Land. Jaum. Hot, iv. p. 528.-In the Flora 

t!\ (V i° h "'J" 217 ' Hooker a " d Harvey consider C. 

oiCclZTfl A br ° ader and more distiuctl y midribbed form 

coflected hv T fl f * ^T? ^^ s P ecim ens of C. Cabrera Kiitz., 

^wf/ZnlK Straits ' New Zealand ; a *d of C. 

latter nhnt +n +i^ i f perlectly justified in degrading the 

(tec ila i I Inn ? °^ T*** ° f the former ' J ' A gardh 
E • P ' 77) describes tlie fruit of the genus as "recep- 

Z,Z*Tc T cT Um WT*- U ^y (^ Brit, xiv"), 
f i fill) anr I !r* H °° ker and Harvey (V,i Zealand Fl 

conical bod7Z S f °/ ??, PreSeDt Variet ^ ind * cate tl»e fruit as a 
thickened col S at A"* ap f° f a branch and ^rounded by a 
arrated t "?* /* f base ' the sporangia and paralyses being 

jZsfn f 1, R T ate i^?f r T nd tIle cone M °re recently 
renrodTet vp n.f v ' I 3 , 5 ) d ^cnbes the mode of growth and the 

vTr iLt£ • li W A11 * le a P ic6S 0f the P lants of C. Cabrera 

Suent t r ,1 n f * P °f eSS iave this a P ical tuft - though the con- 
Johnson 1\IZI° r a : 7 S ° l0ng as Dr - Johnson represents them. 
orgZ but m P X fi S the . mmUte hisM °Sy ° f the reproductive 
qm e simihr tn ^ %l T *J e entire receptacle, his figure being 
3 The unSil I?' ??**? P" blish * d by Harvey and others 
lim int kvPr ?! M 3 2? n 6 tLallus ' ins tead of forming a compact 
So ^ ZanhvL i G tlialIuS ''' accord ^g to Johnson: -grow out 
into paraphyses and sporangia." The apex of the fructiferous 



SOME MARINE ALCLE FROM NEW ZEALAND. 163 

branch of var. Halyseris is always trifid, the central tooth being the 
oldest and having the two lateral teeth developed monopodially. 
The central tooth alone develops into a receptacle. The forma- 
tion of sporangia and paraphyses commences by alteration and 
growth of the small-celled superficial layers immediately surround- 
ing the apical tuft of hairs. From this point the development 
proceeds in a basipetal manner. The cortical layers at the same 
time increase considerably, so that the apex is distinctly swollen. 
The cortex curls backwards and outwards from the apex, forming 
an oblique collar with its edge turned inwards. The obliquity 
(which varies in degree in different branches) is owing to more 
rapid formation of sporangia and paraphyses on one side than on 
the other ; the axis of the cone thus comes to be noncoincident with 
that of the branch. 

Adenocystis Lessonii Hook, et Harv. ; Kjellman, Bihang Till k. 
Svemka Vet. Akad. Hand. Bd. 15, hi. — The plants in the present 
collection are provided with the " glaud-like spots " described by 
Harvey, which Kjellman describes as an epiphytic Streblonema. 

Scytothamnus australis Hook, et Harv. — According to Hooker 
and Harvey the reproductive organs in this species occur singly 
among the peripheric filaments. The so-called spores are easily 
made out to be unilocular sporangia developed from the cells of the 
subepidermal layer, and lying between the cells of the superficial 
layer. In addition many of the branches have scattered over them 
spots, which in section show a dense tuft of elongated filaments 
arising in a depression of the cortex, and very similar to those 
described by Kjellman in Adenocystis. I have not in my possession 
sufficient material to enable me to determine accurately the nature 

of these structures. , 

Rhodochorton Parkeri, n. sp. — Filamentis ramosis, 3-5 mm. 
altitudine, apicibus acuminatis, binis vel ternis spinis aptis, secun- 
datim positis ; filamentis arctissimis per rhizoda subraniis orientia. 
Sporangiis in intimo latere ramorum infimorum positis ; tetrasporis 
cruciatim divisis. — Hab. N. Zealand, Parker \ 

Growing at the base of a cluster of molluscan (?) eggs there 
occurred this curious species, which at first sight recalled, save as 
regards its colour, the appearance of a minute Sphacelaria. On 
further examination the mode of branching and arrangement of 
sporangia seemed to locate the plant somewhere near, if not in, the 
genus Rhodochorton. The apices of the filaments being supplied with 
minute spines, and the stiff bristly character of the plant as a whole, 
made it apparent that if it belonged to that genus it must be a new 
species. I sent a specimen to Dr. Bornet, who was so kind as to 
favour me with his opinion in the following words : — " Je ne connais 
pas la curieuse petite Algue que vous me communiquez. Dans la 
preparation que vous m'avez envoy ee je trouve un sporange dont le 
containe, fortmente contracts, semble indiquer une division cruciale 
des tetraspores et confirmier l'attribution generique que vous 
indiquez." Dr. Bornet suggested to me the advisability of further 
examination with the aid of reagents. This I did, and was able to 
confirm the previous observations on which my opinion as to the 

m2 



104 SOME MARINE ALGM FROM NEW ZEALAND. 

generic position of the plant had been based. The plants, so far as 
my preparations show, grow in stiff bristly tufts, the individual 
p ants being densely intertwined at their bases by rhizoidal 
filaments, which arise from the bases of the branches. The habit, 

An^ii 8 7 t "h at ° f Callithamni ™ polyrhizum Harv., from 

Australia, but the microscopic appearances are totally different. 

I M„S T5 a ™ sec ™ da tely branched, the branches being almost 

ma n g ste . ! T" ***'*' . The a *g les ° f the branches ™& the 
main stem are very acute. Each branch is slightly curved 

outwards at its apex and tapers to a sharp point. Abng the nner 
side of each branch there arise two or three sharp unicellular 

rS'sptfe s *2ft m ° 8 \ Cl ; ara «ic -d d&TSSi 
tvoe 3: JEt chroi ? ato P 1 ? ores are of the usual Iihodochorton 
type, and the cells are about three times as long as broad Th« 

%X™^^,»?^*1 ° n the -«er sides' of T t 

sXv is sdh t1' r*^ ^ " -p* 

Antithamnion Ptilota Harv Gib« rv,//,v/ •«,•?' TT , 

Plenosporium Brounianum Harv Gibs • CLdUA^ ; v 
amun Harvey, Trans. Roy. Jr. ^/ ixii n '° aU «* amHUm . B ™«»- 

this species have hppn c ^+ „ • ^ p * 561 -— Two specimens of 

fruit. O^com^n »>wi° ne ^ h sexual ' the other with asexual 
British Museum* " fZ J" ft 8 Ff M °»ens in the herbarium of the 
own were flXth Zt f *fe characters of these as well as of my 

that he h^zzt:^ s iscfir Harvey does not say 

" tetrasporis brevLsime 2w Sp ° re • "^ mere1 ^ Ascribed as 

enatis." Several «w 6ohtan,s v ' % emi ™ ad latera pinnularum 

herbarium some BtSET 8 ^i PreS6rVed in tLe Briti * h Museum 
carpia. The s^oranl ,? * ff ^ ftUit ' and ° ne with C y st °" 

always, when Tatur? ™ T eig i ltj S1X f een ' or t^ty-two spores, 
quite tnole of S? ' ™ 6 than four ; hence the characters are 

11 llVhaZon FIT" P lr° Sp0rinm Nag " and not those of a true 
from Pori PhilH. "S"? t n 6 c y stocar P ia . both in the specimens 
binate termk,» o a 7- m bose sent me from New Zealand, are 
s^ TjfroZt mV( i lucrate ' another character of Pleono- 

from o hex member 7T* °™™' *? Harve ^ describes * differs 
falsely cortiS ^i *, the genus m thafc the primary axis is 

whoKa ^ dSST^ dirGCted bmnCheS ' »**"* the 
ple^tindrtelZS 1 ^ ^—Several very fine specimens, 

K coralloideaA \a f' ^u^' V ,1S S I )ecies is onlv a variety of 

auouua J. Ag. Agardh himself {Ep4e. p. 79) remarks, » Nee 



I 



SOME MARINE ALGiE FROM NEW ZEALAND. 165 

judice sunt species bene distinct©." A comparison of the tetra- 
sporic condition of the two plants would, it seems to me, be sufficient 
in itself to refute Sonder's opinion, quite irrespective of the histo- 
logical differences in the thallus. P. plumosa is very much closer 
in structure to P.formosissima than P. coralloidea. 

Ceramium apiculatum J. Ag. — This species occurred as an epi- 
phyte on Codium tomentosum, and was kindly identified for me by 
Prof. Schmitz. I have compared it with the specimens in the 
herbarium of the British Museum (named by Agardh) and found it 
to agree in all respects. In his Epicrim (p. 105) Agardh indicates 
that the cystocarpia had not been seen by him. My plants, as 
well as those in the British Museum herbarium, are plentifully 
provided with both tetraspores and cystocarpia, the latter being of 
the usual type found in the genus. 

Microcladia Coulteri Harv. ; Harvey, Ner. Bor. Amer. p. 209.— 
This American species has not, so far as I am aware, been recorded 
hitherto from Australian seas. The plants bore tetraspores, cysto- 
carps, and antheridia. The antheridia, of which I can find no 
description, are modified from the terminal branchlets, the pol- 
linoids being formed by repeated division of the outer cortical cell- 
layer. I fail to see any evidence of Agardh's statement (Epic. p. 
110), " Sphaerosporas mihi cruciatim divisae obvenerunt." 

Nemalion ramulosum Harv. ; Harvey in Hook. & Harv. Flora 
of N. Zeal. ii. p. 245. — By Agardh (Epic. p. 508) this species is 
mentioned under " Species inquirendae." Prof. Parker's collection 
includes a Nemalion, which is undoubtedly N. ramulosum of Harvey, 
agreeing in all respects save that the plant is rather smaller. 
Harvey's plant was not in fruit. That which I possess has very 
numerous cystocarpia lying among the dichotomous peripheric 
filaments and quite typical for the genus. 

Polyzonia cuneifolia Mont. var. bifida Hook, et Harv. ; Harvey 
in Hook. & Harv, Fl. N. Zeal. ii. — Several plants of this variety 
were obtained chiefly as epiphytes on Gigartma Uadula. The 
species was first discovered by D'Urville at the Auckland Islands, 
and a diagnosis given by Montagne (Prod. Phyc. & V. P. 8. p. 143). 
In his Syll. PL Crypt, also he gives a synopsis. In the Flora 
of New Zealand, Hooker and Harvey describe the present variety, 
giving as its diagnostic characters M foliis saepissime profunde 
bifidis vel bipartitis, stichidiis ample cristatis." Kiitzing gives a 
figure of the species (Tab. Phyc. 15, vi). The plants collected by 
Mr. Hamilton were plentifully supplied with tetraspores and 
antheridia. The stichidia do not, as in the type form, become 
"pinnately composed," but are throughout simple or occasionally 
double. The attachment discs on P. cuneifolia var. bifida are, so 
far as one can judge by an examination of herbarium specimens of 
the type, much more numerous in that variety. The foliar appen- 
dages are alternately arranged on every second articulation, the in- 
termediate articulation being occupied by a branch or an attachment 
disc. More rarely an attachment disc and a branch arise from the 
same articulation. Each disc is provided with a short stalk composed 
of two elongated cells, which are prolongations of two of the 



166 SOME MARINE ALG& FROM NEW ZEALAND. 

cortical cells of the thallus. Each of these at its free end branches 
at right angles to its axis into four simple or bifid projections, from 
winch are subsequently given off V-shaped cells, again often bifid 
at their ends. In this manner a flat plate is formed. There 
appears to be no organic connection between the epiphyte and 
the host. Stichidia occur on the under side of the branches, near 
the apices, and for some distance backwards. Each is as thick as 
an ordinary branch and simple, or double by formation of a 
secondary lobe near the base of the primary stichidium. The 
stichidium is bluntly pointed or breaks up at its apex into several 
short spines. A few multicellular spines are also given off along 
the course of the stichidium, which occasionally become leaflike. 
Hie tetraspores are developed seriatim in the stichidium, the 
sporangia being formed by transformation of the central cells 
ot the branch and not as in the allied genus Polyriphama, from 
buds of a cell intermediate between the cortical and central cells. 
Une or two specimens found creeping over Giyartina Uadula bore 
anthendia, and as these organs seem not to be well known in the 
genus, and not at all in P. cunei/olia, I add a brief description. Each 
antheridium is modified from the ventral half of the bifid foliar 
appendage, and is covered by the upper half in dorsal view. The 
anthendmmis roughly flask-shaped in outline, though it is in reality 
merely a flat plate composed of two layers of pollinoids bordered by 

do n£ fpJTJi? g<? CeUS ' f nd having a Single median strand oi 
rowfof 111 T mng UP the Centre of the P late fr °m which the 
The \n ZS ° * T™ t0 Stretch in radial lines to the margin, 
the S« & t *V UdS m ' narr ° W P~J^on. which is split up at 
BZeTtnt^r!T f °\T re , te , eth ' The wll0le antheridium 
Cf , , ? P r ' f ° r behmd the lasfc antheridium on a given 

antSd^ s^Tro a Kn d t ge " ** h « *" *» ^ ° ! the 

InnearTtn it I / P T! eS -' a H° Ut tl,e WW of which there 
Sent tlfctt UbtS 1U J he mhlds ° f autbors ' occ « rs in the 

Sf jfZ I- a8 n an epi P hjte 0n &*»*» «»iat„ and Q. 

^ivvittZ^ thG S ?f CieS) HarVe y (*•••) states tliat the "tern 
patent ; lE ?' FT* ^ natm « wifch snbulate hamuli elongate 
ramu^i- V uT^L th " P innuIe « in llke ma ™er alternate with fab- 

ofTardh wl^l ' • am n0t Certain whether ihis be the plant 
tLtr f \ ' whos , e specimens came from Brazil, and I have also 

2 fsome vZti^ P Pa * a ^ man specimens, differs from my plant 
m some lespects. Previously, m the Land. Joum hot J184fit 

SSinn ?r ibe , fche r cies > and - f - S 4 rdh 5) s 

uescnption ot the Brazilian form (Syst. Ala. p l(m viz ■ » T« 
irregularity of the tr7 V*\ T 6 " 1 " ti,is »PP'™nt, not real, 



THE DISINTEGRATION OF LYCHNIS. 1 67 



of these ramuli tertiary branches are formed, and so on." The 
plants which I possess are as undoubtedly identical with those 
described by Hooker and Harvey, as they are not with those of 
Montagne. On the other hand, the P. dendritica figured by Kiitzing 
is obviously that of Montagne. I cannot follow Hooker and 
Harvey's criticism of Agardh's description as quoted above. Cer- 
tainly the general appearance recalls axillary branching, but the 
" bract " does not precede the " axillary branch " in development. 
The frond seems to me to be simply pinnate with subulate rainuli 
at first, and afterwards every second ramulus, alternating on either 
side, develops secondary pinnules. In almost all the specimens 
this alternate compound branching is quite regular ; but in one or 
two, intermediate stages occur where the ramuli are alternately 
smooth and wavy; and lastly, in others all are quite smooth. 

Dumontia filiformis (Lyngb.) Grev., var. ? I have experienced 
some difficulty in naming this plant. Prof. Schmitz, to whom I 
sent a specimen, gave it as his opinion that it was near Neynastoma. 
I confess I do not share that view. I thought at first that it was not 
unlike Meristotheca tasmanica J. Ag., but as it did not agree in 
detail with that form, I was compelled to seek for another rela- 
tionship. Save for the very irregular branching, I should have 
believed it to be near Dumontia, with which it agrees in histological 
characters. I then sent a specimen to Kew, and the Director 
informs me that it is almost certainly Dumontia filiformis Grev., in 
which view I feel inclined to agree, although it is doubtless a 
distinct variety of that species. The plant has only tetraspores, 
so that in absence of cystocarpic fruit I am compelled to record it 
with a query. 

Explanation of Plate 335.— Fig. 1. Caulerpa articulata Harv., nat. size. 
2_4. Carpomitra Cabrera Kiitz., var. Halyseris Hook, et Harv. 2. Apex of 
sporangiferous branch, showing central and one of the side teeth with apical 
tuft of °hairs x 20. 3. Long. vert. sect, of sporangiferous tooth, showing mode 
of origin of sporangial layer x 20. 4. Mature receptacle in long. vert. sect. 
X ^0. 5. llhodochorton Parked, n. sp., nat. size. 6. Filaments of the same, 
with sporangia x 20. 7. Sporangia of the same x ^00. 8. Stichidium of 
Polyzonia cuneifolia var. bifida x 200. 9. Antheridium of same x 200. 



THE DISINTEGRATION OF LYCHNIS. 

By Frederic N. Williams, F.L.S. 

In the delimitation of genera and transference of groups of 
species, which have taken place from time to time in the order 
Caryophyllacea, no genus has probably received such rough handling 
and mutilation, more particularly at the hands of critical systematists 
in continental floras, as the genus Lychnis. Even in an attenuated 
Linnean sense it is not so much as admitted into some of the 
German floras : while the compilers of various English floras, 
rather than introduce strange names into their lists of genera, 



d 



In discussing the 



168 THE DISINTEGRATION OF LYCHNIS. 

affinities of Silene and Lychnis, more especially in connection with 
the disintegration of the latter genus, the selection of such species 
as may serve for generic types will be facilitated by associating with 
them the Linnean genus Agrostemma.* 

The only absolute difference between Silene and Lychnis, as 
denned by Linnaeus, was that the former had three styles, and the 
latter five ; and Agrostemma is only distinguished from Lychnis in 
having the lamina of the petal undivided. However, as the species 
of these three genera came to be more carefully studied, it was soon 
apparent that they should either be fused in one genus and broken 
up into natural sections, or that new genera should be formed out 
of them, in which the. number of the styles should be considered as 
a character of very secondary importance, and in which the general 
structure of the ovary and capsule should determine the grouping 
of the species. For convenience, we will first consider them as one 
hypothetical pro-genus. 

A unilocular capsule, occasionally plurilocular at the base, is 
characteristic of the order ; and this character has been selected 
for grouping the species into two primary subdivisions,— those in 
which the capsule is truly unilocular, and those in which the 
capsule has remains of dissepiments at the base. The latter will 
include most of the species of Silene, and exclude such species as 
8. noctiflora and virginica Linn., for which (with some species of 
Lychnis) the genus Melandryum was founded by Kohling in 1796. 
Ihe former will include Lychnis, in a very limited sense, and 
Agrostemma, and also the Linnean genus Coronaria, which was 
proposed in the first and second editions of Genera Plantarum,\ 
but fused with Agrostemma in Species Plantarum. In following up 

the secondary subdivisions of these two main groups, we will 
discuss first the affinities of the Lychnis group, and then the 
affinities of the Silene group. 

In Agrostemma Oithago\ the carpels are alternate with the teeth 
oi the calyx, m Lychnis ehaleedomca they are opposite to them; 
this is a more natural distinguishing character between the two 
genera than the segmentation of the petal. Moreover, m the 
former species, there is an indication of segmentation in the 
emargmate petals. In L. chalcedonica again, which may be con- 
sidered a typical species of the genus, the dehiscent capsule is 
5-dentate (isomerous with the styles) ; in Kohling's genus Melan- 
dryum, which includes L. dioica Linn, and L. diclinis Lag., as well 
as those species of Silene in which the capsule is unilocular, the 

(dimerous) eUt Cai>sule are twice as man 7 as the styles 

The genus Heliosperma,^ which branches off, as it were, from 



* System Natural (1735), ed. 2 (1740) ed f» r174J» « in 7 . /i ™ , 

arum (1737), n. 379, ed. 1 * (ifo), n . SS^f^il If G ? ' ^ *""" 

t Ed. 1. Tl 1R£ « QQA. «J rt _ **™ " 



t Ed. 1, p. 135, n. 380; ed. 2, p. 200, n. 450. 






Anatolian 



§ Beichb. IleperL Herb. p. 206. 



THE DISINTEGRATION OF LYCHNIS. 169 

Melandryuni (both having common characters which separate them 
from Lychnis proper), was founded by Eeichenbach in 1841 on 
Silene quadrifida Linn., to include those species of Silene in which 
the capsule is unilocular and dehisces by twice as many teeth as 
there are styles, and in which the seeds are crested on the dorsal 
surface. A. Braun further circumscribed the limits of Lychnis by 
including in his genus Petrocoptis* two Pyrenean species, L. num- 
mular ia Lapeyr. and Silenopsis Liujascce Willk. , which have imbricated 
petals, and seeds bearded at the hilum. With the view of still 
further restricting the significance of Lychnis, he alsot proposed 
to revive the Linnean genus Coronaria, which, as far as the 
European species of Lychnis are concerned, would include L. 
Coronaria Lam. (Agrostemma Coronaria Linn.), L. Flos-ciwuli and 
L. Flos-Jovis {Agrostemma Flos-Jovis Linn.), L. Cyrilli Richter, and 
L. sibirica. So that this would leave the genus Lychnis represented 
in Europe solely by L. chalcedonica of Russia. Coronaria glabra, 
&c, of Hort. Upsal. p. 115, having capsules plurilocular at the base, 
is to be referred to the Silene group, and is the species on which 
Eeichenbach founded his genus Eudianthe. In Lychnis alpina the 
commissural nerves of the calyx are wanting, and as this is a 
primary character in A. Braun's tribe of Lychnidem, SchottJ 
considered that this species should be the type of a new genus 
which he called Liponeurum ; it certainly should be excluded from 
the Lychnis group, and seems to have affinities with Saponaria. 

The genus Coronaria, which it is proposed to revive, is thus defined 
by Linnaeus : — " Calyx. Perianthium monophyllum, clavaeforme, 
striatum, erectum, coriaceum, 5-angulare, 5-dentatum, persisteus: 
angulis minoribus interjectis. Corolla. Petala 5 : ungues longit. 
calycis, margine aucti: limbus planus, speciosus: bracteae cordatre: 
nectarium componitur ex 2 denticulis in singuli petali collo enatis. 
Stamina. Filamenta 10, longit. tubi corolla, alterna seriora, singulo 



lin 



staminum. Stigmata simplicia. Pericarpium. Capsula cyhndracea, 
unilocularis, apice dehiscens. Semina plurima, subrotunda." This 
genus has been taken up by Garcke in the successive editions of 
Deutschlands Flora, who uses it in very much the same sense as 



A. Braun. Engler and Prantl § divide Lychnis into two subgenera, 



FAi-lyvhnis and Coronaria. If we consider each of these as a genus, 
Lychnis in this very limited sense will almost exactly correspond 
with the Redone || of Loureiro, who recorded L. coronata under the 

name of Hedone sinensis. ' ' ' t . 

We come now to the Silene group, including the species in which 
the capsule is plurilocular at the base. The species referable to 
this group can be divided into two sections— (1) those m which 



* Flora, 1843, p. 370. 
t Flora, 1843, p. 368. 

♦ Analecta Bot. i. (1854), p. 55. 
Die Natii die hen Pjlauzenfamilien, Theil iii. (1889), p. 73 

|| JR. Cochinch. p. 351. 



170 



THE DISINTEGRATION OF LYCHNIS, 



the capsule dehisces by twice as many teeth as there are styles, 
and which include Silene Linn, (sensu limitato) and some species of 
Lychnis with plurilocular capsules, for which Reichenbach proposed 
the genus Eudianthe; and (2) those species in which the capsular 
teeth are isomerous with the styles, and which comprise the genus 
Vhcaria of Rohling.f If species which have five styles are excluded 
from Silene, it would be better perhaps to include Polyschemone nivalis 
Schott {Lychnis nivalis Kit.) in Eudianthe, though Rohrbach in his 
excellent and incomparable monograph has preferred to retain this 
species as well as Agrostemma Cceli-rosa\ in Silene. As long ago as 
1825, Robert Sweet, in discussing the affinities of the plant now 
known as Heliospewna alpestre, remarked that the genus Silene was 
very much overgrown, and threw out the suggestion that "those 
(species) with an inflated calyx will probably form another natural 
genus. 1 ' Though the disintegration of such genera as Silene has 
not proceeded on the lines indicated by this distinguished horti- 



culturist, and though superficial and obvious characters such as the 



structure of the floral envelope have not been considered of generic 
importance, a study of essential characters in definite groups of 
species only emphasizes still more what Fries said, that it is a 
"genus vastissimum undique ad reliqua radios emittens."§ 

A tabular conspectus of the genera here mentioned will best 
illustrate their differential diagnosis : 

A. Capsule unilocular. 



a. Carpels alternate with the teeth of the calyx. 

Anthophore none. Styles 5. Capsule 5- 
deniate 

b. Carpels opposite the teeth of the calyx. An- 

thophore conspicuous, often elongated, 
a. Capsule dehiscing by teeth equal in number 
to the sty ] es. 

* Petals convolute in prasfloration. Appen- 
dices fornicate at the base . 
** Petals convolute in prsefloration. Appen- 
dices efornicate at the base 
*** Petals imbricate in pnefloration. Seeds 



Agrostemma. 



Lychnis. 



Coronaria 



p 



bearded at the hilum 

apsule dehiscing by twice as many teeth as 
the styles. 

Seeds crested on the dorsal surface. 
Styles 3 

** Seeds not crested on the dorsal surface. 

Styles 5, rarely 3 

B. Capsule plurilocular at the base. 

a. Capsule dehiscing by teeth equal in number 
to the styles 



Petrocoptis. 



Heliosperma. 



Melandryum 



Viscaria 



t Deutsche Fl. ed. 1 (1796), ii. p. 37. 
J Linn. Sp. Plantarum (ed. 1;, p. 436 
Flora, 1843, i. p. 123. 



MARINE ALGJB OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 171 



b. Capsule dehiscing by twice as many teeth as 



a. 



the styles. 
Styles 5 



EUDIANTHE. 



/?. Styles 3 



SlLENE. 



If this redistribution of species be accepted, it will be interesting 
to note the changes of nomenclature that would be required in the 
British species of Lychnis. In the last edition of the London 
Catalogue six species are referred to this genus. The alternative 
names are placed in a parallel column : 

Lychnis alba\ Mill. = Melandnjnm pratense Kohl. (1796). 

Lychnis diurna Sibth. == Melandnjum silvestre Eohl. (1796). 

Lychnis Flos-cuculi Linn. = Coronaria Flos-ciiculi A. Br. (1843). 

Lychnis Yiscaria Linn. = Viscaria vulgaris Eohl. (1796). 

_ t . , . T . f Liponeurum alvinum Schott (1854). 

Lychnis alpina Linn. = j Saponaria ? alpl7Ul , 

Lychnis Githago Lam. = Agrostemma Githago Linn. (1753). 

The genus Melandryiim also claims another British species, 
Silene noctijiora. 



A PROVISIONAL LIST OF THE MARINE ALG.E OF 

THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

By Ethel S. £aeton. 

(Continued from p. 144.) 

CfiLETANGIACE-iE. 

Zanaedinia marginata J. Ag. Cape Agullias, HohemekAXo. 208. 

AlgoaBay, Bowerhank\ Port Alfred, <W! Kei Mouth, Flamga* ! 

Port Natal, Krauts ! Gueinziius ! No. 4077. 

Geogr. Distr. Warm Atlantic. Indian Ocean. Australia. 

Ch^tangium saccatom J. Ag. Sea Point, Kalk Bay, Boodle ! 

Cape, Harvey ! 

C. ornatum J. Ag. Seal Island, Challenger ! From Table Bay 
to Port Natal, Areschoug. Simon's Bay, Challenger I Cape Point, 
Kalk Bay, Boodlel E. Young I Cape Agulhas, HokmackA No. 848. 
Cape, Kvklon, Dreg* ! Armmhoug, Phyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. U ; 
lib. Lenormand ! Harvey ! Reliq. Breb. ! No. 137 ; Reeve ! 

C. Zeyheri Kiitz. Cape, Hh. Hering, fide Kiitzivg. 

Gelidie;e . 
Ptilophora spissa J. Ag. Cape, Drege. 

P. PINNATIFIDA J. Ag. (= CaRPOBLEPHARIS PINNATIFOLIA J. Ag.). 

Algoa Bay, EekUm. 



t An inappropriate name : other species have white flowers and in this 
species the flowers are sometime* pale red. 



172 MARINE AlsGM OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 



fi 



Gelidium serratum Kiitz. (? = G. serrulatum J. Ag.). Cape, 

} e Kiitzing. 

? G. rigidum J. Ag. Cape, Hb. Mus. Brit. ! This specimen is 
too fragmentary to identify with accuracy. 
Geogr. Distr. Throughout warm seas. 

G. cartilagineum J. Ag. Bobben Island, Boodle ! Table Bay, 
Wenek ! Cape Point, Boodle ! Kalk Bay, E. Young ! Camps Bay, 
Reynolds ! Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! No. 283. Knysna, Krauss, 
Boodle ! Kei Mouth, Flanagan ! Cape, Campbell in Hb. Sloan. 

290; Seba, Ecklon, Hb. Pulteney\ Parreyssl Thtmbergl Hort. Cliff. I 
R. Trimenl Hb. Shuttleworthl Hb. Roem.l Hb. Grunoicl Scott Elliot I 

Var. setaceum Ag. Plettenberg Bay, Home ! Cape, Hohenack. ! 
No. 558, sub nomine Gelidium asperum Grev. ? No. 560, sub nomine 

Gelidium rigidum Mont. 

Geogr. Distr. Indian and Pacific Oceans. W. Indies. 

G. australe J. Ag. — G. asperum Harv. Camps Bay, Tyson ! 
Algoa Bay, Harvey ! 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

G. asperum Grev. Natal, Krauss. 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

G. corneum Ag. Sea Point, Harvey ! Mossel Bay, Hb. Shuttle- 
worth ! Algoa Bay, Ecklon, Botcerbankl Port Alfred, Carr ! Natal, 
Guemzius ! Cape, Drege ! Krauss ! Parrey** ! Hb. Dickie ! 

Geogr. Dhtr. Throughout all oceans, 

Syringocolax macroblepharis Reinsch. On Gelidium carti- 
lagineum J. Ag., Thunberg ! 

Suhria pristoides J. Ag. Table Bay, Ecklon. Cape Point, 
Boodle ! Kalk Bay, Boodle, E. Young ! Knysna, Boodle ! Cape 
Recife, Bowerbank I Algoa Bay, Ecklon, Hb. Dickie ! Port Alfred, 
Carr I Natal, Krauss. Cape, Robertson, Menziesl Thunberg ! Krauss I 
Hb. Lenormand ! Harvey ! 

S. reptans Grim. Cape, Frauenfeld ; on Haliotys and Patella. 

Grimow thinks this may possibly he a dwarf form 'of S. pristoides 
J. Ag. 

S. vittata J. Ag. Eobben Island, Wenek I Boodle ! Table Bay 
hcklon Kratiss Muysenberg, Harccy ! Cape Point, Sea Point, 
Boodle Gordon's Bay, Ecklon. Kalk Bay, E. You,,,, ! Camps 
Bay.A^n^! False Bay, Jihiisch I Cape Agulhas, 'Hohenack. I 

JNo. 226 ; Ixehq. Brebissoniarm, Nos. 109, 184. Cape, Hb. Linn<im\ 
Drege ! Parreyss ! Gaudichaud, Z)' Urville, Hb. Grunow ! Wallroth I 

Geogr. Distr. Moluccas. Shores of South America. New South 

Pterocladia lucida J. Ag. Algoa Bay, Ecklon. 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. New Zealand. 

Hypneace^;. 



Hypnea Eckloni Suhr. Port Alfred, Slacin ! 

H. muscifobmis J. Ag. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack I No. 



890. 



MARINE ALGJE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 173 

Knysna, Kravss, Boodle ! Algoa Bay, Ecklon. Natal, Gneinzius ; 

Cape, Hb. Dickie ! a . 

<?eo#r. Distr. Warm Atlantic. W. Indies. Indian and Southern 

Oceans. 

H. episcopalis Hook, et Harv. Cape, Hb. Dickie ! 



Geogr. Distr. Australia. Tasmania. 



ew 



SPINELLA 



Geogr. Distr. W. Indies. 

H. spicifeea J. Ag. Table Bay, Pappe ! Cape Point, Boodle ! 
Simon's Bay, R. Brown ! Pappe ! Kalk Bay, E. Youwj ! Boodle 
Cape Agulhas, Hohenack ! No. 193. Knysna, Boodle ! Algoa Bay 
ftlfon, Holubl Port Alfred, IK. Curr.! Kei Mouth, flanaganl 
Natal, Gneinzius, Krmm ! Cape, flarr^f ! 

Geogr. Distr. \V. Indies. Indian Ocean. 

H. armata J. Ag. Simon's Bay, B. Brown ! Cape, Hb. Kew ! 

Geogr. Distr. W. Indies. 

Mychodea carnosa Harv. Cape, Hb. Dickie ! 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. Tasmania. 

Solierie.e. 
Eucheuma spinosum J. Ag. Cape, Hb. Limmus. False Bay, 

MC2 GeoZ. 'Distr. Indian Ocean. Cape York. W. Indies. 

Gelidium aculeatum (= ?Eucheuma). Port Alfred, Slanv ! 
Natal, Krauss, Gneinzius \ .. _•• _ 

Cauiacanthus ustulatus Kiitz. Kalk Bay, Mfc! Cape, 

tfcoM A7Ko« ! Muysenberg, Tyson I 

Geoar. Distr. Mediterranean. Atlantic. China bea. 

Meristotheca NATALENSIS J . i 

P„. nAVTl VTOT.AfJEA J. Atf. Cap6 f /M* 



LOMENTARIE^. 



LoMENTARIA 



IjOMENTARIA CAFKN&i» u . ** 5 . ~— * > R nn JIp f flaue 

ryion ! Simon's Bay, R B*** I Kalk Bay, £oo<«* ! tape, 

Harvey \ 

Wrangeliace.e. 



Wrangelia 



Callithamnion purpuriferum 



Harv.). Oape f H«r«*l ^^ 

Laurencia corymbosa J. Ag. Cape, Hb. Dickie ! 
Geoqr. Distr. W. Indies. 

L. b—s J. Ag. Muysenberg H.n» ! K. B„, Bee* . 
Cape Agulhas, ft**-*. I Cape, Hohenack. ! No. 572. 

Geoar. Distr. Australia, 

L " Ag. Seal Maud, CtaB^r ! Cape Agulhas, 

HoLa"o. &.J**-* %£»?'%■ Indies. 

aeo.,r. Distr. Australia. New Zealand? W. Indies. 



174 



MARINE ALGiE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



L. FLEXUOSA J. Ag. 



Cape Agulhas, Hohenaek. ! No. 184. 
Knysna, Boodle ! Cape, R. Trimm ! Hb. Dickie ! 

Var. pumila Grun. Natal, Gueinzius. 
Geogr. Distr. W. Indies. 

L. elata Harv. Port Alfred, Slavin ! Kei Mouth, Flanagan ! 

Cape, Harvey \ Hohenaek. ! 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. 



aricata 



fid 



Geogr. Distr. In warm seas. 

L. Forsteri J. Ag. Cape, Harvey ! 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

L. piknatifida Lam. Seal Island, Challenger ! Plettenberg Bay, 

H.D.Bonul Algoa Bay, Ecklon. Cape, Harvey. One of the 

Challenger specimens is named L. virgata J. Ag., and referred to 

under tins name in Dr. Dickie's list of Simon's Bay % published 

in the Lmnean Society's Journal, vol. xv. 

M - _ . . . _ J "\ • * • i ^ l • mm _ 



Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. Medite 



rrane an . W 



Australia. 



u. papillosa Orrev. Cape Recife, Bowerbaukl Hb. Dickie I Algoa 
Bay , Harvey ! Cape, Hb. Dickie ! Hohenaek. ! h 

lJuiT'JS?' Warm Atlantic< Indian 0cean ' Australia, 
racinc. Mediterranean. 

Laurencia hybrida J. Ag. Kei Mouth, Flanagan ! 
Geogr. Distr. Atlantic (Europe). W. Indies! 
L. moriformis Kiitz. Cape, Pappe. 

L. laxa Grev. Cape, R. Brown. Natal Bay, Emu,. 



Var. pyramidalis. Algoa Bay, #«>t^. 
Var. gelatinosa. Natal, Krauss. 
Geogr. Distr. Throughout all seas. ' 



Bay, Son °* Sebastl ™ Bay, If*. Borcherdsi* A ]go* 

RhODOMELEJE. 

Sarcomenia jntermedia Grun. Cape, Jelinek. 
Geogr. Distr. St. Paul's Bocks. 

0«»0rr. ZJwfr. W. Indies. 

ACANTHOPHORA MUSCOIDES Borv Alcma Po~ O , ,. 

Geogr. Distr. Warm Atlantic.' g ^ Bowerbank » 



MARINE ALGiE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 175 

Bostrychia tenella J. Ag. Port Natal, Kranss ! False Bay, 

fide Suhr. 

Geogr. Distr. Warm Atlantic and Pacific. Indian Ocean. 

B. mixta Hook, et Harv. Muysenberg, Harvey. Cape Point, 
Boodle ! Simon's Bay, R. Brown ! Kalk Bay, Knysna, Boodle ! 
Cape, Harvey ! 

Geogr. Distr. New Zealand. Tasmania. 

B. Binderi Harv. Port Natal, Kranss. False B&y, fide Suhr. 

Martensia elegans Hering. Port Natal, Kranss ! Nos. 271, 272. 
Gaeinzius ! 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

Bhodomela subfusca Ag. Table Bay, Harvey ! Cape Point, 
Boodle I 

Geogr. Distr. North Atlantic (to Greenland). North Pacific? 

Vidalia serrata J. Ag. Kei Mouth, Flanagan ! Port Natal, Drege ! 

Placophora Binderi J. Ag. Port Elizabeth; on Amphiroa, 
Spencer ! Kei Mouth ; on Codium tomentosiun Ag., Flanagan I Cape, 



Mb 



Polyphacum Smithle Harv. Kei Mouth, Flanagan \ 



Geogr. Distr. Australia, Tasmania. 

Polyzonia elegans Suhr. Kei Mouth, Flanagan ! Algoa Bay, 
Ecklon, Harvey ! Port Alfred, Slavin ! Port Natal, Kranss I Cape, 

Hering I Pappe. 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

Dasya oollabens Hook, et Harv. = Asperocaulon collabens 
Rud. Table Bay, Gordon's Bay, Ecklon. 
Geogr. Distr. Australia, New Zealand. 

D. dubia Suhr. False Bay, fide Suhr. Algoa Bay, Ecklon. 
J. G. Agardh (Spec. gen. et ord. vol. ii. part 3, p. 874) gives this 
name as a synonym for Bostrychia Binderi Harv. Kiitzing, how- 
ever, figures (Tab. Plu/c. vol. 14, tab. 79) a totally different plant 
as Dasya dubia Suhr, and it is to this that I refer in including it in 
tbe Cape Alg®. 

D. Caulithamnion Harv. On Gaiaxaura; Port Elizabeth, Spen- 
cer ! This specimen is much smaller tban that collected by Harvey 
in Australia, but it is undoubtedly the same species. 



eogr 



Australia. 



D. pellucida Harv. Muysenberg, Harvey ! 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

D. scopaeia Harv. Green Point, Harvey. Kei Mouth, Flanagan ! 
Port Natal, Kraut* in Hb. Bind. Cape, Harvey I 

Polysiphonia fasciculifeea Kiitz. Cape, Pappe. 

P. tenebrosa Harv. Muysenberg, Harvey I This species is said 
by J. Agardh (Spec. Gen. et Ord. vol. ii. part 3, pp. 1054-5) to have 
twelve tubes ; I find they vary to sixteen. 

P. acanthina J. Ag. (= Rytiphxcea dumosa Harv.). False Bay, 
near Muysenberg, Harvey I Cape, Scott Elliot ! 

Geogr. Distr. St. Paul's Island. 



176 MARINE ALGTE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

P. atrorubescens Grev. Table Bay, Ecklon. Cape, Harvey. 
Geogr. Distr. N. Atlantic. Falklands. 

P. prorepens Harv. Algoa Bay, Boiverbank ! on Amphiroa 
ephedraea Harv. Port Elizabeth, Spencer ! 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

P. Heringii Harv. Port Natal, Krauss. 

P. corymbifera Ag. Table Bay, Harvey ! Natal, Gueinzius ; 
on Cladophora Eckloni. Cape, Ecklon. 

P. urbana Harv. Sea Point, Tyson ! Cape, Harvey 



ARE N ARIA 



Hout's Bay shore, near Muysenberg, Har- 
vey ! Kalk Bay, Boodle I 

P. incompta Harv. Muysenberg, Harvey ! Kalk Bay, Boodle ! 
Simon's Bay, Challenger] The ' Challenger ■ specimen is too im- 
mature to identify with certainty; it is, however, probably this 
species. 

Geogr. Distr. W. Indies. 

P. Stangeri Harv. Port Natal, Stanyer ! 

P. virgata Ag. Robben Island, Tyson ! Table Bay, Ecklon, 
Wenek ! Tyson ! Mia Dreyer I Camps Bay, Reynolds ! Kalk Bay, 
E. Young ! Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! Knysna, Krauss. Cape, 
Dregel Areschoug, Phyc. extraeurop. exsicc. No. 10 ; Hohenack. ! 
No. 89 ; Harvey ! Reliq. Brebisson. Nos. 17, 212 ; Trimen ! Reeve ! 
Scott Elliot ! Grunow finds no specific difference between P. virgata 
Ag P. complanata Sp., P. Gaudichaudii J. Ag., and P.fasciadifera 

a J 1 entirel y a £ ree with him as to all, except P. complanata 
Ag which seems to me to resemble more nearly P. cloiophylla Ag. 

Geogr. Distr. South Atlantic (Brazil). 

P. monocarpa Montag. Cape, Gaudichaud, Hb. Montague ! 
Geogr. Distr. W. Indies. 



P. urceolata Grev. Table Bay, Harney ! 
Geogr. Distr. N. Atlantic. N. Pacific. Baltic. 
P. complanata Spreng. 



Hombr 



l am disposed to think that these specimens were probably P. 
MoiophyllaAg., as no genuine specimen of P. complanata has been 
recorded from the Cape. 

Geogr. Distr. N. Atlantic. Mediterranean. 

iw R r^T*^ Hv Camps B& y> T y° ml Ca P e p°^t, Kaik 



E a v V ^i.; PATEN ?i J * A ?' T able Ba * berbery ! Boodle ! Camps 

f/7'f f ^iT,' i?*™?^ Ph J°' extraeurop. exsicc. No. 35 ; 



Harvey ! Hohenack 



P. Gaudichaudu J. Ag. Cape, Gaudichaud, Hb. Dickie ! Pram/ ! 



PARASITICA 



runow 



wa 



v«P . " u,arj « ™at Jelinek's plant exactly corresponds with 
me to think that the plant he alludes to may have been a specimen 



BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 177 

of Dasya pellncida Harv., to which the above plate bears a super- 
ficial resemblance. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. Pacific. Mediterranean. 

P. nana Kiitz. On larger alga*, Table Bay, fide Kiltzing. 

P. falcata Kiitz. Cape, Pappe. 

P. Pappeana Kiitz. C*j>e, fide Kiltzing. 

P. juncea Kiitz. Cape, fide Kiltzing. 

P. linocladia Kiitz. Cape, Hohenack. ! No. 388. The fragment 
of this plant in the British Museum Herbarium bears no fruit. 
I therefore cannot with certainty identify the species, and depend 
on Hohenacker's naming. 

Pachycileta griffithsioides Kiitz. Port Alfred, Slavin I Cape, 
Hohenack. ! No. 437, sub nomine GHMthsia brachyarthra Kiitz. 



Prof. Schmitz, in his 

Florideen, places this genu* 

Geogr. Distr. Antilles. 



richt del* Usher bekannten Gattung 

with a cmerv. under Polvsinhonia 



Rytiphlcea truncata Kiitz. C&pe, fide Kiitzim 
Kuetzingia natalensis J. Ag. Natal, Krauss. 

(To be continued.) 



BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 
By Edward P. Linton, M.A., and Wm. R. Linton, M.A 



Near the 



(Continued from p. 140.) 

Hieraciinn nitidum Backh. Andrew- whinnie, Moffat, *Dumfries- 
shire. The specimen and root were gathered by Mr. J. T. Johnstone, 
and handed to us fresh, and proved by cultivation. 

II. bifidum Kit. Little Craigindal, *S. Aberdeen. So named for 
Mr. Hanbury by Dr. Lindeberg. Glen Fiagh, Forfar. Craig Mhor 
and Cam Mairg, near Fortingal, Mid-Perth (recorded?). 

H. bifidum Kit., var. siniiatum W. E. Linton, n.var. 
fall of the Unich Water, above Loch Lee, Forfarshire. The leaves 
are usually more numerous, rather broader near the base, much 
more toothed with coarse undulating teeth along each side, more 
abruptly merging into the petiole. The branching of the peduncles 
is more divergent, and the phyllaries are white-tufted. In other 
respects agreeing with the type. We have it also from Coire 
Ceanmor, Glen Callater, S. Aberdeen, gathered in 1887 ; and have 
seen specimens of the same variety in Mr. Hanbury's possession, 
gathered by the Eev. H. E. Fox on Dove Crags, Fairfield, West- 
moreland, in 1890. 

H. stenolepis Lindeb. Sgurr-na-Gillean, *Skye. , / 

//. Sommerfeltii Lindeb. Black's Hope, Moffat, *Dumfriesshire. 
Dr. Lindeberg describes this plant as always havmg a livid style 
in Scandinavia. With us it seems most commonly to have a yellow 

Journal of Botany.— Vol. 81. [June, 1893.] n 



178 BBITISH HAWKWEEDS. 

style, as these Moffat plants of ours have. We gathered much the 
same form on the Glen Lyon side of Meall Ghaordie, Mid-Perth, in 
company with the Bev. E. S. Marshall. Also formerly on rocks by 
the Breakneck Waterfall, Glen Callater, and Little Craigindal, S. 
Aberdeen, and on Craig Maskeldie, "Forfar. This form has a 
broader leaf, with more rounded base than the type. In 1888 we 
found a form with very hairy leaves near Berriedale, Caithness, 
and near Uig, *Skye, which Dr. Lindeberg accepted with the 

qualification, "/. magis vestita." 

H. Pictorum Linton. We add Glens Doll and Canlochan to 
other Forfarshire stations for this species. We have also a form 
from Coire Ardran, Mid-Perth, which Mr. Hanbury pointed out to 
us was best placed under H. Pictorum ; it has the same shape of 
head and phyllaries, and the same general habit and white pappus 
with a greenish tint, as the type ; but, on account of the following 
differences, ^ it is thought worthy of varietal distinction : — Var. 
doaythrix Linton, n. var. Leaves duller green, more hairy beneath 
and densely ciliate, slightly and uniformly (not sharply) dentate 
towards the base ; nerves, which are a marked feature in the type, 
inconspicuous. Peduncles and involucres clothed with numerous 
black-based hairs of very unequal length. Primordial leaves thickly 
studded over the upper surface with stiff white hairs, and sub- 
entire or at most denticulate in garden-grown seedlings. 

H. B readalbanense F. J. Hanbury. Very fine on°Ben Lawers, 
at an altitude of about 3000 ft. Also on lower and higher rocks of 
Meall-nan-Tarmachan, and in a rocky burn in Coire Fionn, near 
Killin. The former is, we believe, a new station. 

H. rubicundum F. J. Hanbury. We gathered this species in 
several places near Moffat in 1890, where it was very distinct from 
any other of the numerous Hawkweeds of the district. It was met 
with in two or three localities in Carnarvonshire, between Bethesda 
and the Glyders, by one of us the same year ; at Dunbeath and on 
the Berriedale cliffs, on the E. coast of "Caithness, in 1888 ; near 
the Dhuloch, *S. Aberdeen, in 1889 ; and at Quoys Hamars, in the 
"Orkneys, as long ago as 1886 ; and in Glen Canness, "Forfar, in 
1884 ; we have also seen specimens, collected in 1892 by Mr. L. 
Watt, from the Kilpatrick Hills, "Dumbartonshire. The species 
Jias a close alliance with H. caledonicum. 

H. holophyjlum W. B. Linton. Bocks near the road between 
Buxton and Miller's Dale, Derbyshire. A new station several miles 
from Dovedale, where it was originally discovered 

H caledonicum p. J. Hanbury. On one of the sheets containing 

SXJ Z X £**» t0 T-* WaS a sin ^ le specimen of H. caledonicum 
collected by Dr. Boswell m 1875 at Scapa, "Orkney. 

xr t ? ?r el i 1 ' J . n " Sp " We have had specimens from the extreme 
t*JZL\ tI < h , 8 ° m r e , years unnam ed, or named only to be 

(trjA Q H \ S i mnlt % H -™l*donwicm, H. Farrense, 11. caniceps 

nrobihi/nnl^ // -^f"^ >ving all been suggested as 
hnrv*, ;£ 7 - ?, r ?. ected ', Latel y« ™»en examining Mr. Han- 
slS nf fZU 'f eC n° n f ?l H ™ k weeds, we detected several 
sheets of this plant, collected by the late Dr. J. T. Boswell in the 



BRITISH HAWK WEEDS, 179 

Orkneys as long ago as 1875, some of them placed for comparison 
with H. Farrense, some of them not assorted, but amongst the 
"doubtfuls." This fact of Dr. Boswell's specimens, though 
abundant, having gone so many years undetermined, confirmed us 
in the belief that our plant was as yet undescribed. We have it 
also from the Orkneys, near Kirkwall, whence most of Dr. Boswell's 
specimens came, from the neighbourhood of Sligachan, Skye, and 
more plentifully from near Uig, and from the Vaternish Cliffs, 
in the north-west of that island, and also from the strath of Dun- 
beath, Caithness. Besides these stations, which are all in the 
North of Scotland, we have what is evidently the same plant from 
rocks of Meall-nan-Tarmachan by Lochan-na-Lairige, and from 
Coire Fionn, near Kill in, both in Mid-Perth. The involucre is less 
floccose and the margins of the phyllaries less markedly white, and 
the Coire Fionn plant is more glandular, but otherwise these 
Perthshire specimens agree well with the typical plant. The 
description is drawn up (by E. F. L.) partly from Dr. Boswell's 
sheets, partly from numerous Skye specimens ; and the name is 
given in memory of one who not only was the first known collector 
of this species, but paid much attention to the genus during many 

years before his death. 

H. Boswelli Linton. Stem 6-16 in. high, usually rather rough 
with bulbous bases of long white hairs, sinuous, floccose above, 
hardly branched. Leaves ovate-oblong or narrow ovate-acuminate, 
thinly hairy below, glabrous above, ciliate with numerous soft hairs, 
waved in outline and denticulate or dentate, very thin in texture, and 
with a strong tendency to turn yellow or yellowish green when dried, 
with some purplish tint here and there; petioles rather short, 
silkily hairy. Stem-leaf when present shortly petioled, ovate- 
acuminate to lanceolate, dentate, but frequently absent, and com- 
monly so in the Orkney specimens. Heads of moderate size m a 
few-flowered corymb, the wild plant seldom bearing more than 
three; peduncles cano-floccose with many scattered hairs, and 
usually some few glands; involucres ovoid, slightly constricted in 
flower; phyllaries rather broad, clothed with many whitish hairs 
and a few glands near their base, floccose, especially at the margin 
and the top, subulate, very obtuse. Ligules glabrous above. Styles 
livid yellow, often only slightly discoloured. Pappus pale brown 
from the first. It may be added that on specimens collected by one 
of us in Orkney, Dr. Lindeberg (to whom it was sent by Mr. 
Hanbury) remarked, " Mihi ignotum. Capitulis fohisque dis- 

tinctura." , _ , n , -^ 

H. muroram L., var. ciliatum Almq. Eocks, Strome Ferry, 

*W. Boss. Limestone rocks by the road between Buxton and 
Miller's Dale, *Derbyshire. It has also been sen t ™ ™namej i[rom 
the Kilpatrick Hills, *Dumbartonshire, collected by Mr. L. Watt.— 
Var. pidcherHmum F. J. Hanb. A beautiful plant from rocks, 
Glyn Neath, *Glamorgan, we put to this variety, though it differs 
in the shape of the base of the leaf.-Subsp. H. sarcophylhnn 
Stenstrom. In some abundance about Black's Hope and Midlaw 
Burn, near Moffat, Dumfriesshire. — Var. mKracladium Dahlstedt. 

n 2 



180 BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 

Eocks by the falls of the Unich Water, above Loch Lee, *Forfar- 
shire. We met with this variety also among specimens collected 
by the late Dr. J. T. Boswell in 1853, in the possession of Mr. F. J. 
Hanbury, from Arniston, near Edinburgh. 

H. duriceps F. J. Hanbury. A plant from Allt Dubh Galair, 
Glen Lochay, Mid-Perth, cannot be fairly separated from this. Mr. 
Hanbury has referred in his paper (vide Joum. Bot. 1892, p. 260) 
under this name to a plant from Sneasdal, Skye, but from the 
material we possess we think this identification will not stand. We 
can, however, report it from Ingleborough, *Yorks (v.-c. 64), 
collected by Miss E. F. Thompson; these limestone specimens 
admirably matching Mr. Hanbury's gatherings from the limestone 
at Inchnadamph. We also regard a plant from various ravines 
near Moffat, *Dumfriesshire, as this species. 

H. rivale F. J. Hanbury (H. caniceps F. J. H.). Lower rocks of 
Sgurr-na-Gillean, *Skye. Ben Hope, Sutherland (1886). Glen 
Doll, *Forfar. Coire Ceannmor, *S. Aberdeen. 

H. cmsio-murorum Lindeb. (H. murorum L. *casio-murorum 

Lindeb. in Dahlstedt's set, Fasc. i. 64). Wooded slopes south of 
Braemar, as well as the original station by the Quoich, S. Aberdeen. 
Glen Shee, *E. Perth. Between Meall Dhuin Croisg and Craig 
Cailhch, in wooded bed of stream ; Glen Lyon, both in the lower 
part of the glen above Fortingal, and up the Allt Eoro, Mid-Perth. 
l)ahlstedt's excellent sheets of this form (which is no hybrid) 
illustrate well the modifying effects of exposure to sun and shade 
on Hawkweeds generally, and on this in particular. 

H cmiumFv. Allt Dearg Mor, and Sgurr-na-Gillean, Skye ; 
and the Glen Lyon side of the Ben Lawers range, Mid-Perth. 

H. casmm Fr. , var. alpestre Lindeb. The Glen Lyon side of the 

Ben Lawers range, Mid-Perth; and L. Wharral and Glen Doll, 
*J< orfarshire. 

H. ccBsium Yt var. insulate F. J. Hanbury. Eocks two or three 
miles north of Ben Lawers, Glen Lyon, at an altitude of about 

Fwtin al m y ° f the Glen ' ab ° ut five miles from 

R. cmium Fr., var. petrocharis Linton, nov. var. A handsome 

S ° f . m °untain rocks, chiefly noticed in the Breadalbane range, 

which at our suggestion m the first place Mr. Hanbury was willing 

cnltiSS f /. h f Var ' in T lare: but ifc is so differ ^nt under 
cultivation from that or any other cmium form that it may deserve 

specific rank In fact, it was considered for a while to be a dark- 
this The ?15' Bre [ ldalb ™™ e - Cultivation, however, disallows 
SShp «w f mai " ks -° f dlstmction f rom H. casium Fr. are the 
fd P Dotted L eaVeS ' P nmord | al broa d and rounded at both ends 
than K W 1«*TT* °} 1 ^ but much broader and blunter 
flowed are ^ ' T f t 0tt fu d ' and , *"** fa * rather than dentate. The 
a deen%oll^ «n i° Se ? f ™\' f mulare ' Deat > handsome, and of 

witrLfker Jfr* fl LlgUle ? glabr ° US ( lmlesa a Glei1 Doil P la " fc 
Place here? q?ll fl , occo 1 se bea d8 and ciliate ligules may find its 

fl an Fries' i|» "tS^ ^ InVolucre ™ ch ™re glandular 
' Jmes cmmm ' The Piant is from 6 to 14 in. high, the smaller 



BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 181 

specimens from exposed rock being Usually monocephalous, but in 
the garden the stem produces numerous heads. The stem-leaf is 
mbentire or denticulate, oblong, narrowed to both ends, when 
present, but often wanting. We have this from Ben Lawers, rocks 
of Meall-nan-Tarmachan near Lochan-ua-Lairige, Craig Caillich, 
and a smaller summit between Craig Caillich and Meall Dhuin 
Croisg, all in Mid-Perth. 

H. euprepes F. J. Hanbury. Among our numerous gatherings 
of this species, there has appeared to be a divergence of form, 
which comes out most distinctly in the leaf characters, both of 
which Mr. Hanbury regards as H. euprepes. There is (a) a more 
hairy plant with rather broader leaves, which Mr. Hanbury says 
is just his type, leaves "softly hairy on both surfaces," and 
"peduncles very floccose, sparingly hairy and setose." A still 
more common form, we think, is a plant (b) which at Mr. Hanbury's 
suggestion is here given as a variety (var. glabratum Linton) with 
leaves usually narrower, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, commonly 
strongly dentate, glabrous on the upper surface, and thinly hairy 
on the principal nerves beneath ; the peduncles less hairy and often 
less glandular, not unfrequently without hairs. Var. glabratum has 
been gathered by us in the Clova Valley, and in Glen Doll, and on 
rocks above Loch Wharral, Forfar ; on Craig Caillich, and lower 
rocks of Meall-nan-Tarmachan, and also in Glen Lyon, Mid-Perth. 
We record the type from the Midlaw Burn, * Dumfries shire. 

H. stenophyes W. E. Linton, n. sp. Dull green, l|-2 ft. ; 
primary leaves orbicular, outer ovate-oblong, with a few blunt 
teeth, with bulbous-based hairs on both surfaces; iuner long- 
petioled, lanceolate-oblong, acute, with cuneate base, narrowed 
gradually into the petiole, coarsely toothed, all the basal leaves 
forming a spreading rosette; stem-leaf one usually below the 
middle, stalked, lanceolate, acuminate, with few large acute patent 
teeth ; stem with few white hairs below, floccose above, smooth, 
8-8-headed, with dark cylindrical smooth-looking heads ; peduncles 
arcuate, floccose ; phyllaries broad, dark greenish, inner pale-edged, 
acute, clothed with a few setae and many black-based hairs, floccose 
at the base ; ligules rich yellow, tips glabrous ; styles livid ; pappus 
light fuscous. The principal features are the spreading rosette ot 
long-petioled narrow- oblong leaves, the long narrow-acuminate 
clean-cut stem-leaf, the clean-looking dark handsome heads, the 
elegant cup-shaped convex-topped inflorescence. It occurs on 
Black's Hope, Moffat, Dumfriesshire ; and at Bettyhill Sutherland, 
where it has been gathered by one of us in 1888 ; we have a culti- 
vated specimen of the same plant from the garden of the Kev. ih. b. 
Marshall, the root (No. 205) believed to have been brought from 
mountains near Crianlarich, Mid-Perth. A specimen sent us by 
Mr. L. Watt, from the Kilpatrick Hills, Dumbartonshire, appears 
to be the same species. With little hesitation we also place here 
some plants gathered by Mr. Hanbury at Alltnaharra, and queried 
by him at one time as a form of H. oramun Lmdeb., and ater on 
as H. duriceps. It seems to differ from //. stenophyes only in its 

more glandular peduncles, and ligules (presumably) more or less 



182 SHORT NOTES. 

ciliate. This new species fits into a plac 

H. vulaatum : more exa.fitlv. it crimes eit.h 



H 



H, 



H. anqustatum Lindeb. We 



the type of this species, the same which grows in the Lake 
district, from several localities near Moffat, viz., from Crofthead 
Linn, the Beeftub, and Evan Water; also from whin-rock by a 
small burn fourteen miles N. of Langholm ; all from *Dumfries- 
shire, contributed by Mr. G. F. Scott-Elliot. This plant, however, 
is by no means identical with the H. angustatum Mr. Hanbury has 
referred to in his paper, that we gathered on Little Craigindal and 
at the Unich Water ; and Mr. Hanbury tells us in a letter that he 



var. datum Lindeb. 



H, 



(To be continued.) 



SHOUT NOTES. 



The Abnormal Spring.— You will have received many commu- 
nications about the abnormal character of the present season. 
It is so abnormal that I think a careful record of details with dates 
should be rendered permanent by printing. Possibly some of the 
following notes may be useful to you. On the 6th May I noted 



with 



Pilosella. On the 8th May, near Leith Hill, I gathered H. muromm 
m flower (20 m. high). On 14th May, I gathered in the New 
forest H. sylvaticum in flower (and "off" flower). On 18th May 
I gathered a large bundle of Erica TetralLv in full flower (at 
Bournemouth. Many plants (owing to the drought) have very 
short stems ; for instance, the Marsh Thistles are in flower, plenti- 
fully with steins less than 1 in. A great number of annuals, 
ncA y ^ ar ? ed as autumn annuals, have already run their course. 
Un bth May I collected a quantity of ValenaneUa Olitoria, not only 
in ripe fruit, but with the whole plant whitened as seen in corn- 
fields after harvest m Sept. The plants are very fairly developed, and 
have abundance of perfect seed ripe. The small Potamoaeton I enclose 
V lfM< )m f oh " s Pou i'-) has, on mud nearly dried up, flowered 
abundantly in the state I send it you, i.e., with stems 1-2 in. long. 
Ine same species, aoundant also in the streams, shows no signs of 
flowering; but the warmth of the water has caused a luxuriant 
vegetative growth This is the case with the other Potamogetons 
m water) and the water plants generally, which do not appear 
jery much earlier m flowering than in some other seasons. In the 
bogs on the hill-slopes, which usually dry up from the lower end, 
I looked particularly at the two Droseras and Hypericum Eludes, 
winch I saw in every state of moisture, from saturation to desic- 
,3, In 7° fne c as e could I find one example of any one of 

c^eul Itl P a ff Sh °°\ m ? f ° r bl ° SSOm ' Theae ^ rose ^s appear to 
cj , culate that after enduring any desiccation that could be reason- 
ably anticipated, they will be able to "come again"; and so to 



SHORT NOTES. 183 

have made up their minds to play a waiting game. The Valeriayiella, 
on the other hand, feared the extinction of its race unless it could 
get through its complete course before it should be dried up. 
I have spoken above of plants which I have gathered in some 
quantity. I have gathered a few examples in full flower of nearly 
all the common autumnal weeds, such as Jasione montana, Senecio 

erucmfolius, Centaurea Scabiosa, Erythraa Centaurium, &c. — C. B. 
Clarke. 

Sonchus palustris in Oxfokdshire. — About four years ago the 
Eev. H. Elwell, while visiting Oxford, told me he thought he had 
seen Sonchus palustris in the county when he was an undergraduate 
about 1867. He remembered the locality, and conducted me to 
it, but he was not absolutely certain if he had hit upon the exact 
deep ditch by a high hedge in a sequestered part of the county, far 
from habitation, where he first saw it. Our search was unsuccessful, 
and I am bound to say my own opinion was that a form of 6'. 
arvcnsis had been mistaken for it. The locality, though damp, was 
not quite my idea of the place to find S. palustris, and the record 
remains unconfirmed. Recently Mr. Riddelsdell told me he thought 
S. palustris occurred in a certain district, which at once reminded 
me of the previous statement, and he was good enough to conduct 
Mr. F. T. Richards and myself to it. There, beyond doubt, were 
about thirty plants of the true S. palustris in what I have no doubt 
is a native station. It is a relic, probably, of a paludal vegetation 
which drainage and cultivation have nearly eradicated. I hesitate, 
for obvious reasons, to localise it precisely. — G. Claridge Druce. 

Polygala oxyptera Reichb. in S. Hants. — The Messrs. Linton 
and myself met with this plant on May 3rd, between Holmsley and 
Sway. It is recorded for Wight and N. Hants. We also observed 
Erwphorum gracile Koch at Holmsley, which appears to be a fresh 
station for it. — Edward S. Marshall. 

Rubus spectabilis naturalized.— Is it worth while warning the 
young botanists coming on, or to come on, that Rubm spectabilis 
Pursh is not really a native plant ? In a wood near Hythe (Sand- 
ling), Kent, where I was a few days since, it was even more 
commonly diffused throughout the wood than R. Idaus. How it 
got there I do not know ; it may have been planted as coyer tor 
game, or for the sake of its fruits as food for pheasants, or it may 
have been thrown out originally with garden refuse, or sown by 
birds. There is, however, no garden very near at hand, ine 
plant throws up suckers abundantly, so that once it finds itself 
comfortable it makes itself very much at home-too much so in my 
garden. — Maxwell T. Masters. 

Lonicera Caprifolium in West Kent (p. 153). - On May 23rd 
Capt. Wolley Dod kindly took me to his station for this plant 
which was already past the prime of its flowering. I am quite ot 
his opinion as to its not having been planted by man; and the only 
prima facie objection to its being a true native lies m the fact that 
but one specimen occurs there. No introduced plan was near 
excepting some larches lower down the hill, with which it had 



184 



THE NAIADACE^ OF NOETH AMERICA 



clearly no connection. The continental distribution (chiefly southern 
and south-eastern) is, however, somewhat unfavourable to the theory 
of its indigenousness. — Edward S. Marshall. 

Euphorbia Esula in Bucks.— Through the kindness of Mr. 
Stanton and Mr. Tufnail, I was informed last year that a Euphorbia 
grew on the banks of the Thames between Henley and Marlow, on 
the Bucks side of the river. I was down in September, but was too 
late to get satisfactory plants. This year I have again visited the 
locality, and find the plant to be E. Esula L., growing in three or 
four patches, away from houses. Sir E. Smith, in E. Bot., con- 
siders it to be a native of England, as he says the plant was not 
cultivated in gardens. The figure in E. Bot. is fairly good, but 
badly coloured, and the cusps of the glands drawn so as to represent 
tliem below the gland. In the reproduced plate in Syme's E. Bot. 
they have almost disappeared, and the gland is represented as 
obovate, thus giving a wrong impression.— G. C. Druce. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

The Naiadacea of North America. By Thomas Morong. (Memoirs 

of the Torrey Botanical Club.) Issued March 15th, 1898. 
Jfrice 2 dollars. 

Everyone who has worked at Potamogeton will agree with Dr. 
Morong as to great difficulties which beset any attempt to give a 
satisfactory account of the order. If, therefore, we criticife his 

Ind our ^ eP ° mtS> ^ iS T th thG kn ° wled S e 0f thes * difficultie 

and our criticisms are mainly suggestive 

LUa^l' lf°N g - T lude \ in the ord <* the suborders Juncaginea, 

L r'pf±T ' R embra T g thG SenenxTnglochin, ScheucLria 
Lilaa Potamogeton, Ruppia, Z annichellia , Naias, Zostera, and Phd 

dXt'd STm \ ICGy t0 thG thirt y se ven species of PotamogeL 
described as North American. Of these he claims fourteen as 

a^Tn sl^ ^ iCa ' a Clalm Which Ca ™ ot be Bupportd wi h 
m EurnlZ c GS the "P"*} 1 "* characters would not hold good 

BpfnL P • CieS> 8UC J? aS the abseuce of " Propagating budf." 
re±^ 



geographical 



here and tW« i* i«, « * r T 7r A V " uaa 1101 Deen extended— 
Ask but onlv nl ? ° te n that SUch a S P ecies occurs in Europe or 
t^^t'tET™? 1 ?--* aS t0 show their nortbe ™ e^ension 

T^e western and Ll"*** T^" to the soutb of tbe Arcti * Sea. 
ine western and eastern extensions are fairly well given. 

CenSlSericarT 6 J* ?"? ° mi8Si ° nS ' * ~*« L « ooeors in 
Dn Croa Z 7 {Hemle ti' No mention is made of P. plantagineus 

So in St W T'^ ^ Sebach <**• W - Indies), which occurs 
Ser f- P Z g ° ! ^ ??? l8land ! (Balmmas)/' P. occidental 

8 DomTnfof TZ^T^ 2 ° mitted; H occur8 in P ^to Eico! 
Tuck SS 1TTV Mart , mi( l u J e ! ^ Cuba! P. ulaytonii 
luck, occurs also m Jamaica! and Porto Eico (Sintenisl); the 



THE NAIADACE.E OF NORTH AMERICA. 185 

difficulty as to the name this ought to bear will, we think, be 
disposed of by calling it P. epihydrum Rafinesque (1808). 

Dr. Morong is wise in retaining Tuckerinan's P. Lonchites for the 
present ; there is yet a difficulty as to this, and two or three of the 
forms of P. Jluitans. It should be given for Porto Rica and Antigua. 
We do not think Dr. Morong has done well by making P, Faxoni a 
species ; some of the specimens are really nothing but P. Lonchites, 
others may be hybrids. P. heteropkyllus occurs in Greenland ! and 
Arctic America, 56° ! P. angustifoliut Presl (Zizii Roth.) occurs in 
Cuba ( Wright !). To the distribution of P. lucens L. may be 
added Florida ! Jamaica, Cuba ! St. Lucia ! and Texas ! P. per- 
foliatus L. also occurs in St. Lucia ! P. crispus L. is considered an 
introduction ; it would have been of interest if Dr. Morong could 
have traced it back. There are specimens in Mr. Cosmo Melvill's 
herbarium, gathered in 1841-2 by Gavin Watson. Dr. Gray seems 
to have first noted it in 1863, but remarks that Tuckerman had 
seen a specimen in a European herbarium said to be from Delaware. 
We believe specimens for Central China (Dr. Henry !) belong to 
P. HUM Morong. Unfortunately there is no fruit on Dr. Henry's 
specimens, but in all else they seem identical. 

Dr. Morong claims P.foliosus Raf. (= P. pauciftorus Pursh) as 
peculiar to N. America, but it has (besides occurring in Porto Rico! 
and Cuba!) a very interesting outlying habitat in the Sandwich 
Isles ! ; these are " 2350 miles from the nearest part of the American 
coast— the Bay of San Francisco."* Does the following extract t 
help to explain how it got to these islands?:— " The existing 
currents .... strike the Hawaiian group (Sandwich Isles) from 
the north-west, bringing huge pine logs from Oregon." Judging 
from the account of the bird-life of these islands, \ they could have 
little to do with the transportation of an aquatic plant. Perhaps 
the Brazilian specimens named " pauciftorus " may really be tenui- 
florus Philippi? The var. calif omicus of this occurs also in 

On page 41 Dr. Morong introduces a form of nomenclature that 
seems to us much to be condemned. He raises P. pusillus L. var. 
major Fries to specific rank as - P. major (Fries) Morong,* while 
there already exists for the plant a certain and undoubted name, 
P. Friesii Ruprecht ! We think there is a prior authority for the 
reduction of P. panormitanus Biv. to a variety. P.pusillus should 
have been recorded for Greenland ! P. hybrid** Michx. i is displaced 
because the name » had previously been employed by Thuilher for 
P. heteropkyllus, Fl. Paris, 1790"; but here Pentagna Inst, vol. n. 
289 (1787), should have been quoted. Dr. Morong has no certain 
record for P. hybridus in Canada, but there is a specimen in the 
Glasgow Herbarium gathered by one of the Franklin Expeditions. 

P. sliriUm occurs in Jamaica ! ; P. ffl*™*™ , Ca ^ fo " lia <£■* 
HaZe in Herb. Mus. Brit.) and Greenland, " 69° ! To P. pectmatus 



* Wallace, Island Life, 2nd ed. p. 310. 

t Brigbam in Froc> Boston Soc> of Nat Hist. p. 12, 1868. 

J Wallace, I. c. pp. 313 - 316. 



i86 THE JOURNAL OF THE KEW GUILD. 

L. should be added Greenland! St. Lucia! Guatemala! Panama! 
and Brit. Honduras !. 

On page 52, Dr. Morong raises "P. pectinatus .Hatifolius Rob- 
bins " to specific rank, but this is untenable, as Dr. Bobbins 
overlooked the prior var. latifolius of Meyer (Chlor. Hann. (1836) ). 
There is a specimen of this rare form in the Brit. Mus. Herb, from 
" Springs, Huachanca Mountains, Sept. 1882, J. G. Lemmon and 

wife." 

Dr. Morong has overlooked the record of Prof. Macoun as to 
P. Robbintii " fruiting in the Somas River at Albania, on the west 
coast of Vancouver's Island," Cat. Can. PI. p. 89, 1888— the third 
known occurrence. He takes no notice of P. tenuifolius H. B. K. 
" New Mexico " ; of P. anyustissimus H. B. K. " Mexico" ; nor of P. 
vaginatus Turcz. " Saskatchewan, Bouryeau, 1858 " (Kihlman in Bot. 
Nattier) ; it also occurs at Buffalo Lake, lat. 56°, Macoun ! 

References to old American authors are almost wanting ; and 
no list is given of the undecided published names. The fifty plates 
are effective, as far as they go, very few dissections being given. 
P. confenoides Reich. = P. Tuckermanni Robbins is perhaps the least 
satisfactory, but they serve admirably to show the broad distinction 
between the various species. This notice is now too long to allow of 

entering into the specific rank of some of the forms raised to species 
by Dr. Morong. , „ r 

Akthub Bennett. 

The Journal of the Kew Guild, an Association of Kew Gardeners, past 

and present. May, 1893. 8vo, pp. 57. 

The idea of forming a Gild for Kew gardeners, past and 

present, is an excellent one, and can hardly fail to commend itself 

not only to those for whom it is more especially intended, but to 

all who realise the benefits of social intercourse and solidarity. 

Anything that binds men together for a common object, or 

strengthens old associations, is a power for good ; and Mr. Dyer, of 

whom a not very pleasing portrait appears as the frontispiece to the 

Journal, has clone well to encourage the formation of the Kew Gild. 

We have never seen our way to adopt the-as it appears to us— 

exaggerated language m which the praises of Kew are sounded by 

ts officers and friends ; but it is impossible not to recognise the 

nfluence which the Royal Gardens have exercised upon the 

~;, and ^ IC * ture of the wor] d- as well as in botanical 

wits JournaT n0t C ° m6 Within the SCOpe of the Gild 

M a I ro l tb i e Joumal J wb ; ich is , t0 be issued aunuall y on the Is* of 

«S,r f 'I P artlculars of the numerous opportunities for 

h ve unZ D t Jl t are Pr t S ! Uted t0 *° Un S S ard ^rs, "id which 
*5?h t Z y t° ne mU u h t0 S6CUre for them the high positions 
lee uL L T 7 aVe ^l^ntly attained. Four courses of 

and othP^ fh T Ual y by u Mr - J " G - Baker ' Mr - J - *• Jackson, 
ou anSrPv'i^ n l eS , ta, ; ea by the men bein S af Awards written 

SocieU I! V hC l6CtUr ,T- Tbt "' e is a Mut "al Improvement 
bociet>, now twenty years old, which meets weekly in the Garden 



THE FERNS OF SOUTH AFRICA. 187 

Library during six winter months, for reading and discussion of 
papers connected with gardening. There is also a " British Botany 
Club " which meets for weekly excursions during the summer. 

Among the contents of the Journal are letters from Kew men 
at home and abroad, including some interesting if rather trivial 
" Reminiscences of Kew" by Mr. Hemsley. The List of " Living 
Past Kewites " tells more forcibly than any narration could do of 
the widespread influence of Kew, and of the various excellent posts 
which are open to a gardener who sticks to his work and uses his 
opportunities. We hope that some day the Journal may give us a 
list of those who have died ; such a list would contain many names 
at least as distinguished in the annals of botany and horticulture 

as any of those now living. 

The " Garden Notes " seem to us the weakest part of the Journal. 
We are glad to learn that " Mr. Nicholson is preparing a catalogue 
of the hardy ligneous plants cultivated in Kew," but we should 
have been more pleased with some definite announcement as to the 
publication of the Guide to the Gardens, the absence of which is a 
serious drawback to the intelligent appreciation of them. Con- 
sidering the energy displayed at Kew in so many directions, it is to 
be regretted that this important adjunct to the usefulness of the 
Gardens should be allowed to remain for many years out of print. 



The Ferns of South Africa. By Thomas R. Sim, F.R.fl.S. London : 
Wesley. 8vo, pp. iv, 275. 159 plates. Price £1 Is. Od. 

We are glad that Mr. Sim has given us a comprehensive band- 
book of South African Ferns, the usefulness of which we suggested 
when noticing {Journ. Bot. 1891, 253) his Ferns of Kafrarra. That 
work may indeed be regarded as a forerunner of the present, which 
includes the plates and some matter of the earlier undertaking. 
Mr. Sim has evidently aimed at producing a book which shall be 
useful to the intelligent collector, and at the same time acceptable 
to the professed botanist ; and, so far as we can judge, lie has suc- 
ceeded admirably. For the former, the introductory chapters are 
well adapted ; while the summary of distribution, based on Mr. 
Bolus's arrangement, is carefully worked out, although our know- 
ledge of African and Mascarene ferns is more extensive than Mr. 

Sim seems to be aware of. v^^a 

The descriptions are full, and evidently for the most part based 
upon ample material. We are glad to find that Mr. Sim has 
extended to the species the key which he has provided for the 
orS and genera. Such keys are of great help to the student who 
employs them intelligently, although they sometimes lead the too- 
Sdfng novice astray. The large number of plates will prove a 
material aid in determining the species and re fleet great cjed* 
upon the author, who is also the illustrator of the work. The local 
Attribution is carefully worked out, and the synonymy is given 
« 1m. *£*& W occasionally doubt whether the correct (,., 
the oldest name has been retained. The plan of placing a period 
between he name and the authority-thus, «J*r» Buchanan, 






188 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 



Baker MSS."— although not unknown, is unusual and undesirable : 
and such a name as this, taken at random, leaves us in doubt 
whether this plant has actually been described before, although Mr. 
bim cites the name from two lists. ° 

There are interesting facts scattered up and down the pages, such 
as the occurrence of the New Zealand and Australian Tteris tremula 
at JNatal as an escape from cultivation. The book is well printed, 
although misprints are somewhat frequeut : and Mr. Sim has 
evidently known how to utilise the opportunities which he possesses 
as Curator of the Botanic Gardens at Kiug William's Town. 

Le The. Botaniqiie et Culture, Falsifications et richesse en Cafeine 

des differentes especes. Par Antoine Bretrjx. Avec 27 figures 

Paris : J. B. Bailliere et Fils. 1892. 

The culture, preparation, and commercial aspects of the Tea- 
Plant have had so many exponents that it would appear almost 
impossible that another book on the subject could find readers; but 
the little work of some 156 pages now before us is sufficiently 

w?.7n m + i C ^f r f er and treatmen t of the matter it deals 
ImanZZ th0Se 1 that ha T e g° ne befor e to guarantee a circulation 
amongst many who want to know something more than the popular 

«n^? e ? al T eCt ° f the * uestion - No book bating of P such 
wS?fw P1 '° d ^ aS tea w °uld possibly be considered complete 
Ins on t am d ff&™ ?f the plant, culture, preparation, 

botax v of' thfS WG l , d mt the firSt Chapter is de ™ ted t0 the 
preuara^on of ^ lmt ' A *? » ext on cult ™, the third on the 

thefr nhv .1 - g i en / nd , black , teas ' &c -> followed b ? others on 
1 P^ 6lo Jof cal a nd medicinal action, the microscopical study of 

To iXt is 6 fif £&$ and ° f those used as addteratbns 
chant? Ll V \ ? Me A l hat fc J 1G leaVeS 0f the P lants mentioned in this 
days whonTt, 5r ^t m **. H is to be ho P ed that in these 
o IupdW so nZl ™ tl0n h f S0 , Wldely extended and tbe purees 
not fo i a ln ^ lncreased ' oak ,' asb > beecb a ^ billow leaves do 

3u&2^^ b00k > and L ***- *« 3«?ai 

J. R. J. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 



Bot. Centralblatt. (Nos. 18 1<» V «»* r> u- t-t , 

transient Borb., sp.n - No 22 ' 1 C n r ^ ^{ >hrasM e 
Boebuck Bay, N.W. Austraha'.' } * * G * °' TepPer * ' F1 ° ra of 

(1 plateS^H L M K Ch S^' K Hum P bre y, ' Momlia fruetgen*' 

Tissue '' ~PRM I 1 ' ' Non -P ara sitic Bacteria in Vegetable 

X ~ 3 SaS. f Th N 0m S ar t Ve Study ° f R ° 0tS 0f *«»■ 
M.J.I 15 S* „ >~^- f \ Newell, ' Flowers of Horse-chestnut.'— 

Wollo ttMY-om _ A> Bi Hitchcock, 'Hybrid 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 189 

Oak ' (1 plate). — (April 15). E. Thaxter, ' Phalloqaster saccatus ■ 
(1 plate).— E. M. Fisher, ' The genus Casalpinia.'—D.T. MacDougal, 



Passiji 



C. MacMillan, ' Limi- 



tation of the term "spore." ' — M. E. Meads, 'Variation in Erg- 

thronium 1 (1 plate). — F. H. Knowlton, 'New fossil Cham' (C. 

Stantoni). 

Bot. Mayazine (Tokio). — (Mar. 10). E. Yatabe, Tricyrtis nana, 
sp. n. 

Bot. Notiser (haft. 3).— J. R. Junguer, ' Omregnblad, daggblad, 
och snoblad' (1 plate).— A. Y. Grevillius, ' Om vegetations forhall- 
andena pa de genom sanknmgarne area 1882 och 1886 nybildade 
skaren i Hjelmaren.' — H. Hedstroin, ' Om hasselns forntida ut- 
bredning i Sverige.' — S. Murbeck, ■ Pulmonaria anyustifolia L. x 
officinalis L. = obscura Dumort. (P. notha Kern.).' — H. W. Arnell, 
' Om slaktnamnet Poreila.' — 0. Vesterlund, ' Vaxtnainn pa folk- 
spraket.' 

Bot. Zeitawj (pt. 5 : May 16). — G. Hieronymus, ■ Ueber die 
Organisation der Phycochromaceenzellen. , — H. Solms-Laubach, 
1 Ueber die Beobachtungen, die Herr G. Eisen zu San Francisco an 
den Smyrnafeigen gemacht hat/ — J. C. Koningsberger, 'Eine 
anatomische Eigenthiimlichkeit einiger Bheum Arten.' 

Bulletin de VHerbier Boissier (No. 4). — J. Briquet, 'Les Methodes 
Statistiques applicables aux recherches de floristique ' (1 plate). — 

F. Crepin, ' Eoses recueillies en Anatolie et dans l'Armenie Turque.' 
H. Solereder, ' Ein Beitrag zur anatomischen Charakteristik und 

der Systematik der Eubiaceen.' — E. Chodat & 0. Malinesco, 
1 Polymorphisme du Scenedesmus acutits' (1 plate). — E. Chodat & 
C. Roulet, 'Le genre Hewittia.' — R. Chodat et C. Eodrigue, 'Le 
tegument seminal des Polygalacees.' — H. Christ, ' Notice bio- 
graphique sur Alphonse DeCandolle.' — J. Miiller, g Licheues 
Chinenses Henryani.' — (No. 5). N. Alboff, ■ Contributions a la 
Flore de la Transcaucasie.' — E. Buser, 'Notice biographique sur 
Louis Favrat' (1827-93). — B. D. Jackson, 'Bibliographical Notes.' 

N. Patouillard, ' Quelques Champignons asiatiques.' — J. Miiller, 

'Lichenes Scottiairi.' 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France (xxxix., Comptes rendus, 6: (May 1). 

G. Gandoger, * Marillea Urvittei.' — E. Heckel, ' Sexualite du 
Ceratonia Silitjua.' — E. Eoze, ' Fecondation du Najas major et du 
Ceratophyllum demersum.' — G. Bonnier, ' Eenllement moteur des 
Sensitives.' — W. Russell, ' Pistillebi-carpelle de Haricot.' — E. 
Prillieux, ' Intumescences des feuilles d'CEillets malades/ 

Hue, 'Lichens des Greves de la Moselle.' — E. Mer, 'La 
defoliation des branches basses d'Epicea.' — L. Guignard, 'Du 
tegument seminale chez les Cruciferes.' — D. Clos, ' Questions 
d'orthographe et de priorite.' — G. Bonnier, ' Sur la pression 
transmise a travers les tiges.' — P. Fliche, ' Vaceinium Myrtillus 
var. leiicocarjnun.' 

Bull. Towey Bot. Club (April). — N. L. Britton, Eusby's S. 
American Plants (contd). — D, H, Campbell, ■ Development of 



190 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 



Sporocarp of Pilularia americana' (1 pi.). — H. W. Conn, 'Free 
Nitrogen Assimilation by Plants.' — A. F. Foerste, ' Casting-off of 
Tips of Branches ' (2 plates).— A. Hollick, ' New Fossil Palm from 
Long Island ' (Serenopsis, gen. nov. : 1 plate). 

Erythea (May).— T. Howell, ' New Plants of the Pacific Coast.' 

M. A. Howe, 'Two Californian Cryptogams.' — E. L. Greene, 

' Corrections in Nomenclature.' — H. Baillon, * On Generic Nomen- 
clature.' 

Gardeners' Chronicle (Ap. 29).— Galanthus Ikaria Baker, Fritil- 
laria Wldttallii Baker, Scilla leucophylla Baker, spp. nn. — (May 6). 
Tidipa concinna Baker, Eucharis Lowii Baker, Fritillctria dtrina 
Baker, spp. nn. — (May 13). Scdla Buchanani Baker, Rkhardia 
Luticychei N. E. Br., spp. nn. 

Journal de Botanique (May 1, 16). — E. Bonnet, ' Plantes de 
Tumsie.' — E. Bescherelle, ' Hepatiques de Guadeloupe et Mar- 
tinique.' — (May 1). P. Vuillemin, ' Sur les affinites des Basidio- 
mycetes.' - (May 16). G. de Lagerheim, ' Sur une Cvperacee 
entomoplnle ' (Dichronema ciliata Vahl.). 

Joum. Linn. Soc. (xxix., No. 201 : May 15). — C. T. Druery, 
'An Aposporous Lastrea ' (1 plate). — G. Gammie, ' Sikkim Tree- 
ierns. — G. Henslow, 'Theoretical Origin of Endogens from 
Jixogens.'— A. Lister, ' Division of Nuclei in Mycetozoa ' (2 plates). 

Oesterr. Bot. Z eieschrift . (May). — V. Schiffner, ' Morphologie 
und systematische Stellung von Metzyeriopsis pusilla' (1 plate).— 
H Zukal, » Mykologische Mittheilungen.'— A. Nestler, ' Eigenthiim- 
licnkeiten im anatomischen Bau der Laubblatter einiger Kanuncu- 
Jaceen. — L. Adamovic, ' Neue Beitrage zur Flora von Siidost- 
serbien. -- Zimmeter, ' Aquileyia Einseleana & A. thalict n [folia .'— 
J. Murr, ' Zur Flora von Nordtirol.' 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 



The 



Tinv.««« c • x »..« 6 »v U ,ui C ui me auuum meeting oi tue 
gSJmp£w e % 0U f Ma y ?*th was the presentation of the Society's 
Gold Medal to Professor Daniel Oliver, F.E.S. On handing Prof. 

sr Zl <Z ? I 1 ' 5? Preside , nt ' Prof - Stewart ' made the following 
?T mv - \ 0a . handm ? ^u the Gold Medal of the Linnean Society, 

LsPn^t^ 8 ^ i "V , reCa11 to the memor y of &* Fellows 
SSSr ? J Sh ° rtly and im P^fectly, some of the more 

iart cu \Zl 1 W rtant .°J Jour labours in Botany ;-those more 
SSon ™ 7 F ? \ have J nduced the Society to confer this Medal 
ofvnnr hnf, i * w , ould T ca11 at ^tion to the very wide character 
Naiasfi S ^ W ° rk - ^ 185 ° y° u discovered, in Connemara, 

liX; Vt, n ' T genUS neW t0 the British Flora - In 1859 you pub- 

Camri XI I TT l T' a paper on the strncture of the ste ™ in 
VouS • Itf nA *»"*«*»<«* illustratr,! with plates drawn by 
yourself, and m 1862 you contributed to the Natural History liniew 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 191 

a memoir on the structure of the stem in Dicotyledons, with a 
critical bibliography of the subject. Then, in your series of eighteen 
papers in the Journal and six in the Transactions of this Society, 
you turned to Systematic, Morphological, and Geographical 
Botany. These papers relate to all branches of Phanerogams ; 
there are several illustrating the flora of Tropical Africa, including 
the whole of the 29th vol. of our Transactions, with its 136 plates ; 
and you paid detailed attention to the Loranthacea, the Utricnlariece, 
the Hamamelidece, and the Olaeinece, your artistic talents enabling 
you to illustrate beautifully and accurately these memoirs. The 
second point I would mention is the high excellence of this work. 
The investigations of more recent workers have confirmed, almost 
without exception, the accuracy of your observations and conclusions 
regarding the new genera and species established in these memoirs 
and elsewhere, notably in the Icones Plantarum, which you have 
now edited for three years wholly yourself. Thus also, in 1862, 
when geologists were discussing the Atlantis hypothesis, you showed 
in your paper in the Natural History Review that the botanical 
evidence was against that hypothesis, but that a close connection 
existed between the Flora of Tertiary Central Europe and the 
existing Floras of Japan and the United States. The subsequent 
progress of geological discoveries has proved the soundness of the 
views advanced in your contribution to the controversy thirty years 
ago. The third point — and I desire to impress this on the members 
of the Society — is that much of your work is as yet unpublished ; 
it is enshrined in the Kew Herbarium, where it has contributed 
largely to Bentham & Hooker's Genera Plantarum, and to numerous 
memoirs which have been prepared wholly or in part at Kew. The 
last point I need touch upon is your educational work. Your 
Lessons in Botany is the most useful elementary book we have ; 
your Illustrations of the Natural Orders and your Guides to the 
Museum and Gardens at Kew have been eminently useful in 
spreading among the people an interest in Botany, and have led 
many to further study. As Professor of Botany for thirty years in 
University College, London, you have trained many pupils, now 
highly distinguished — not least among these being your successor 
in the Professorial chair. With every good wish, I hand you the 
Gold Medal of the Society. 

44 The Eussian Thistle" is the name by which Salsola Kali var. 
Tragus is known in America, although it is there sometimes known 
still more inappositely as " Russian Cactus." "It is one of the 
worst w T eeds ever introduced into the wheat-fields of America": 
and Mr. L. H. Dewey has just issued (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 
Farmers' Bulletin, No. 10) a pamphlet dealing exhaustively with 
the pest, pointing out clearly and simply its modes of distribution 
and the conditions affecting its growth, and suggesting remedies 
for its extermination. " Place a Russian thistle in each school- 
house," runs one of the " recommendations," "so that the pupils 



they find it as the 
company the report 



kill 




192 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, EtC. 

- 

Another of the older generation of English botanists has passed 
away in the person of Mr. Thomas Westcombe, who died on May 9th 
at his residence, Britannia Square, Worcester, at the age of seventy- 
eight. Of a very retiring and modest disposition, and nearly con- 
fined to his house for some years by ill-health, he was probably 
known to but few of our younger botanists. But few of those who 
knew him in his vigour, and none of those who were privileged to 
join him in botanical excursions, will forget the indomitable 
energy, apparently incapable of fatigue, with which he followed his 
favourite pursuit, notwithstanding, or perhaps rather assisted by, his 
spare and emaciated form, and the extreme abstemiousness of his 
habits. The present writer has still a lively recollection of the tax on 
Ins endurance involved in such an excursion which he, then in his 
teens, undertook with Mr. Westcombe some forty years ago, in 
Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, in search of such rarities as 

S/vraiithes astivalis, Calamintha sylvotica, Leersia oryzoides, and 

Pobjpogon littoralis. Mr. Westcombe was of that Quaker community 
which has produced such naturalists as Prof. Oliver, Mr. J. G. 
Baker, and the two Bradys. He lived a bachelor life with three 
unmarried sisters ; and his great delight, in the days when he was 
past active work, was his garden of wild flowers and his green- 
houses.— A. W. B. 

The Kew Bulletin has begun to appear again, a double number, 
for February and March, having made its appearance towards the 
end of May. Mr. Eolfe describes some new Orchids, but there is 
nothing else of botanical interest in the number. It is to be 
regretted that publications in which new species are described 
should be dated m a manner so calculated to mislead. 

Me. E. M. Holmes contributed some « Suggested Emendations 
in Botanical Terminology " to the Botanical Congress at Genoa last 
year, which have been printed in its Atti. He wishes to " render 
more uniform the terminology in use for cohorts, natural orders, 
^borders, tribes " and - to discriminate in print between specific 
names derived from vernacular names, proper names, and old 
generic names." " All vernacular names should be preceded and 
loiiowed by an inverted comma, thus— Diospyros ' Kaki ' " • «< the 
name of an old genus when used as a specific name should be 
wntten in italics and spelt with a capital letter, thus-Rhamnus 
^/fln^MYfl. We do not imagine that these proposals will meet with 
Zu ^ ce P ance + among botanists, nor can we see that any benefit 
could arise from their adoption. 

of tWEW? hIT i?"To ° f May 25th has an amusin S account 
Affpr rJ 7 Ho + rtlcultu ™} Society's great show held on that day. 

"leJtt 3 n i° nV ^ friend the Iaxia *<"*&"*?' and to 
Z r '_ r5. X s or ? hlds fil1 n* centre of this tent. He has nn« n«w 



flowe 



He has one new 

fimbriata. We 



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2" A It"*; .?S*! bnt in «!»*• A**— count, for 



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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



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BRITISH 



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BY 



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Single Numbers, Is. 3d. 




No. 367. 



JULY, 1893 



THE 



Vol. XXXI 



■? 



JOURNAL 



OF 




BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 



SPITED BY 



JAMES BRITTEN, F.L. S., 

^takt, Department ■ B< PAH¥> British Jfi -..-' «.tural History 

I a Kkksinotojc 






CONTI TS 



Production I Tubers within the 
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Tab. 336 





RMargsuiiiflL afUr pboto _ 



P-Poduction of Tubers inside 



a Potato 



"W«sL>N©vwmaui imp 



198 



PRODUCTION OF TUBERS WITHIN THE POTATO. 

By A. B. Rendle, M.A., F.L.S. 

(Piate 336.) 

In the Qtrdmm* Chronicle of January 22nd, 1870 is a short 
note on the anomalous production of young tubers or shoots in he 
fnterior of a potato, resulting in the bursting o the »^f *£ 
protrusion through the clefts, when grown too large to be any longer 
Jnntiined within. There is also a rough figure, wlncn is repio 
ducedTn the axne journal of Nov. 29th, 1879, in connection with 
a horlarticle on the subject called forth by some «P£^*°f 
M T.nobaume who, in the Revue Horticole,* tells how He *as ame 
k W about the phenomenon artificially. He placed potatoes in 
the spnng on a table in a cellar, and every week removed any shoots 
which had appeared. On September 1st the skm spht, and a few 

%f«^e»o^^ 

Pr0 HaJin? n iSeeived from Mr. Carling, of Norwich, a specimen 

the shoots had been broken off «*^^ t °„ noticed fchat 
damaged bases. In the co ™f °* ™\ h lefts iucrea sed in width, 
the rind was splitting in sever* P^^*^ 1 aper tures. This 
and soon little potatoes app^i d t himig fc *e p ^ ^ 

went on for som e we eks and w en g ^ ^.^ 

appearance shown m the gate {*g }• m ^ away ^ 

forth young at several pomts. u wa t j ^ 

having »• «g«« SfttS ilirfhrough L substance of 
tissues. By following uie 1 : attached to the base of one or 

the tuber, it was seen that ^^^Snation in longitudinal 

other of the damaged ^.^C^^Lx one, and explained 
section showed the connec ion Ac be a ^y e ^ t ^ base 

the anatomical origin .T ^ ^ c Tar cylnide/ is connected at the 

° f '"rnoln o mion wi n S a Si network of bundles, with which 
narrow point ol union wi 11 ^ hoot alg0 anag . 

2 ^ m?° W ?he ^oot " ver, narrow at its point of origin 
bTrapidfy Sdens o\t andbegin^^ 




* Revue HvrticoUy 1879, p. Wf • 

Journal of Botany.-Vol. 81. [July, 1893.] 



o 



194 PRODUCTION OF TUBERS WITHIN THE POTATO. 

branches, showing that life is going on with great activity. Another 
evidence of this vigour is seen in the great number of undeveloped 
buds and roots all round the base of the aerial shoot, which at once 
give the clue to the physiological cause of the phenomenon. What 
has happened is this. When the " eyes " or buds of the mother- 
potato sprouted, an active metabolism was set up in their imme- 
diate neighbourhood. The reserve-material, stored in the insoluble 
form of starch, was changed by the diastatic ferment into 
sugar, and thus becoming soluble and capable of easy transport, 
passed up into the growing shoot to supply material for formation 
of tissue and production of the energy necessary for growth. But 
this growth, which in the dark would be exceptionally vigorous, was 
suddenly stopped altogether by removal of the shoot. The 
chemical processes, however, still went on ; and to find some 
channel for the use of the material produced, numbers of adven- 
titious buds were formed round the bases of the shoots, one or 
more of which pushed through the substance of the tuber, giving 
rise on its course to numerous roots and branches. It is difficult to 
see what purpose the colourless thread-like roots can serve, as the 
entire nourishment is obtained through the attachment with the 
aerial shoot, the suberisation of the internal cavities as well as the 
surface of the young shoot and tubers precluding any idea of its 
assumption from outside. We must suppose that the habit of pro- 
ducing roots is so deeply graven on the constitution of tuber- 
bearmg shoots that it continues even when roots are useless. 

The branches either produce or themselves become youn^ 
tubers in which the reserve-material of the old tuber is again stored 
in the form of starch. The new growth being entirely at the 
expense of the mother, naturally causes the latter to shrivel. 

Mr. Carruthers has drawn my attention to a case somewhat 
parallel physiologically, where supply of soluble food-material goes 
on alter the necessity for it has ceased as far as the plant is con- 
cerned. The Indians of Mexico have discovered and use it for 
their own convenience. They cut off the inflorescence of the Agare 
at the base, close to the thick, fleshy leaves, and scoop out the open 
wound into a sort of basin. Of course a large supply of soluble 
carbohydrate (sugar) was necessary for the very active metabolism 
and growth going on in the huge opening inflorescence. This 
supply does not cease with the removal of the stalk, and the 
sugary liquid wells up into the artificial basin, whence it is removed 
by the Indians and fermented to make a drink. This goes on until 
nd Ka • 8 e f h r sted the lar g e quantities of starch which it 
iuhetwUhSs td^eT ^ * ™ 4 ° flowerin * a " d "*» 

ie]2onZ*^^ P ° int WOrth ? of mention as re gards the 
relation between the two generations of tubers. In a paper entitled * 

xaml MS "f Bhl T? " BretMd Cit6S * Remarkable 
S? n ° £i lnt f nal *°nnd f <>™d in a kind of dry-rot of the 
potato, and induced through penetration by a parasite. 7 The pene- 

* Prinxsheim'a Jakrbuch, Bd. xii. p. 138, 



BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 195 

tration starts at the eyes ; those nearest the diseased spot decay, and 
thence, mostly without perceptible alteration on the exterior, the 
disease passes inwards and becomes localised in various parts of the 
tuber. Suitable sections show plainly that the area of infection is 
surrounded by cells actively engaged in formation of periderm." 
Similarly in our potato, the channels formed by the penetration of 
the shoots and the larger cavities in which are contained the young 
tubers, singly or often massed together in clusters, have their walls 
suberised, while the surface of the penetrating shoots and tubers is 
protected in the same way. This occurs not only where, through 
formation of a cleft, the interior becomes exposed, but right in the 
heart of the mother-tuber, which thus protects itself against the 
inroads of its own offspring, much in the same way as against a 
parasitic fungus. There is this difference between the protecting 
layer of the vigorously-growing young shoot and that of the old 
wasting tuber, where life must be at a much lower ebb. While 
the former, with its young tubers, gives rise to a phellogen pro- 
ducing layers of periderm, in the latter we find simply suberisation 
of the walls with more or less disappearance of the contents of the 

outer layers of cells. 

It may be asked why the adventitious buds at their formation 

should not break out and grow freely in the air, rather than force 

their way through a resistent tissue. But we can understand that, 

dealing as we are here with shoots, which in the natural order of 

things°have to push their way through the soil, the relations to the 

substratum will thus be more truly expressed, and the response to 

the external stimuli of contact and moisture better satisfied. 

Description of Plate 336. — A. An old potato bringing forth young tubers 
through clefts in its skin. B. Lower part of the same specimen cut open and 
the upper part of the section removed, laying bare a large cavity containing 
several young tubers, of which the greater number are borne on a shoot whose 
origin at the°base of an aerial shoot is indicated at x ; x 1 is near the origin of 
another shoot. C. Longitudinal section of the origin of an intrasomatal shoot 
(a) at the base of an aerial shoot (b), showing the arrangement of the bundle 

system. 



BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 

By Edward F. Linton, M.A., and Wm. R. Linton, M.A. 

(Concluded from p. 182.) 

Hieracium eustales, n. sp. A plant gathered in Glen Derry, 
S. Aberdeen, 1889, stood alone for some time, the material being too 
scanty to deal with. No name was even suggested. Dr. Lindeberg, 
to whom it was sent, observed on it, " Species pulchra, bene ut 
videtur distincta." In 1891 two gatherings were made in Mid- 
Perth, viz., on Meall Ghaordie, on the Glen Lyon side, and on 
Meall-na-Saone, on rocky sides of the Allt Dubh Galair, of a plant 
which was eventually found to be practically identical with the 
Glen Derry form. The latter, probably from growing on granite, 

o2 



196 BEITISH HAWKWEEDS. 

has a blacker, more glandular involucre, and a more hairy upper 
surface of the leaf. The Derry plant grew on warm shingle under 
a southern exposure, a circumstance quite sufficient to account for 
the greater hairiness of the leaf. The Perthshire gatherings were 
made on the north side of the mountain, and therefore in all pro- 
bability received less direct sunshine. In general habit this species 
bears some resemblance to H. Farrense F. J. Hanbury, from which 
the shape of the subentire leaves, the subsolitary stem-leaf, the 
senescent phyllaries, and the ciliate ligules distinguish it. There 
is an approach to H. submurorum Lindeb. in some respects, but the 
involucre alone requires that these two should be placed far apart. 
The description (drawn up by E. F. L.) is appended: 

H. eustales Linton. Stem 12-18 in., moderately hairy, floccose 
above, branching little, but at a very acute augle, usually bearing 
one stem-leaf, and sometimes a bract-like linear-lanceolate one high 
up as well. Leaves long-petioled, light green (becoming yellow- 
green when dried), moderately firm, narrowly ovate-oblong, acute ; 
blade narrowed equally to both ends, attenuated to the petiole, and 
narrowly decurrent ; thinly hairy below, chiefly on the nerves, 
softly ciliate with curled hairs, glabrescent on the upper surface (or 
hairy, as in the Aberdeenshire plant) ; margin slightly crenate and 
denticulate or subentire. Petiole thinly hairy, channelled, with 
midrib inclined to turn red. Stem-leaf petioled, similar to radical, 
denticulate; petiole winged, almost i-amplexicaul. Heads few, 
moderate in size, on very floccose peduncles, which are usually 
straight, long, and moderately glandular, with a very few scattered 
simple hairs. Involucre ovate-obconic in flower, ovoid-conic after 
flowering, very floccose, clothed with numerous rather short black- 
based hairs and some very unequal glandular hairs. Phyllaries 
narrow, but becoming broader below as they mature, narrowly 
acuminate, markedly floccose-tipped, and with a white floccose 
margin Ligules pilose at the tips. Style medium livid. Pappus 
very light brown. rr 

H. orcadense W. R. Linton, n. sp. Basal leaves in a rosette, 
outer broad ovate, narrowed to the petiole, rounded and apiculate 
above, dentate or denticulate, inner lanceolate, nearly equally 
narrowed to apex and petiole, with a few medium-sized patent 
teeth; margins ciliate with bulbous-based hairs; surfaces with 
similar hairs,, or partially denuded ; stem-leaves 1-4 at regular 
interva s, with short winged petioles, and acute teeth in the lower 
hall; stem 1-2 ft. high, floccose and with bulbous-based hair*, 
specially in the upper part, bearing a closely aggregated corymbose 
panicle of 2 to many heads ; peduncles floccose, with black-based 
bans, and few seta* ; involucres small, dark, cylindric, slightly 
floccose, with many black-based hairs, and few or no set* ; phyllaries 
few broad blunt, dark olive, pale-edged, white-tipped; ligules 
medium yellow, tips glabrous ; styles dark livid. The corymb-like 
panicle of neat dark heads, and the somewhat leafy stem, are the 
more obvious distinguishing features of this plant. It was named 
U.cmmm Ir. by Dr. Boswell, and Fries' Epicrim contains a remark 
under 11. ccesuwi on a plant from " Orney," sent by Mr. Backhouse, 



BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 197 

which probably refers to this. Dr. Lindeberg said of it, " Not 
known to me, not known in Scandinavia"; and on another occasion, 
" Species nova inter vulgata." Mr. Backhouse, in a letter to Mr. 
Hanbury, said, " Unless an extreme form of vulgatum, which I sus- 
pect, it is apparently a new species." It grows extensively on 
Quoys Hamars, Hoy, Orkney Isles, 200-300 ft. above sea-level. 
The name is due to a suggestion by Mr. Hanbury. For position, 
on account of the number of stem-leaves, we incline to place this 
plant between 11. eustales and IF Farrense, the group being already 
pointed out by Dr. Boswell and Dr. Lindeberg. 

H. Farrense F. J. Hanbury. Wood S. of Braemar, *S. Aber- 
deen ; we have also specimens from the E. Clunie, Braemar, which 
are no doubt this species. Clova Valley, 1^ miles below the Hotel, 
♦Forfar; specimen confirmed by Mr. F. J. Hanbury. 

IF silvaticum (L.) Almq., subsp. subidatidens Dahlst. (Hier. Exs. 
Fasc. iv. No. 61). Glen Doll, Forfar. Entered here under H. sil- 
vaticum, as so described ; though it must be borne in mind that this 
name with Almquist signifies what we understand by H. marorum 
L. The correspondence between Dahlstedt's specimens and ours 
is so complete that we do not hesitate to report this interesting 
form. The leaves, which are ovate-acuminate, are singularly 
dentate, with large spreading deltoid-acuminate teeth, sometimes 
equalling half the breadth of the blade. Stem wiry, flexuous, 
floccose, sparingly hairy, with one stem-leaf or 0. ^ Radical leaves 
forming a rosette, thinly hairy, ciliate with white silky hairs. 
Panicle subcorymbose, with ascending branches. Heads numerous, 
rather small; peduncles densely glandular and floccose; flowers 
deep yellow. Involucre ovoid, floccose and glandular ; phyllaries 
narrow, inner acutely acuminate, glandular almost to the tip. 
Ligules with a few scattered deciduous hairs about the tip. Style 
livid. Pappus pure white. This description is drawn from Dahl- 
stedt's specimens ; our plant, however, agrees well with it. 

IF vulgatum Fr., var. mapkUum Uechtr. (//. sciaphilum Uechtr.). 
A form of large size, with very glandular heads and peduncles, and 
in this differing greatly from ordinary //. vuhjatum, has been met 
with in Somerset, at Cheddar ; Stroud, in West Gloucestershire ; 
at Sellack, Herefordshire (by Rev. A. Ley, as IF orarium) ; in Glyn 
Neath, Glamorgan ; in Carnarvonshire, on the Great Orme's Head, 
and in other localities ; in Dovedale, Derbyshire ; and also near 
Alstonfield (by the Eev. W. H. Purchas) ; which would appear in 
all likelihood to be the limestone form of the very glandular plant 
from Shirley, Brailsford, and Yeldersley, S. Derbyshire, which M. 
Arvet-Touvet determined in 1891 as coming under the var, scia- 
philum. The question whether our limestone vulgatum form is this 
variety perhaps requires further proof ; but we draw attention to the 
plant, and to its distribution, under this as its possible name. 



IF diavhanum Fr. We 



Journal 



to a series of plants gathered by one of us at Longridge in 1891, 
which certainly had a good deal of the aspect of an IF vuhjatum f. 
He had, however, previously assented to a Longridge plant, gathered 



198 BKITISH HAWK WEEDS. 

t 

by one of us in 1874, as identical with Mr. Merrill's Prestwich 
H. diaphannm Fr. Both stations happen to be within short range 
of a large manufacturing town ; and it is a question whether this 
plant may not after all be a state of H. rulgatum, the floccose 
clothing of which has been denuded by a smoky climate. Rubi, 
e.g., in the neighbourhood of Manchester, have been observed to be 
much more glabrous than they usually are in a purer atmosphere. 

H. diaphanoides Lindeb. Tal-y-Llyn, ^Montgomery, H. T. Men- 
nell, sent through the Watson B. E. C. as H. ovarium. Festiniog, 
Merioneth. Near the Resolven Fall, and on Craig-y-Llyn, Gla- 
morgan . 

H. diaphanoides Lindeb., var. apiculatum, Linton, n. var. A 
plant was noticed on the Unich Water above Loch Lee, Forfar, in 
1889, which was sent after a time through Mr. Hanbury to Dr. 
Lindeberg, but failed to receive a name. Cultivation has, however, 
brought out (what we had a suspicion of before) a clear affinity with 
H. diaphanoides. The wild specimens bear much resemblance to 
H. zetlandieum Beeby, differing chiefly in the leaves ; and, in fact, 
the var. apiculatum is a connecting link between these two species. 
It differs from H. diajdianoides, the leaves of which are of a dull, 
often csesious green, in having fresh green leaves, more cuneate at 
the base, and more blunt and apiculate, the upper part of the leaf 
having a sugar-loaf outline with an apiculate point, whereas the 
leaf of diaphanoides is triangular acute. The heads of the variety 
are in a laxer more irregular subcorymbose panicle, and the 
phyllaries are broad acuminate obtuse, compared with those of the 
type, which are moderately broad, linear-acuminate, and acute. 
Var. apiculatum usually has the upper surface of the root-leaves 
covered with bulbous-based hairs. On the whole, it has the look of 
a somewhat refined alpine or northern variety of H. diaphanoides. 

H. spa rnfoUum Lindeb. Sent us unnamed by Lieut.-Col. Rim- 
mgton, from E. Creed, Stomoway, Lewis, *Outer Hebrides. Here 
we place a plant gathered in various valley localities near Fortingal, 
in one place five miles up Glen Lyon, where the plant grew on 
light soil on turf, and taken for H. tparrifolitm ; in others, among 
loose rubble or in richer soil, taken for II. norvenicum Fr., var. 
rmtjertum Lindeb. , a plant for which, by Mr. Hanbury 's directions, 
we were searching. This latter form has leaves rather crowded 
towards the base, and the plants were luxuriant and many-flowered. 
It was not long before we perceived that these two plants were 
identical. We also learnt later on that the more luxuriant plant 
was the same as that which Mr. W. F. Miller had previously 
gathered at this station in 1888, and which Dr. Lindeberg had 
named H. norvegicvm Fr. var. conjhtum for Mr. Hanbury (see Joum. 

/i"no 18 . 92, P ' 181 )' We lmve a!read y mentioned in this Journal 
(1892, 147) our finding H. tparn/olium five miles up Glen Lyon. 

We now feel obliged to express our conviction that the more 

luxuriant river-side plant about Fortingal and Culdamore is also 

this species, and not a U. norvegicum. form. The involucres have 

not the floccose and hairy clothing (« albo-flocc<*a, pilis eclandulosis 



BRITISH HAWKWEEDS. 



109 



describes, and that Lindeberg's specimens (Hi. Scand. Exs. 141- 
145) show; the root-leaves, too, of our specimens are rather 
numerous and persistent, whereas H. norvegicum should have no 
persistent root-leaves; and the plant grown in the garden (at 
Shirley) shows no other differences from H. sparsifolium grown 
side by side in the same soil, than a greater profusion of leaves in 
the lower part of the stem, and the leaves more decidedly dentate. 
The last of Lindeberg's varieties (No. 145) shows a considerable 
approach to the Fortingal plant, and also to H. sparsifolium, having 
the persistent root-leaves which good soil maintains in this species. 
It may be added that H. sparsifolium stands between H. gothicum 
and H. norvegicum in some respects, and was known to Fries as 

H. qothicum var. pseudo-norvegicum. 

H. Friesii Hn. (H. gothicum Fries, Backh.) Berriedale cliffs, 

* Caithness. 

H. Friesii Hn., var. basifolium Lindeb. Clova Valley, *Forfar. 

Glen Lyon, * Mid-Perth, not far from Fortingal. Mr. Hanbury has 
mentioned in this Journal (1892, p. 132) our Clova gathering of 
this marked variety, and Dr. Lindeberg's thorough approval of our 
naming of the plant ; but he unites with it plants gathered by Mr. 
Miller, Mr. A. Somerville, and himself, which after examination we 
consider are not all good for var. basifolium ; and remarks that after 
five years' cultivation of this form it tends to revert to the type. 
We think that this observation does scant justice to Lindeberg's 
variety. Dr. Lindeberg observed on a second Clova sheet we sent 
through Mr. Hanbury, labelled as above, " Recte ! Rectius credo 
esse banc formam a ceteris formis H. Friesii segregate. Pecuharem 
semper induit habitum, quo ab omnibus aliis formis e longinquo 
differt." Though we have missed cultivating this, and at first 
thought with Mr. Hanbury that it was but a slight variety, we hold 
now with Dr. Lindeberg that it has distinctive characters. Our 
Clova plant has a strong rosette of 4-8 ovate-oblong to ovate- 
acuminate root-leaves, and the stem-leaves at once tailing off in 
point of size, and few in number, e. g., not more than three stem- 
leaves in the lowest 6-8 in. of stem. Mr. Miller's and Mr. Somer- 
ville's specimens referred to above are chiefly gothicum type, two 
only out of six approaching var. basifolium. One of Mr. Hanbury's 
specimens, from Braemar, also approaches our Clova plant, but in 
it stem-leaves are frequent near the root, and do not at once tail ofl 
in size. While the plant Mr. Hanbury has in cultivation, and 
which seemed to show tendency to revert to the type, is still further 
from the variety ; the original specimen from the root has no true 
root-leaf attached to it, and five large approximate leaves m the 
lowest part of the stem ; it has, moreover, been to Lindeberg with- 



him. We 



»/« 



variety of Lindeberg's is still free from the charge of reverting to 

type in cultivation. , ,, 

H. Friesii Hn., var. latifolium Backh. Assuming Backhouses 
variety to be the broad-leaved Clova form (which we have had in culti- 
vation since 1887, and which is considered by Mr. Hanbury rightly 



200 



BEITISH HAWKWEEDS. 



named), we can report this from *Skye, in the neighbourhood of 
Uig, with the type; and from Mid-Perth, near Fortingal, where it 
was scarce. In both these the style is pure yellow, a point insisted 
on by Backhouse in his description. The Berriedale plant above 
referred to (under H. Friesii) is broad-leaved, but has a livid style. 
It is a noticeable fact, however, that Backhouse's description of 
var. latifolium fits almost exactly (except in the colour of the style) 
a plant we detected in 1889, and then came to consider the true 
var. latifolium. This after cultivation (at Shirley) we have shown 
to be nothing less than — 

H. scoticum F. J. Hanbury, a most interesting extension of the 
species southward, and addition to *Forfar. The locality was the 
same Backhouse gives for his plant, viz., "Heathy hillocks near 
the Kirktown of Clova." Can our plant, which is "more robust, 
but comparatively shorter when of equal vigour," with "stem 
purplish red" to a remarkable degree, and "stem-leaves large, 
broad, distant," and phyllaries with markedly " pale margins," be 
the plant which Backhouse had in view? Such a confusion seems 
not at all impossible between two plants which are so very closely 
allied At the same time it must be admitted that good gothicum 
latifolium has been gathered (viz., by Mr. Hanbury, at Melvich, 
accepted by the late Mr. Backhouse) in the very district where 
ti. scoticum is most prevalent. 

We would mention at this point that in 1890 we made careful 
search through Hareheadwood, near Selkirk, for the purpose of 
seeing it H. juranum Fr. could be found there. As a result of our 
search, we are fairly satisfied that it does not grow in the wood now. 

H. striatum Fr. Vaternish Cliffs, and cliff S. of Uig, *Sk Y e ; 



scarce. 



H. st notion Fr . , var. subcrocatum Linton, n.var. Growing on 
rocks in the bottom of the gorge below the Grey Mare's Tail; also 
up the Spoon Burn ; near Moffat, Dumfriesshire. By the E. Yar- 
row, near Selkirk, Selkirkshire. This we believed to be //. stricum 
*r. at nrst, but could get only a qualified assent to our view. Dr. 
Lmdeberg remarked on it, " H. strictum quoad herbam, H. cro- 
catum quoad capitula." It differs from the type in the total 
absence of any hair or pubescence from the upper part of the 
hgules, in the shorter peduncles, in the comparative absence of 
glands and floccose down from the involucres, and in the broader 
ovate-acuminate leaves The plant will probably be found to be 
widely spread in the S. of Scotland and the N. of England. We 
have it collected under the name of " H. crocatum Fr." by the Rev. 
H. E. Fox from the R. Rothay, Grasmere, Westmorland. It is 
very probable that a plant gathered near Bethesda, Carnarvonshire, 
by one of us in bud m 1890, is also this plant, evidence having 

SS S JS£ the 8tyle being very dark ' a usual feature il 

Lindi'h [* w'" ^ ^ ndeb -.(^ «"**»■ Fr., var. niindatum 

umdeb.). We identify specimens we gathered in former years by 



BRITISH HAWK WEEDS. 201 

the E. Clunie, Braeinar, *S. Aberdeen, with this species. Also a 
plant by the Naver, Bettyhill, *W. Sutherland, very fine and 
typical, collected by us in 1888 ; and by the R. Creed, Stornoway, 
* Outer Hebrides, gathered and sent unnamed by Col. J. W. 
Riming ton. 

H. boreale Fr., var. virgultorum (Jord.). Wallis Down, Dorset. 
Named for us by M. Arvet-Touvet. This variety has a clean-cut 
look, having all the stem-leaves subsimilar, ovate-lanceolate to 
ovate-acuminate, coriaceous, subglabrous on the upper surface ; 
stem rather thinly hairy ; phyllaries drying a dark olive-green. 

H. boreale Fr., var. Ilervieri Arv.-Touvet (Hervier, Bier. Exs. 
Soc. Dauph. ii. 376). Lytchett Minster; and Verwood ; Dorset. 
M. Arvet-Touvet says that this is exactly his var. Hervieri ; the 
plant from Lytchett was sent him. It has a more shaggy stem ; 
leaves gradually passing from lanceolate to ovate-acuminate ; upper 
ones subglabrous above ; involucres drying a dull greenish-black. 

H. umbellatum var. coronopifoUum Fr. Wallis Down, and Lyt- 
chett Minster, Dorset (specimens of these were sent to M. Arvet- 
Touvet labelled by one of us as this variety, and confirmed by him, 
the Wallis Down form of the plant emphatically) ; also near 
Queen's Wood, Horton, in the same county; between Mere and 
Mere Down, Wilts ; near Blackslough, Somerset. A form from 
Sandhills, near Witley, Surrey, collected in company with the Rev. 
E. S. Marshall, comes near coronopifoUum, and may perhaps best 
be placed under it. The variety as represented in this country has 
a close panicle, with rigid erect or suberect peduncles. The leaves, 
however, are the main character, by Fries* description. 

A striking variety of H. umbellatum has been collected by Mr. 
J. E. Griffith, of Bangor, at two stations on the Carnarvonshire 
coast, about fifteen miles apart, viz., Abersoch and Morfa Bychan, 
which reminds one of var. nwnticola Jordan, but seems to be 
so far unnamed. As this plant is always dwarf in stature, 
8-16 in. high, and remarkably short in the leaves, not often 
exceeding 2 in. in length, it is proposed to call it H* umbeUatum 
L., var. curium Linton. It differs besides in the neat few- 
flowered panicles of rather large flowers, rather short peduncles 
somewhat spreading, broad obtuse outer phyllaries much reflexed 
at the tip, only those on the peduncle becoming narrow ; the leaves 
have two or three denticulations or small teeth on each side, the 
upper ones being often entire or nearly so. The style is pure yellow 
in the Abersoch plant, livid yellow at Morfa Bychan. Another 
plant from Carnarvonshire, gathered near Tregarth in 1890 by one 
of us, perhaps ought to find its place under H. umbellatum as a 
variety, but is so much off in the direction of the gothicum group 
that it may deserve specific rank. In cultivation it maintains its 
peculiarities ; it stands over at present for further consideration. 

The following variety was accidentally omitted from its proper 
place in this list, the order of which has been very carefully con- 
sidered, in consultation with Mr. Hanbury, and it is added here at 
the end of our paper : — 

H. stenolepis Lindeb., var. anguinum W. R. Linton. Basal leaves 



202 



alg;e 



erect or erect-patent, forming a rosette, ovate-oblong ; leaves and 
petioles subglabrous, with slight marginal fringe. Petioles and stem 
commonly suffused with red ; peduncles and bases of involucres 
floccose and setose ; phyllaries with short black hairs and setae, 
long, forming a pencil-point in bud. The snake-like look of the 
heads in bud suggested the name. In this feature and in general 
facies this plant is very distinct from H. stenolepis, but at present 
seems best retained as a variety under it. It grows in the higher 
parts of the hills about Moffat, Dumfriesshire. 



A PROVISIONAL LIST OF THE MARINE ALG^ OP 

THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

By Ethel S. Barton. 

(Concluded from p. 177.) 

Corallines. 

Melobesia membranacea Lain. Cape, Harvey. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. W. Indies. Mediterranean. Australia. 



M. amplexifrons Harv. Port Natal, Gueinzius. 
Geogr. Distr. W. Indies. 

M. pustulata Lam. Natal Bav. Krau**. snh r 



M 



cat a, Lam. 

Geogr. Distr. Mauritius. Atlantic. Australia ! W. Indies. 
Pacific. Mediterranean. 

M. cobticifobmis Kiitz. On Gelidium cartilagineum ; Robben 
Island, Boodle ! Sea Point, Boodle 1 Port Alfred, Slavin ! Cape, 

Harvey. 

Geogr, Distr. Shores of Britain. Mediterranean. 
M. (Mastophora) stelligera Endl. et Dies. Port Natal, Pdpjn'g. 
Lithophyllum lichenoides Phil. Algoa Bay, Kcklon. 
Geogr. Distr. Atlantic. S. Pacific. Mediterranean. 
L. Patena Rosan. = Melobesia Patena Hook, et Harv. On 
Geluhum cartilagineum ; Cape Agulhas Hohettack. ! No. 237. Algoa 

Bay, Hb. Dickie I 

Geoyr. Distr. Australia. New Zealand. 

L. capense Rosan. Cape Agulhas, Hohmack. ! No. 236. 

Lithothamnion Brassica- Florida Arescli. Algoa Bay, Dowerbanl 

L. polvmohphum Aresch. Algoa Bay, Bowerbank. 
Geogr. Distr. General. 

Mastophora hypoleuca Harv. Port Natal, GueinJus. 

M. Lamourouxii Decne. Port Natal, Gueinzius ! Kratm. 

Geogr. Distr. N. Pacific. Indian Ocean. Australia. W. Indies. 

Amphiroa anceps Dctie. Cape, J'ule Kiitziva. 

Geogr. Distr. Mauritius. Australia. Norfolk Island. W.Indies. 



1 • 



MARINE ALGJE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 208 

A. firma Kiitz. Gape, fide Kiitzing. Areschoug quotes this as 
" Vix Ampliiroae species." 

A. multifida Kiitz. Cape, Lappe, 

A. capensis Aresch. Table Bay, fide Areschoug. Cape Agulhas, 
Hohenack. ! No. 243. The Hohenacker specimen in the British 
Museum is very fragmentary, and I am inclined to doubt the 
correctness of the naming. 

A. heterocladia Kiitz. Natal, Gueinzius. This is probably a 
species of Cheilosporum . 

A. Bowerbankii Harv. Port Elizabeth, Spencer ! Algoa Bay, 
Bowerbank ! Port Natal, Gueinzius. Cape, Hohenack. ! 

A. contracta Kiitz. Cape, Lappe. 

A. involuta Kiitz. Cape, Lappe I 

A. dubia Kiitz. Cape, Lappe. 
Geogr. Distr. W. Indies. 

A. exilis Harv. Kalk Bay, Boodle ! Algoa Bay, Bowerbank. 
Cape, Hb. Dickie ! 

Var. crassiuscula. Cape, Darwin. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic (Brazil). Mediterranean. 

A. Lamourouxiana Decne. (= Cheilosporum sp.). Cape, Capt. 

Carmichael in Hb. Lamouroux. 

A. dilatata Lam. Port Elizabeth, Spencer ! Natal, Gueinzius, 
Krauss. Cape, Bowerbank I 

Geogr. Distr. West Australia. West Indies. 

A. ephedracea Dene. Kalk Bay, Boodle I Cape Agulhas, 

Hohenack. ! Nos. 242, 243. Knysna, Boodle I Cape Recife, Cravml 
Algoa Bay, Bowerbank I Port Elizabeth, Spencer ! Kei Mouth, 

Flanagan] Natal, Krauss ! Poppig. 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

Cheilosporum cultratum Aresch. Kalk Bay, E. Young ! Boodlel 
Knysna, Boodle I Algoa Bay, Bowerbank. Port Natal, Gueinzius. 
Geogr. Distr. Atlantic (Brazil). 

C.Stangeri Aresch. Port Natal, Gueinzius. 

G. sagittatum Aresch. Algoa Bay, Bowerbank. Natal, Krauss. 
Geogr, Distr. Australia. 

C. flabellatum Aresch. Port Natal, Gueinzius. 

Arthrocardia palm at a Aresch. Table Bay, Krauss. 

Var. — — J. Ag. Cape Agulhas, Hohenack. ! No. 241. 
Geogr. Distr. Shores of Brazil. 

A. corymbosa Aresch. Table Bay, Krauss. Algoa Bay, Bower- 
bank, sub nomine Amphiroa corymbosa Lam. 

Geogr. Distr. Shores of America, fide Lamarck. 

A. capensis Aresch. Bay of Natal, Hb. Areschoug. 

Jania racemosa Kiitz. Cape, fide Kiitzing. 

J. rubens Lam. Natal, Gueinzius. — Var. africana Krauss. 
Natal, Krauss. 

Geogr. Distr. General. 



204 MARINE ALG.32 OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

J. fastigiata Harv. Algoa Bay, Bowerbank. Cape, Hb. Dickie ! 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

J. intermedia Kiitz. Cape, Hohenack. ! No. 589. 

J. Natalensis Harv. Eobbeu Island, Boodle I Port Natal, 

Gueinzius. 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

J. adherens Lam. Natal, Krauss. 
Geogr. Distr. Mediterranean ? 

Corallina loricata Kiitz. C^e, fide Kiitzilig. 

0. bifurca Kiitz. Cape, fid,' KiUzing. According to the plate, 
this is hardly a species of Corallina. 

C. flabellata Kiitz. (= Arthrocardia ?). Knysna, BoodUl 
Cape, Hohenack. ! Nos. 586, 587. 
Geogr. Distr. Mauritius. 

C. Cuvieri Lamour. Port Natal ?, Gueinzius. 
Geogr. Distr. Australia. Tasmania. West Indies. 
C. gomphonemacea Kiitz. Cape, Zegher. 
C. anceps Kiitz. Cape, ./ufe Kutzing. 
C. carinata Kiitz. Cape, Lappe. 
Geogr. Distr. Warm Atlantic. 

C. rosea Aresch. Table Bay, Krauss. 

Geogr. Distr. Australia. 

Th C Q 'n PILULIFER f .?• St ' et ? upr * Ca P e A^oMmw. Hohenack. ! No. 588. 

2" °f. thls T ™mber in the British Museum Herbarium is 

so fragmentary that I must quote it on Hohenacker's authority only. 

m t ° FFl ^T) S i inn l Table Ba * Natal Bay, Krauss. Cape, 
Hb. Tnn Coll. Uubl Agardh doubts the authenticity of all spe- 

oTZ f S P ant fr0m 1 the Ca P e - l have lle ™r seen any, and 
con therefore only quote these records. 

terror, ^ck Sef Sea ' North Atl - & - W.Indies. Medi- 



ADDENDA. 

PltOTOPHYCEiE. 

Mastigocoleus testarum Lagerh. Kalk Bay, A. Batters. 

PhJEOPHYCEjE. 

ca P e"rr«:? YiRAPHoiii Katz - Briti8h ***+ «-•- ■ 



(?«?///•. #«&-. Australia, 



VhOEWEM. 



erecHu^, u ni ° n TySOni ' n ' 8 P' Frona naiia > * P°»- alt., 
rlmt 1 '/ terne P 1 ?"^ dec ™>posita Bursum louge corticata 

SSSliflnn ?8, - n01t . dlvaricatis ' apice corymboso-subglomeratis, 
ramelhs longis in apiccm multo tenuiorem cito acuminatis, basi 



MARINE ALGiE OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 205 

saepe attenuates, sphaerosporis inter ramellos corymbosos plurimis 
subaxillaribus. 

Hab. Ad. Prom. b. Spei. In speciminibus Gigartina Radula 
J. Ag. a W. Tyson com. 

I have named this species after Mr, W. Tyson, of Cape Town, 
who has sent me many interesting specimens of algaB from the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Thysanocladia coriacea Harv. Natal, Ruperti ! 
Geogr. Distr. Western Australia. 



The Cape of Good Hope has always been a favourite field for 
botanists since the days when it proved a convenient halting-place 
for travellers to the East. Most of them naturally directed their 
attention to the land flora, and until the early part of this century 
there are not many records of algae from this region. The earliest 
preserved alga from the Cape is a specimen of Amphiroa, which is 
too much broken to determine the species ; it was collected by Dr. 
Herman in 107 2, and is preserved in the British Museum. 

The next collector appears to have been John Staremburgh, who 
at some date prior to 1703 sent some dried algae to Petiver, and 
these are also preserved in the British Museum, where I have seen 
specimens of Macrocystis pyrifera J. Ag. described by Petiver as 
14 Alga verrucosa capensis," of an Iridaa, and of an alga which is 

probably Pachymenia camosa J. Ag. 

After these pre-Linnean collectors we have Drege, Krauss, 
Gueinzius, Ecklon, Zeyher and others, whose herbaria have un- 
fortunately been broken up and distributed, thus adding much to 
the difficulty of determining the presence or absence of certain 

species at the Cape. 

In later times we have collections made by Harvey, containing 
a large proportion of the total number of species recorded from the 
Cape ; and by Pappe, on whose specimens Kiitzing founded many 
of his Cape species. A large collection of algae was made in 
1889-90 by Mr. Leonard Boodle, and presented to the British 
Museum ; and specimens preserved in spirit were also presented by 
Mr. Scott Elliot, all of which have been incorporated in this list. 
An unnamed collection of Coralline® from the Cape still remains in 
the British Museum Herbarium, collected by Bowerbank, Mr. 
Boodle, and others; there are also unnamed specimens of Chato- 
morpha and Cladophora, but I prefer to leave the determination of 
these species to some expert in these difficult genera. At the 
present time the British Museum is receiving occasional supplies 
of material forwarded by Mr. Tyson, of Cape Town, collected by 
himself and other workers at different points along the coast. 
This list is therefore intended to show what has been already 
done as an aid to present collectors, and does not aim at being an 
exhaustive catalogue of the Cape marine flora. ^ 

The first, and indeed up to the present time the only, list of 
exclusively Cape algae is the Phycea Capmses of Areschoug, 



206 MARINE ALG.E OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

published in 1851, which is based principally on the Krauss and 
Drege collections. The other records of algae from these shores 
are scattered promiscuously through books of travel and lists of 
forms from the Southern Hemisphere, ranging from Petiver's 
writings at the beginning of last century up to the present day. 
The latest published find, and certainly one of much interest 
from the point of view of distribution, is that by Dr. Schinz of a 
Lamnaria in Walfisch Bay. This will be referred to later. 

As regards the classification, I have followed the arrangement 
of Professor Agardh in his Species, Genera, S Ordines Algarum, in 
preference to any other, both in the Phaophycea and the Floridece, 
with the one exception of Asperococcm, which I have included in 
Sporochnacea. The Chlorophycea are arranged according to De Toni's 
Syllotje Algarum, vol. i. I am aware that in many respects it would 
have been better to adopt a classification more in accordance with 
modern research ; but I have not taken this course because of the 
difficulties it would have presented in tabulating and comparing the 
Cape marine flora with other floras, and destroyed the chief interest 
that of geographical distribution — of such lists as the present. 
The small number of the Protophycea represented at the Cape is 
entirely due to their small size, which has caused them to be 
overlooked. 

The limits of the region here examined cannot be defined as 
south of any special degree of latitude, since the different tempe- 
rature of the two sides of the promontory are so marked. On the 
east there is a strong warm current flowing southward from the 
Indian Ocean, bringing with it the tropical and subtropical forms 
to Natal, and even to Cape Agulhas ; while another branch of the 
same current flows direct from Mauritius, where the algaj are, as 
would be expected, very similar to those at the Cape, though the 
two places are in such different latitudes. On the west coast 
however, we find a different state of affairs. There is a cold 
current which comes up from the south, bringing icebergs as far 
north as 35° 50', and this has naturally a marked effect on the 
algae all up this coast. Indeed, as has been mentioned above, 
the genus Lammaria is recorded from Walfisch Bay, within the 
tropics, the only place in the world, so far I know, where this is 
known to occur. It is necessary, therefore, to include all alg» 
found south of 22° on the west coast of South Africa, and although 
there are not many records from this district as yet, I hope to 
receive supplies shortly from Port Nolloth, which will probably 
furnish interesting results. 



It may be remarked here that in the British Museum Herbariu 



Hi 



m 



the Cape by Chavm, and as this is essentially a cold-water form, 
its presence at the Cape can only be accounted for by this cold 
current from the south. The presence of the two species of Fucus, 
* .sen a tush, and F. vesiculosus L., recorded by Ecklon, also bears 
out this fact. No locality is given, and one would therefore 
suppose that these forms grow on the west coast in the full sweep 



MARINE ALG^E OF CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 207 

of the current from the south. It will be interesting to see, when 
this west coast flora is more carefully explored, how many more 
cold forms occur. 

I have drawn up a careful comparison of the marine floras of 
Australia, Western Australia, and Kerguelen Land with that of the 
Cape of Good Hope, and in some points the results are interesting 
and instructive. As would be expected, the number of genera 
common to the two regions is very high, for out of 141 genera 
existing at the Cape, 113 of these are represented in Australia ; 
while out of the 429 species at the Cape, and the 1198 in Australia, 
only 95 are common to the two regions. I expected that, by 
isolating from the Australian flora those genera and species which 
occur on the western coast of Australia, I should find a larger pro- 
portion of species common to this coast and the Cape. This is, 
however, not the case, and I can only account for it by the fact that 
many species occur in Western Australia which have not yet been 
recorded from there, but which are found and recorded from Port 
Philip, Geelong, and well-worked localities on the south coast. It 
is interesting to note that many species at the Cape are recorded 
only from there and from Australia; though they may possibly 
occur also in the Indian Ocean, a point which must be decided on 
the publication of Mr. Murray's list of Indian Ocean Alg*e. He has 
kindly allowed me to reproduce here his tables of distribution 
published in the Phycological Memoirs, part ii., showing a com- 
parison of the marine floras of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans 
with that of the Cape of Good Hope. In his paper (/. c.) he has 
dealt fully with the subject, which therefore needs no further 

remark. 

Comparison of the Cape flora with that of Tristan d'Acunha 

shows that the latter has only three species which do not also occur 

at the Cape, and, of these, two are known only from there. The 

islands of Kerguelen, Marion, and Heard, which lie out of the 

reach of all direct communication with the Cape, show a large 

proportion of genera and a very few species in common. The 

number of genera and species recorded from the two latter islands 

is very small, that from Marion Island amounting only to 9 species, 

each representing a genus ; while from Heard Island only 7 genera 

and 8 species are recorded — 3 of Phaophycea and 4 of Floridea. 

The number of genera common to the Cape and Marion Island is 

6, and the number of species 2. Heard Island and the Cape have 

6* genera and 1 species in common. The small size of the flora, 

and the difference in latitude between these islands and the Cape, 



unnece 



these two regions. 



We 



Cape, but these are not many ; and as they are included in Mr. 
Murray's comparison between the floras of the Cape and the warm 
Atlantic, I have not considered a special comparison with the West 
Indies necessary. Prof. Schmitz, of Greifswald, has most kindly sent 
me for inspection a collection of Cape algse, made by Mr. Spielhaus 



208 



MAEINE ALG;E 



at Cape Town, unfortunately too late to incorporate in the present 
list ; I have, however, found no algae among them but those hitherto 



recorded from this place. 



Since publishing the beginning of this list, I have made a re- 
examination of two species recorded in it, i.e., Padina Pavonia 
(jaiU. and Pleonosporium Borreri Nag. The former is a bad speci- 



Haloth 



mum J. Ag., the type specimen of which has been kindly lent me 
by Dr. Perceval Wright. The resemblance is great between this 
plant and Pleonosporium Borreri. These errors would make it 
necessary to subtract two genera and two species from the Cape 
total, but for the fact that in place of Padina I have added to the 
brown algffi Carpomitra ekytraphora Kiitz., and in place of Pleono- 
sporium, among the Floridea, there is Thysanocladia coriacea 
Harv. The numbers of both genera and species in the Cape 
table remain therefore unaltered. Aristothamnion Tysoni has not 
been included. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my thanks to the officials of 
the Botanical Department of the British Museum for their interest 
and help ; to Prof. Schniitz and Mr. Batters for naming and com- 
paring several critical species; and to Dr. Perceval Wright, who 
lias most kindly sent me many type specimens from the Harvey 
Herbarium for comparison with algae in the British Museum 



Bibliography. 
Petiver. — Gazophylacium. 1709. 

Turner.— Fuci. 1808-19. 

Gaud ichaud.—Yoy age of the Uranie, 1826 
Bory.— Voyage of the Coquille, 1828* 
Suhr.— Flora , 1834, pp. 721-742. 
Suhr .—Flora , 1840, p. 257. 
Montague,- Voyage of the Bonite, 1844-46. 

Montayne.— Voyage f Astrolabe and Zelee, 1845. 
Endliclur und Biesing.—Bot. Zeit. 1845, p. 288. 

Krauss.— Flora, 1846, p. 209. 
Harvey.— Nereis Australia. 1847. 

J. Agardh.— Species Algarum. Fucoideaa. 1848 

AreschoKy.—Phyeese Capensea. 1851. 

An ^£S^£ 1n p * C ' l Act - Ee S' Soc ' Sci - ser - "i- vol. i. 

pp. 329-372. Upsala, 1854). 
Kiitzmj .-Tab. Phyc, for Florideae and Coralline*. 1858-69 
J. Agm-dh.— Spec. Gen. et Ord. Alg. 1808-73. 
Grunow. — Voyage of the Novara, 1870. 
W^.-Lmn.^ S^Journ. vol. xiv. pp. 384, 386 ; vol. xv. pp. 40, 

Be Torn.— Sylloge Algarum, vol. i. 1889. 

Foshe.— Bulletin de L'Herbier Boissier, vol. i. p. 91, 1893. 






.MARINE ALG-E OP CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 



209 




XLG2E. 

Floride^e. 

Ceramiete 

Cryptonemiaceae . . 

Gigartineae 

Spyridieae 

Dumontiacete 

Areschougieae 

Champie83 . . 

Khodymeniacesa . . 

Squamarieae 

Hildenbrandtiaceaa . 

Porphyraceae 

Sphasrococcoideaa . . 

Delesserieaa 

Helminthocladiaceae 

Chaetangieaa 

Gelidieae 

Hypneaceaa 

Solierie83 

Wrangelieaa 

Chondrieae 

Lomentarieaa 

Rhodomeleae 

Corallines 

Total . . 



Ph^ophyce^. 

Fucaceaa 

Dictyotaceae 

Splachnidiaceae 
Ectocarpaceae . . . . 
Spliacelariacea) 

Chordariaceae 

Punctariaceaa 

Arthrocladiaceoa . . 
Sporochnaceas . . . . 

Laminarieae 

Kalfsieae 

Total , . 



482 



Chlorophyceje. 

Siplioneaa 

Conferveae I 4 

Ulvero 



26 125 



Total 



Protophyce^: 



Aggrf.gate 






32 199 



162 859 1141 



> 



255 



24 117 



26 121 



Gen. 


• 

O 

i 


4 


7 


3 


1 


7 


8 


1 


2 














1 





4 


2 


1 


1 


1 





2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 



1 o 



73 15859 



23 15 21 



18 11 



85 111 



2 



3 


2 








1 


2 


2 


3 








1 





16 


20 



Journal of Botany. — Vol. 31. [July, 1893.] 



2 



£ 



P 



210 



ALGiE OF CAPE 



Ph^ophycejE. 
Fucaceae 

Splachnidiaceae .... 

Dictyotaceae 

Ectocarpaceae .... 
Sphacelariaceffi .... 
Chordariaceee .... 

Punctariaceae 

Sporochnaceae 

Laminariaceae . . . . 
ArthrocardiaceeB . . 
Ralf siaceae 

Total . . 



Flo ride m. 
Ceramieae , 

Cryptonemiaceae . , 
Gigartineae 

Dudresnayese 

Dumontiaceaa 

Spyridieae 

Areschougieae 

Champieas 

Rhodymeniaceae . . 
Squamarieas 

Hildenbrandtieas . . 

Sphaerococcoideaa .. 
Delesserieae 

Helminthocladiaceae 

Chaetangieae 

Gelidieas 

Hypneaceae 

Solierieae 

Lomentarieae 

Wrangeliefe 

Chondrie® 

Rhodomeleas 

Corallineae 



9 



Porphyraceae 



• 


• 

a 

ft 

02 


19 


113 


1 


1 


10 


45 


2 


5 


3 


10 



222 



Total.. 95 295 1162 840 



rjl 



82 11 



1 1 



ALG.E COMMON 






16 21 



Chlorophycee. 

Siphonocladaceaa .. 
Siphoneae 

Ulveae 

Conferveae 



Total . 






Protophyce^e 



351 



Aggregate 141 



429 1257 



815 



3 3 



1198jir>6 467 |48 



78113 



ill 



18 141 



3 U C3 
<8 



65 162 



18 6 



1 



84 5 



211 



REMINISCENCES OP ALPHONSE DECANDOLLE. 

By C. Bakon Clarke, F.R.S. 

You have asked me to supply some personal reminiscences of 
M. Alphonse DeCandolle. I willingly send you all that I can call 
to mind ; but the dates are only approximate, and there are doubt- 
less other inaccuracies due to imperfection of memory. 

I only made the acquaintance of M. Alphonse DeCandolle in 
(or about) 1878, when I went to his house (the old family house in 
the Cathedral Square, Geneva) to do some botanic work in his 
herbarium, which occupies the top floor of that house, where it 
may still (by the permission of M. Casimir DeCandolle) be con- 
sulted by all botanists. Up to the point where the Prodromus was 
(virtually) grounded on this herbarium, the Prodromus Herbarium 
is kept separate, so that, using the Prodromus as an index, it is easy 
to find immediately the exact material on which any species in the 
Prodromus rests, and from which the description is drawn. The 
remaining (much larger) portion of the herbarium is arranged 
as a general herbarium — the natural orders in the DeCandollean 



sequence 



Alph 



DeCandolle paid me on my first entering his herbarium— I need 
hardly add, also on subsequent visits. He was always ready to 
hunt up any troublesome reference— to place the bundles of plants 
in good order in my hands— and asked, "Now, is there any way in 
which I can assist you in this work?" After a week's work in 
June, he insisted (the weather being very fine) on my taking 
a botanic ramble in the neighbourhood of Geneva, and sent the 
curator of his herbarium to take me to the Southern Jura above 
Nantua. It was certainly botany made easy ; the curator led me 
before a bed of wild flowers, and explained, "It was on this very 
bed that M. Auguste DeCandolle founded such a species." 

At the earliest date I saw him, M. Alphonse DeCandolle was 
past 70 years of age, but very vigorous and young-looking for his 
years, and getting through a large quantity of literary botanic work 
and correspondence ; and in a letter which he wrote me only a 
very few weeks before his death, he told me that he retained his 
health, nearly unimpaired, till about six months before his death, 

when he became weak. 9 

As regards all the events of his life up to his seventieth year, 
I can only give you imperfect recollections of what he told me in 
conversations. Were my memory good, I ought to be able to 
furnish a fairly complete biography thereout. 

There was but one DeCandolle family, at the time of the 
Reformation, settled on their estate in France. Out of a numerous 
family of sons, three (placed in a monastery) became Protestants, 
and travelled in Eastern France advocating the principles of the 
Reformation. One of the three was killed in a riot raised against 
them, and the other two then settled at Geneva. One of these two 
proved a successful man, and built the family house in the Cathedral 

p2 



212 



SYNOPSIS 



Square, but left no descendants ; from the other brother the great 
botanists are sprung. 

Not many years ago a French teacher in England (whose real 
name was not aristocratic) published his teaching books under the 
name of DeCandolle. M. Alphonse DeCandolle immediately in- 
structed a London solicitor to take proceedings against the man 
who thus stole his name; and received from the solicitor the 
opinion of an eminent counsel that there was in England no way 
of touching the French teacher. M. Alphonse DeCandolle was 
prejudiced in favour of everything English— even an English dinner 
—but he told me that in this matter of allowing one man to 

trade upon another man's name he thought the English law 
defective. • 

M. Alphonse DeCandolle came to England, for a long summer 
season, some year before 1830, and made a general tour of the 

w i. t -? e 5 ra y, elled first fr oni London to Devonshire, then up the 
West of England, visiting Wales and the English Lakes, and was 
entertained by Sir W. J. Hooker, then professor at Glasgow. He 
liaa to travel by coach or by post ; but he proceeded north from 
Wasgow, did Skye on foot, crossed to Inverness, and thence 
(stopping at Edinburgh, York, &c.) to London. This was a most 

unusual and enterprising tour for any person to take at that 
period. 

Some of the earlier volumes of the DeCandolle Prodromus were 
prepared at the "Petits Pierres," a house about a mile and a half 
from Geneva on the north shore of the lake. M. Alphonse DeCan- 
dolle recollected that the Melastomacem material was so limited that 

^!L m ^v g f -1 ¥ - Ve , ifl f 11 spread out at once - When Alphonse 
DeCandolle with his father) lived at this house, he used in his 

morning bath to swim across the lake and touch the north shore 
ana return. He possessed doubtless great personal strength all 
bis life, as any one would readily admit who had seen him* when 
past 80 years of age disport himself on the lake in a heavy row- 
boat by way of exercise. J 

Or<l° ^°f DeCand0 " e ™ s J^tly proud of his father (Grand 

S 1? t - gl ° n T of u Honour ) a™* of his sons; ha was most 
aristocratic-looking. I have met few men who to so great dignity 
of manner united so great kindness and consideration for othe?s. 



SYNOPSIS OP GENEEA AND SPECIES OP MALVEM. 

By Edmund G. Baker, P.L.S. 

(Continued from p. 76.) 

y. Flores racemosi. 
nJS'JiTSE^ B * CEM0SUM Schlecht. in Linmea, xi. p. 367. Sida 

lacenujiura bteud. Nom. n. p. 579. 

Hab. Mexico, or. Tlalpuyahiia. 



SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF MALV£JE. 213 



£. Flores axillares. 

* Species latissime distribute. 

44. A. crispum Medic. Malv. p. 29 (1787) (cryspum) ; Sweet, 
Hort. Brit. i. p. 53. A. albescens Miq. PI. Jungh. p. 285. A. 
petiolare Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1858, p. 205. A. sessili- 



foliii 



Sida crispa L. ; DC. Prod. 



i. p. 469. S. amplexicaulis Lam. Diet. i. p. 7. S.JiUformis Jacq. 
Obs. Bot. ii. p. 23. S. sessilis Veil. Fl. Flum. vii. t. 27. S. lasio- 
ster/ia Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. ii. p. 205. S. sessiliflora Dietr. 
Synop. ii. p. 856. Bastardia crispa St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Mer. i. 
p. 194. B. nemoralis St. Hil. /. c. p. 195, t. xxxix. 
Hab. Tropical and Subtropical Begions. 

Var. imberbe Griseb. Fl. Brit. West Indies, p. 80. A. trickodum 
A. Rick. FL Cub. i. p. 55. A. imberbe Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 502. 
Sida imberbis DC. Prod. i. p. 469. S. trichoda Dietr. Synop. iv. 
p. 856. 

Hab. Florida. West Indies ! 

Sida sessiliflora Bot. Mag. t. 2857, is quoted by Dr. Schumann 
among the synonyms of this plant. I have not seen the fruit. 

45. A. graveolens W. & A. Prod. i. p. 56 ; Comp. Bot. Mag. i. 

t. 2. Sida graveolens Roxb. Hort. Beng. p. 50. A. furfurelhim Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. vol. i. pt. ii. p. 144, ex descr. 

Hab. India ! Malaya ! New Caledonia ! Isle of Pines ! 
Australia ! Beluchistan ! Tropical Africa ! 

Var. hirtum Masters in Fl. Brit. Ind. p. 327. A. indicum. var. 
Mrtum Griseb. Fl. Brit. West Indies, p. 78. A. heterotrichiim Hochst. 
in Herb. A. Kotschyi Hochst. in Webb Frag. Fl. iEth. p. 52. 
Sida hirta Lam. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 470. S. pilosa L'Herit. Stirp. 

p. 130. 

Hab. India ! Trop. Africa ! West Indies ! Central America ! 

Cuba ! Florida ! Peru ! 

46. A. indicum Sweet, Hort. Brit. i. p. 54. A. elongatum 
Moench, Meth. Supp. p. 205. A. asiaticum W. & A. Prod. i. p. 56. 
A. grandijlorum Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 504. A. aurewn Don in 
Sweet, Hort. Brit. iii. p. 80. A. iesicarium Sweet, I.e. A. leio- 
spermum Griseb. Fl. Brit. West Indies, p. 79. A. cystica rpum 
Hance, PL Nov. Austr. Chin. Diag. p. 10. Sida indica L. ; DC. 
Prod. i. 471. S. vesica ria Cav. ; DC. /. c. S. pubescens Cav. ; DC. 
I. c. S. orbiculata DC. I.e. S. aurea Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1842. S. 
Doniana Dietr. Syn. iv. p. 857. 

Hab. Tropical and Subtropical Regions. 

Var. albidum. A. albidum Webb et Bert. Phyt. Canar. p. 39, 
t. 2. Sida canariensis Broussonet in herb. S. albida Willd. ; DC. 

Prod. i. p. 471. 

Hab. Canary Is. ! 

Var. Welwitschii. Suffrutex basi lignosus cinereus, foliis 
cordato-ovatis irregulariter serratis, floribus axillaribus solitariis 
maguis, calyce externe cinereo interne albo-cinereo-velutino, petalis 
intense aurantiacis, carpellis ignotis. 

Hab. Angola. Cavalheiros, Welwitsch, No. 4944 ! 



214 SYNOPSIS OF GENEKA AND SPECIES OF MALVEJE. 

Stem 4-5 ft. high ; leaves 1-lf in. long, 1 in. to nearly 1£ in. 
broad ; petals | in. long. 

This plant is closely allied to A. grandiflorum Don, I.e. 
Var. populifolium W. & A. Prod. i. p. 56. A. populifolium 
Sweet, Hort. Brit. i. p. 53. Sida populijolia Lam. ; DC. Prod. 

l. p. 470. S. Beloere L'Herit. Stirp. i. p. 130. 8. Eteromischos 

Cav. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 470. 
Hab. India ! Malaya. 

47. A. feuticosum Guill. & Perr. Fl. Seneg. i. p. 73. A. micro- 
phyllum A. Rich. Fl. Abyss, i. p. 70, t. 15. A. denticulatiim Webb, 
Frag Fl. Mth. p. 51. Sida gracilis R. Br. in Salt It. S. amoena 
Wall. Cat. 1848. 8. Penottetiana Dietr. Synop. iv. p. 855. 

Hab. India! Trop. Africa ! Socotra! Arabia! Palestine! 
Java ! 



W 
p. 109. 



•oith. p. 51. A. tomcutosuni 
Webb in Hook. Niorov Flnva. 



•-. -nw^ -k , • - ° --• -^Mi. P- 52. Sida qlauea 

Cav. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 471. S. hirta Wall. Cat. 1852, B partly. 8. 
villosa Wall. Cat. 1856, C. S. asiatica Wall. Cat. 1852, D. S. 
mutica Dehle Fl. .Egypt, p. 60, n. 45. 8. tomentosa Roxb. Hort. 
Beng. p. 50. 8. pannosa R. Br. in Salt It. S. polycarpa Chr. Sm. 
ex Walp. Ann. Bot. ii. p. 158. 

Hab. India! Ceylon! Afghanistan. Tropical Africa ! Egypt! 
Palestine! Arabia! Comoro Is. ! Cape Verd Is. ! Queensland! 

Sida rugosa R. Br. in herb. Caule stricto 



PARVIFOLIA 



virgato, fohis parvis cordato-ovatis serratis, peduneuhs strictis 
versus apicem articulatis, carpellis angulatis villosissimis. 

Hab. Australia. Keppel Bay, R. Brown, No. 5117 ! 

The leaves of this plant are small (1-H in. in length) ; the 
carpels are angled, and thickly covered with white hairs. 

49 A • asiaticum Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 503. A. hirsutissimum 
Moench, Meth. Supp. p. 205. A. albidum Hook. & Arn. Bot. 
Leechey, p. 278. Sida asiatica L. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 470. 8. llookeri 
Dietr. Synop. iv. p. 856. 



Hab. Tropics. 



A. pubescens 



\r J i irTT, 1 MedlC> Malv - P- 28 (1787 )' - F«*-™ 

Moench Meth. p 620. A. Avicennm Gaertn. Fruct. ii. p. 251, 
t. 135 ; Reich. Ic. Flor. Germ. t. clxvi. A. Behrianum, F. Muell. in 

Pw™ e S< f • YlCt J? 55 ' P o 13< Sida Mutilon L - i D C. Prod. 

n S* t i ■■■ Avic f mm Dietr - S y n °P' iv ' P- 854 - 8. coronata Scop. 
Del. Insub. in. p. 1. S. tiliafolia Fisch. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 470 

Hab. Europe. Mediterranean Region ! China ! Australia ! 
Naturalized in many parts of Asia, Africa, and N. America. 

* * Boreali- vel Centrali-Americana, Mexicana, Cubana, et 

Ind. occid, 

51. A. Jacquini G. Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 503. A. crassifolium 
tx. Don, I.e. A. hgpoleucum A. Gray, PI. Wright, i. p. 20. A. 

SET! \* RlC ^o? L Cub ' l P' 152 ' A - domingense Turcz. Bull. 

boc. Nat. Mosc. 1858, p. 205. A. perajfine Shutt. ex Chap. FL U. S. 






SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF MALVE.E. 215 

p. 56. S. crassifolia L'Herit. Stirp. t. 60. 5. Jacquini Dietr. 

Synop. iv. p. 854. 

Hab. Mexico f Yucatan ! West Indies t Cuba ! Florida ! 

52. A. lignosum G. Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 501. A. abutiloides 
Garcke in Engler's Jahrbuch, 1893, p. 485. Sida lignosa Cav. ; 
DC. Prod. i. p. 469. S. abutiloides Jacq.. Obs. t. 7. Lavatera 
americana L. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 470. 

Hab. Mexico ! West Indies ! 

The description of Sida americana L. (A. americanum Sweet) in 
Sp. Plantarum, ed. 2, p. 963, would do very well for tbe above ; 
but the figures in Plum. Ic. i. t. 2, and the later one in Descourtdz, 
FL Antil. t. 406, are certainly not this plant. 

53. A. pekmollis Sweet, Hort. Brit. i. p. 53. Sida permollis 

Willd. J DC. Prod. i. p. 471. «',.'. 

Hab. West Indies. Cuba, Wright, No. 1571 I Bahamas ! 

Florida ! 

Sida comuta Willd. (A. cornutum Don) must be closely allied to 

this plant. 



Paeishii S. Wats 



Hab. Arizona ! 

55. A. Wrightii A. Gray, PI. Wright, p. 20. 
Hab. New Mexico, Wright, No. 876 ! Texas ! 

56. A. californicum Benth. Bot. of Sulph. p. 8. 
Hab. California ! 

57. A. Berlandieri A. Gray ex S. Wats, in Proc. Am. Acad. 

xx. p. 358. 

Hab. Mexico, Berlandier, Nos. 1550, 3050, 3108. 

Var. dentatum A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. p. 301. 
Hab. Mexico. Chihuahua, Pnngle, No. 306 ! 

58. A. Lemmoni S. Wats, in Proc. Am. Acad. xx. p. 857. 
Hab. Mexico. Arizona! California. 

59. A. scabrum S. Wats, in Proc. Am. Acad. xxiv. p. 41. 
Hab. Mexico, nr. Guaymas, Palmer, Nos. 662 ! 97 ! 

60. A. Dugesii S. Wats, in Proc. Am. Acad. xxi. p. 447. 
Hab. Mexico, nr. Guanajuato, Berlandier, No. 1330 ! 

61. A. Thurberi A. Gray in PI. Thurb. p. 807. 
Hab. Mexico. Sonora ! 

Allied to A. ramosum Guill. & Perr. 

62. A. parvulum A. Gray in PL Wright, p. 21. 
Hab. Texas ! Colorado. 

Allied to A. incanum Sweet. 

63. A. ellipticum SchL in Linn#a, xi. p. 368. 

Hab. Mexico. 

The flowers of this plant are corymbose above. 



216 



GENERA 



%* Australi-Aniericana rarissime Mexicana vel Ind. occidentalia. 

■+■ Caulis procurobens. 
64 A. glechomatifolium St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Mer. i. p. 198, t. 41 ; 
li. Sebum. I.e. p. 381. Sida alechomatifolia Dietr. Synop. iv. 

Hab. Uruguay. Argentine Republic ! 

Caules erecti vel suberecti. 

65. A. Neovidense K. Sebum. I. c. p. 386. 
Hab. Brazil. 

According to Br. Garcke (in Engler's Bot. Jabr. 1893, p. 485), 
tins may have to be considered a form of A. anodoides St. Hil. & 
Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. 2, xviii. p. 49. 

« on 6 / \ INTEGEE ? IMUM T T « r cz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1858, 

p. Z04. A aurantiacum Lind. Cat. Hort. 1848, p. 44. A vlani- 

ftwm C. Koch & Boucbe in Berl. Allgem. Gartenzeit. 1857 p 97. 
Sida integemma Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4360. '»*•»*• 

No."753'! NeW ° ranada ' Linden > No ' 1508 ' Venezuela, Funcke, 

Hab A ' xTgZZ I "^ & PlanCb ' Fl N ° V - Granat ' * 184 - 
68. A. minarum K. Sebum. I. c. p. 389. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. Minas Geraes. 

. «?' « f S S NE Planch - in Van Houtte's Fl. de Serres, v. p. 11 
Bict i. ; p 4.' MaS ' *" 484 °' A ' ifjneum Hort ' ex NioholJ; Gara! 
Hab. New Granada. 

70. A. Tiub;e K. Sebum. 1. c. p. 382. 
Hab. Brazil. * 

Allied to A. crispum Medic. 

Hab A * SSl*"™ Si Hil ' F1> BraS ' Mer ' L P" 198 ' *■ 40 * 

72. A. monospermum K. Sebum. I. c. p. 396 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. Babia, Glazion, No. 2389. 

73. A. virgatum Sweet, Hort. Brit P( i i n « . i? a 1 » 

P. 890 Si.U rt-fc Cav. *; Do! Pr"d. fp'tf ' * Scl ' Hm - l * 

Hab. Central America. Mexico. Peru 

Hab. Brazil! Argentine Republic. Bolivia. 

74. A. reflexum Sweet, Hort Brit i n *q e; i ^ /-i 

BC Prod \ r. 4AQ o I ^ U1 6 - -dth. i. p. &d. Stdareflexa C&y.; 

TToK i P " a . ^ r" w * a L Hent - Stir P- i- t. 64. 
Hab. Ecuador ! Columbia ! Peru ! 

** Africana, Mauritiana, et Mascarensia. 

75. A. mauritianum Medic. Miilv n 9ft e;^^ -x- t 

Ic. PL Kar. t. 137. P ' ^ ■"a** 1 **™ Jacq. 

Hab, Mauritius. Comoro Is. ! 



SHORT NOTES. 217 

76. A. zanzibaricum Masters in PI. Trop. Afr. i. p. 186. Sida 

zanzibarica Boj. in herb. 

Hab. Tropical Africa ! 

77. A. macropodum Guill. & Perr. i. p. 64, t. 14. 
Hab. Senegal ! 

78. A. exstipulare Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 500. Sid** exstipularis 
Cav. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 471. 

Hab. Bourbon, Thouin, No. 586 ! 

There is a specimen of this plant in Hb. Smith at the Linnean 
Society. The leaves are very acuminate, and cinereo-pubescent 
underneath. 

79. A. Rehmanni, n. sp. A. indicum var. populifoUum J. 
Szysyl. Enum. Polypet. PL Eehmann. p. 128. Caule' fruticoso 
molhter cinereo-velutino, foliis loiige petiolatis cordatis lanceolatis 
cinereo-velutinis grosse serratis, fioribus axillaribus solitariis pe- 
dunculis teretibus supra medio articulatis, sepalis ovatis acutis vel 
subacuminatis, carpellis breviter aristatis externe pubescentibus 
3-spermis seminibus nigrescentibus. 

Hab. Transvaal, Dr. Eehmann, No. 5221 ! On the Maadji 
Mountain, W. J. Burchell, No. 2372 ! 

Larger leaves about 3 in. long and 2 in. broad ; petioles l-2£ in. ! 
carpels f in. long. 

(To be continued.) 



SHORT NOTES. 

Phegopteris calcarea in Oxfordshire. — Wychwood Forest, in 
the north-west of the county, was the only published locality for 
the above plant in my Flora, but a locality in Buckinghamshire 
near Wycombe was on record. This year Miss Bell, daughter of 
the Vicar of Pyrton, found in one of the Chiltern woods a plant 
which is, I believe, to be referred to the limestone polypody. The 
same district yields the oak fern, which occurs in two localities, 
one in Backs, the other in Oxon, both of which localities have been 
published in this Journal. Just as the oak fern from these places 
is not quite typical, so this limestone polypody is not absolutely 
identical with the Cheddar plant ; but the situation is probably due 
to the Oxford and Bucks plant growing in shadier situations, while 
the drier soil in which the oak fern grows in Oxon and Bucks may 
tend to increase its resemblance to the limestone polypody. — G. 
Claridge Druce. 

Rosa Doniana in W. Kent. — On May 23rd Captain Wolley Dod 
and I found several fine bushes of this plant near Hailing ; and 
I also met with one specimen at the foot of the downs above 
Trottescliffe a few days later. R. involuta is not recorded for 
W. Kent in Topographical Botany, but was published in 1855 by 
Mr. A. G. More, in the Phytolot/ist (new series), i. 24, as occurring 
at Southborough. Mr. F. Dickinson has also found a form (probably 
Doniana) near Crockham Hill. — Edward S. Marshall. 



218 SHORT NOTES. 

Helianthemum vulgare in Ireland. — I had the pleasure of 
discovering this species on the limestone between Donegal and 
Ballyshannon a few days ago. It has been once or twice before 
recorded as an Irish plant, but in mistake for H. canum^ or H. 
guttatum. I may also mention the discovery of Myosotis co^ma and 
Eleocharis acicularis, new for the County Donegal. New localities 
for several rare species, such as Lastraa Thelypteris, Draba incana, 
and Comics sangirinea, were noticed. I have several very interesting 
forms, chiefly sedges, which I defer reporting upon at present, until 
they have been submitted to specialists. As I hope very soon to 
produce my Flora of Donegal, it is unnecessary to enter into more 
detailed notice of localities.— H. Chichester Hart. 



Utricularia intermedia flowering. — The occurrence of this 



plant in a flowering state is so unusual that I think it worth 
mentioning that more than a hundred plants have been seen by me 
in bloom on Morden Decoy, Dorset, during late May or early June. 
This may be due to the extraordinary season, and, if so, is likely to 
occur in other localities ; while the prolonged drought renders its 
natural habitat more accessible than in average years. — Edward F. 
Linton. 

Bedfordshire Kubi (p. 81). — It appears, from information com- 
municated to me by Mr. James Saunders, that R. Lindleianits, R. 
rhamnifoliusy R. rusticanus (under the name R. discolor), R. Radula, 
and R. dumetorwn, which I gave as new to Bedfordshire in the 
March number of this Journal, have been published previously in 
one way or another. I have to add the true R. rudis Weihe to the 
county list, found by me near Turvey ; though this might seem to 
be a repetition, for " R. rudis Weihe " Bab. prius (which is equivalent 
to R. echinatus Lindl.) has already appeared in print, as Mr. 
Saunders tells me. — Edward F. Linton. 

Middlesex Plants. — A few days ago I found Littorella lacustris 
growing abundantly on the margin of Ruislip Reservoir. Lathraa 
tjquamaria I have gathered for some years past annually in a 
plantation close to Jack's Lock, near Harefield, and in the lane 
leading to Springwell Farm ; and Braehy podium pinnatum on the 
waste heath-land on Duck's Hill, between Ruislip and Northwood. 
The authors of the Flora of Middlesex state that the last record for 
Littorella was by Sir Joseph Banks in 1805, and for Lastraa by 
Blackstone about 1737. The Br achy podium is probably a new 
record for the county. — J. Benbow. 

Monstrosity of Orobanche caryophyllacea. — In June, 1876, I 
gathered, among many specimens of 0. caryophyllacea, one that, 
until some time after, was not noted as unusual ; and so the oppor- 
tunity for examining it in a fresh state was lost. But last autumn, 
in looking over the genus in my herbarium, this specimen seemed 
of so much interest that I sent some flowers to Dr. Giinther Beck, 
the monographer of the genus. The rarity of the occurrence seems 
a sufficient excuse for publishing his note on it. In his letter 
respecting it he kindly sent a drawing, and made the following 
remarks: — " The two flowers were, I regret to say, not intact, one 



Missouri botanic garden report. 219 

malformed (or was it one flower only?). The corolla appears from 
the fragments to have been normal. The pistil is joined to the 
stamens by a large cylinder, which has on the inside the pubescence 
of the stamens (in the upper part glandular hairs, in the lower part 
(simple) hairs. The calyx consists of four parts) ; their filaments 
are wanting. The anthers are in part normally constricted, and 
show but few pollen-cells, whilst others are crippled. The lips 
appear to be depressed. The extremities of the flowers are par- 
tially crippled ; one flower showed a normal ovary formed of two 
lobes, whilst the other is three-lobed and ridged, and thus has 
six placentas. These are my observations on the fragments which 
you sent me, all of which I return. I also add my sketch. It 
being a monstrosity, the species cannot be determined with cer- 
tainty, but I think I may take it for granted that it was 0. caryo- 
phyllacea. I must, however, mention that I have never observed a 
monstrosity of this kind in any species of Orobanche." I have 
little doubt Dr. Beck is correct in referring it to Smith's species. 
I have vainly sought since for others in the same spot, i. e., between 
Dover and Folkestone, Kent. — Arthur Bennett. 

Thlaspi alpestre b. occitanum (Jord.j. — We came across this 
var. last summer in two localities in Westmoreland (a county not 
mentioned for it in Top. Bot.) : near Moor House, Teesdale, and on 
hills above Brough. In the latter locality Hieracium pallid urn c. 
crinicjerum Fr. grew close by. An additional station (see Baker's 
Flora of Lake District) for Core* JUifonms L. in Westmoreland is 
Eydal Water. Mr. Arthur Bennett has seen the Thlaspi, and Mr. 
E. F. Linton kindly named the Hieracium. — E. S. & C. E. Salmon. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Missouri Botanic Garden. Fourth Annual Report. St. Louis, Mo. : 

published by the Board of Trustees. 1893. 8vo, pp. 226, 

tt. 28. 

Prof. Trelease issues these handsome volumes with great 
promptness and regularity, and they always contain matter of 
botanical interest. The greater part of the present volume is 
occupied by Prof. Hitchcock's list of the plants collected in the 
Bahamas, Jamaica, and Grand Cayman, during an expedition 
undertaken during the winter of 1890-91, on behalf of the Missouri 
Garden. The number of species determined is 953, exclusive of 
varieties and cultivated plants. Two new species — Pavonia haha- 
mentis and Fragrostis bahamemis — are described and figured, and 
two others — Anastraphvi pauciflosculosa Wright and Euphorbia 
Blodgettii Engelm. — have hitherto existed only as MS. names. 
Prof. Hitchcock prefaces his enumeration with a dissertation upon 
nomenclature, on which, did space allow, we should like to make 
a few remarks. He has taken 1753 (the date of the first edition of 



220 MISSOURI BOTANIC GARDEN REPORT. 

Species Plantarum) as "the starting point for genera and species," 
but the name on which our eye first fell was Xylon, which was 
applied by Linnams in Gen. Plant. (1737) to the plant usually 
known as Eriodendron cmfractuosum. In 1753 Linnaeus called this 
Bombax pentandrum, and it is not easy to see why, on his own 
principles, Prof. Hitchcock has restored Xylon. The laudable 
announcement that "in this catalogue the original spelling" is 
used must be qualified by the deference exacted by the printer, 
who gives us " Helec teres," although Linnaeus wrote Helicteres. 

Prof. Trelease continues his " Studies of Yuccas and their 
pollination," and his paper is illustrated by nineteen excellent 
plates. Dr. E. L. Sturtevant, whose studies on the history of 
cultivated plants are well known, has "donated" to the Garden his 
extensive collection of specimens, figures, MSS., &c, of the genus 
Capsicum, "on condition that the genus should be studied with 
reference to an ultimate monograph of wild and cultivated forms," 
and has also enriched the Garden with his very extensive botanical 

library. 

A reference to our previous notices of the Missouri Reports 
(Joiirn. Bot. 1892, 32, 283) will show that these volumes are of 
interest, not only from a scientific standpoint, but as evidences of 
that humour which we are in the habit of associating with America. 
The after-dinner speeches which adorn the annual banquets estab- 
lished by Mr. Shaw are this year reported less fully than on previous 
occasions, but that of Prof. J. D. Butler is given at length, and we 
cannot resist the temptation to give one or two extracts. According 
to this gentleman, "w T ho had known the founder of the Garden for 
many years," Mr. Shaw's claim to immortality is established not 
by his Garden or any of its adjuncts, but by the festal gathering 
referred to. " This banquet," said Prof. Butler, " insures to 
Mr. Shaw perpetual memory. So long as men have stomachs, he 
who fills them without money and without price will never be 
forgotten. A daily dole of bread and beer at Winchester has made 
Bishop Blois of precious memory there for eight hundred years. 
It has drawn me to that city more than once. It has drawn the 
Prince of Wales. All comers share the same gratuitous cheer ; few 
forget the giver of their horn and crust. Mr. Shaw's school days 
were near this hospitality. I believe that he tasted it, and so 
learned how to build himself a live-long monument," Mr. Shaw's 
school days, as a matter of fact, were spent at Mill Hill, which is 
not quite as close to Winchester as Prof. Butler seems to think. 

During one of Prof. Butler's " manifold sojourns" with Mr. 
Shaw, they visited " his own mausoleum." " I there first saw his 
statue recumbent on the lid of the sarcophagus, but the sarco- 
phagus itself was uncovered. As we stood there I told him that in 
the heart of the pyramid I had lain down in Pharaoh's coffin, and 
as I had had the last enjoyment of Pharaoh's tomb, so, with his 
permi ion, I would be the first to make proof of his, — and I did. 
He wished I could lie there in his place for ever." Did he foresee 
this speech ? 



TROPICAL AGRICULTURE. — THE FOOD OF PLANTS. 221 

Tropical Agriculture. By A. H. Alford Nicholls, M.D., F.L.S., 

&c. Macmillan & Co. 1892. 6s. 

The Food of Plants. By A. P. Laurie. Macmillan & Co. Is. 

The first book is the result of a premium offered by the Jamaica 
Government for the best treatise on the art of agriculture as 
practised in the West Indies. While agriculturists at home have 
their text-books — more or less trustworthy — the large number of 
English-speaking colonists, who are engaged in cultivating the soil 
in the tropics under conditions very different from those in their 
native country, have had up to the present time no manual for 
their guidance: and the present volume admirably supplies the 

deficiency. 

On glancing over the pages, Dr. Alford Nicholls's book attracts 
the reader by its general get up, by the clearness of its type, and 
excellence of its woodcuts. The first part consists of an intro- 
duction to agriculture, and deals with plant-life from its physio- 
logical point of view. While not confusing the lay reader with 
many technical terms, the author deals with his subject in a 
remarkably full manner, continuing with soils, manures, and 
closing with the physiology of the practical methods used by the 
farmer, tillage operations, pruning, grafting, &c. All these subjects 
are discussed without those inaccuracies into which the effort to 
use popular language sometimes leads scientific men. 

The latter half of the volume is devoted to the more detailed 
consideration of the most important crops grown in tropical coun- 
tries, with useful information about the habits of the plants, and 
the most economic methods of successful cultivation. 

Throughout the book the illustrations are excellent, and make 
the clear and exact text still clearer, so that the agriculturists— or 
planters, as they are more commonly called in tropical countries- 
will have no difficulty in understanding both the theoretical and 
practical portions. Many Englishmen in the tropics will be grateful 
to Dr. Nicholls for the way in which he conveys information of a 
strictly scientific character in an eminently readable form, while 
keeping well to the fore the motto under which his prize essay 
originally appeared, "Bespice finem." 

Mr. Laurie's little book, which contains only 63 small pages 
and a short appendix, cannot be said to be too abstruse, and while 
striving to be extremely simple and elementary, it is indeed possible 
to go too far ; and the first chapters of this little volume give one 
the impression that words of two syllables should have been used. 
It seems hardly necessary for a student of agricultural chemistry to 
make the experiment of cutting off the root of a plant and observing 
that it will wither and die (see Experiment I.). 

The book consists of a series of experiments with the deductions 
to be drawn from each, and the writer certainly has been successful 
in explaining the elements of physiology in very plain and simple 
language. The illustrations are helpful, and the large print is 
pleasant to read. The chief fault of the book lies in its brevity, 
but as the author intends it to be used simultaneously with 
agricultural text-books, perhaps this is of not so much consequence. 



222 ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 

As an elementary introduction to physiological botany, Mr. Laurie's 
book will no doubt be of use in the science classes of our public 
schools, but its limitations prevent its being of much service to 



more mature readers. 



J. B. C 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 
Bot. Centmlblatt. (No. 23). — M. Fischer, ■ Zur Entwickelungs- 

geschichte des Eryptosporium leptostromiforine.' — (No. 24). R. 
Sernander, ■ Ueber das Vorkommen von Steinflechten an altem 
Holz.' — (Nos. 25, 26). 0. Kuntze, * Die Bewegung in der botan- 
ischen Nomenclatur von Ende 1891 bis Mai 1893.' 

Bot. Gazette (May 16). — G. F. Atkinson, ■ Contribution to the 
biology of the Organism causing Leguminous Tubercles' (4 plates). 
— M. B. Thomas, * The genus Corallorhiza ' (2 plates). — W. N. 
Canby & J. N. Rose, Memoir of George Vasey (portrait and 
bibliography). — L. F. Ward, 'Frost freaks of the Dittany' (1 plate). 
— W. C. Sturgis, Comatricha caspitosa, sp. n., & Physarum sulphu- 
reum (1 plate). 

Bot. Magazine (Tokio). — (Ap. 10). R. Yatabe, Asparagus 
Tamaboki, sp. n. — (May 10). K. Okamura, ■ Contributions to the 
Phycology of Japan' (Grateloupia horrida> sp. n.). — T. Makino, 
'Notes on Japanese Plants' (Astilbe simplicifolia , sp.n.). 

Bot. Zeitung (June 19). — J. Wortmann, ■ Mittheilungfulier die 
Verwendung von concentrirtem Most fur Pilzculturen.' 

Bull. Bot. Soc. France (xl. Comptes rendus 1 : June 5). — E. 
Webb, ■ Le Roussi des feuilles de 



'•/■< 



Q 



Sapin.' — D. Clos, Cyclamen 



Ihibus en France.' — W. Russell, ' Sur les aegagropiles marines.' 
E. Mesnard, ' Transformations pendant la germination des graines.' 

H. J. de Cordemon, ' Metaxyleme dans certaines Liliacees.' 
M. Hovelacque, ' Caracteres anatomiques du Lepidod natron selagi- 
noides.'—lj. Guignard, ' Le tegument seminal chez les Capparidees, 
Resedacees, Hypericacees, Balsaminees, et Linacees.' — A. Bat- 
tandier, 'Sur un Dorcmicum de l'Atlas.' — P. Van Tieghem, ' Sur les 
genres meeonnus ou nouveaux de la famille des Thymeleacees.* 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club (May).— C. C. Curtiss, ' Seeds of native 
Orchids ' (3 plates). — T. C. Porter, ' Grasses of Pennsylvania.' — 
Id., 'SoUdago kumilis' (3 plates). — C. H. Kain, 'Francis Wolle' 
(Dec. 17, 1817-Feb. 10, 1893).— F. H. Knowlton, 'Nomenclature.' 

J. K. Small, 'American species of Polygonum ' (P. Sanatchense, 

sp. n. : 1 plate). — T. Morong, ' Thomas Hogg ' (Feb. 6, 1820- 
Dec. 30, 1892).-F. V. Coville, ' George Vasey.' 

Etytkea (June).— E. L. Greene, 'Novitates Occidentales.*— Id., 
•Corrections in Nomenclature.' — Id., ' New Fashion in Writing 
Plant Names.' — L. B. Bridgman, ' Zoospores in Spirogyra con- 
,/,„.s„i„.'_j. M. Holzinger, 'Range of Amorjtha fruticoial' —J. G. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 



223 



Conifer®. 1 — W 



trilobata Nutt., var. nov. guinata. 

Gardeners' Chronicle (May 27). — Cotyledon Barheiji Schweinf., 
sp. n. — (June 10). Kniphofia longicollis Hort. Leichtlin, sp. n. — 
Saintpaulia inonantha H. Wendl. (fig. 104). — R. A. Rolfe, 'Garden 
Orchids ' (Lissochilus). — (June 17). Chlorophytum brachystachyum 
Baker, Iris Athoa Foster, spp.nn. 

Irish Naturalist (June). — R. LI. Praeger, ' Flora of Armagh.' 
H. & J. Groves, ' Notes on Irish Characea.' 

Journal de Botanique (May 1). — E. G. Camus, ' Orchidees de 
France.'— L. Guignard, ' Sur le developpement de la graine.' — H. 
Hua, 'Pan's et Trillium: — P.Hariot, * Le trois genres Trentepohi ia .' 

Midland Naturalist.— W. Phillipt, • The Breaking of the Shrop- 
shire Meres' (2 plates).— J. E. Bagnall, ' Flora of Warwickshire.' 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift (June). — R. v. Wettstein, ■ Bie Arten 
der Gattung Euphrasia.'— R,. H. Franze, ' Eudarina eleyans Ehrbg.' 
(1 plate).— K. Schiffner, « Morphologie und systematische Stellung 
von Metzgerwpsis pusilla ' (1 plate). — H. Zukal, « Mykologische 
Mittheiluiigen ' (2 plates): Lecythium, gen. nov.). — A. Nestler, 
4 Eigenthuinlichkeiten im anatomischen Bau der Laubblatter 
einiger Ranunculaceen ' (2 plates). — J. Murr, ' Zur Flora vou 
Nordtirol.' 

Trans. Linn. Soc. (2nd Ser. Bot. iii. : May). — P. Groom, ' On 
Bud-protection in Bicotyledons ' (2 plates). 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

The Editor of Natural Science, who still modestly withholds his 
name, has been good enough to recognise the existence of the 
Journal of Botany, and to discover in it a "tendency." "The 
Journal of Botany," he says, "has been showing a tendency 
towards Cryptogamic Botany during recent years. In the April 
number there is a paper on Fresh-water Algae, one on Marine 
Algffi one on a Moss, one on Hepatic*©, and a long obituary notice 
of a Cryptogamic Botanist. The editor probably means no more 
by this than that Cryptogamists (even though one fewer) are 
getting too many for him." So far as we are able to understand 
our young contemporary— and we admit that "even though one 
fewer" baffles our ingenuity,— it is implied that the Editor of this 
Journal is unwilling to insert papers on Cryptogams, but is over- 
powered by the force of circumstances in an unequal conflict. 
As a matter of fact, however, the Journal has always been open to 
cryptogamists, and has always been largely used by them— the first 
paper in our first number (in 1863) was on a cryptogam : and the 
only inference which can reasonably be drawn from the employment 
of our pages by cryptogamists is the satisfactory one that, although 
more than one serial now exists expressly for their communications, 
this Journal has advantages as a medium of publicity. We are 



• . 



224 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

unconscious of any other meaning which can be attached to our 
action : and, so far from the cryptogamists "getting too many" for 
us, we shall be glad to welcome more of them as contributors to 
our pages. 

An extremely well printed and handy Check-list of the^ Plants of 
Gray's Manual, compiled by Mr. John A. Allen, has just been 
issued by the Herbarium of Harvard University. An appendix is 
given, "in which an attempt has been made to enumerate the 
additional plants found within the limits of the Manual since the 
issue of the sixth edition." The names of introduced plants are 
printed in italics, and we are thus enabled to see at a glance how 
largely adventive species contribute to make up the present North 
American flora. 

The worst index we have ever seen — and our experience is 
large — is that issued for vol. xxi. of Grevillea, in its June number. 
It is mainly ( arranged according to the specific names, the genera 
to which these belong being printed after them, sometimes in full, 
sometimes in a shortened form. Here are the first six entries : 

"abortivens (Agar.) acicolum (Cenangium) 

acacias (Spaerophragmium) [sic] adequata (Agar.) 
acacice (Triphrag.) adequata (Inocybe)." 

If there is a worse method of indexing than this, we should be glad 
to know of it. But this is not all. Mixed up with these are the 
names (generic, not specific) of authors whose papers are noticed — 
an explanation which we discover for ourselves, as none is given 
in the index : thus : — 

"brachypoda (Pestaloz.) brunneo-pictus (Agar.) 

Braithwaite, R., M.D. Buffhami (Gommophyllum) [sic] 

brevis (Ectocarpus) Buff ham, T. H." 

Those who wish to look up contributions to any one genus can only 
do so by hunting through the whole list of names. After eight 
pages of this kind of thing comes " original articles," the titles of 
which are given in exactly the form and order in which they 
appear in the Magazine : so that-" New or critical British Fungi, 
G. Massee," is entered thrice, and so throughout. There is no list 
of contributors, of books reviewed, of papers cited — nothing even to 
show whereabouts the various branches of cryptogamy are to be 
found. Moreover, the index of species, such as it is, is ridiculously 
incomplete, even novelties being omitted; it is also inaccurate, 
and has abundant misprints. It can only fitly be described by one 
of the adjectives it contains — " asininus." 

The people who frequent the Manchester Museum, Owens 
College, will not gain much information from the "Museum Hand- 
books,' ' if the one devoted to an " outline classification of the 
Vegetable Kingdom" is to be taken as typical. It is a bare 
enumeration of the names of orders, occupies (title and blanks 
included) sixteen pages, and costs twopence ! We fail to perceive 
any possible use which it can serve in connection with the Museum, 
nor can we imagine that the sale will cover the cost of production, 
slight as that must have been. 









L Juhi 7th'.— Ch ; <. / 150. I 



1 



X. / 



".> 1.3-6 



AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OP 

THE DIATOMACE^:, 

By F. W. TILLS, F.R.M.S., Author of 'Photography applied to the Microscope,' Ac. 



With 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY by J I) , F M.S. 



CONTENTS: Introch — elimin R . — Sti : Dial 

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of the ind i — Mi of in Diat , — 

Mount j Diaton — [icros aa Dia Photograph 

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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



of 



BRITISH AND IRISH BOTANISTS 



BY 



JAMES BRITTEN, F.L.S., & G. S. BOULGER, F.L.S. 



+ 



HPHIS INDEX, which has been published in the • Journal of 
JL Botany T during the last four years, has elicited general interest. 
It originated in the supposition that the want of such a reference-list, 
often felt by the authors, mi also be shared by others ; and the 
numerous expressions of interest and approval have fully ju fied the 
belief. 

Numerous additions to the information given in the Journal havt 
been made, and some corrections. The list of names ha o been 
considerably extended, and has been brought down to the end of 12. 

The plan of the work, as readers of the ' Journal of Botany r will be 
aware, has been to be liberal in including ail who hav in any way 
contributed to the literature of the science who have made -eientific 
collections of plants, or who u >w to have other assisted in 



the progress of Botany, excli ive of pure Horticulture. Where known 



the name is follow I bv the years of birth and d ath, and in other 

eases an approximate -late i given. Tin □ follows the pis lay 

of birth and death, the pla burial, chief da ^ of election to 

the Linnean and Royal Societies, or c f Univei it? dt ees. In 

, reference is made e chief ources oi farther information, 

in which Pulteney, Bee Pritzel, Jackson, and the Royal Society 




Catalogue are first quoted, and then t! fullest known record, with a 
note of any portrait and of genera dedicated to the 

catalogued, or, in the absence of genera, of eies. The book compris 

&tX>tlt 1 





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WEST, N-I WMAN & ( 0. 



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54 HATTO GABDi 







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Numbers 



No. 368. 



AUGUST, 1893 



THE 



Vol. XXXI. 



JOURNAL 



BOTANY 






BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 



EDITED BV 



JAMES BRITTEN, 



F.L 



Senior Assistant, Department of 

South Kensington 



Botany, British Museum (Natural Histqrt 









CONTENTS. 



Scortechini's Malayan Fern?- By 
Col. R- H. Beddome, F.L.S. . • 

Kates on Indian Fern By CoL 
E. EL Bedd «k, F.L.S. .- 

Some Plant observed in E Scot- 
land, July a I August, 12, B 

the I ■ Frw S. Mabsb -i- 
M.A., FX.S 



PAG 






: 



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>ome Bri i Sp of rod . 

By Ab in ft p* F.L.S. . . 

No onth Flora oi Co. Armagh. 
By B. L >to I i Bh < 

M U.A. . .. •• •■ 

In ' ' moi ■ B *es ' n &* 



■ME 



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. J. Gk Baker, F.B.S. 



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in Somerset.— J zatta can arm 

Middlesex Plants 

in W. Kent. — Er 
phorun jraeil in Dorset.— 
rt ] tmojfiami in Co. 

I —Junip in r 

m< > iur. in S 



K//t-i f * t ; 



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Notice Books, %: 



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B fcrage if Morpl 

Physiologie der Pftaazenzelle. 
HerausKr... n Dr. A. Zimmeb- 



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B h Forest Tr 

Indian Forest Servi . * • • 2T*3 






I )03lri MlCHAEI 

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Arti< :» in Journal 
Book Nt «l-c- 



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225 



SCORTECHINI'S MALAYAN FERNS. 

i 

By Col. R. H. Beddome, F.L.S. 

In November, 1887, I published in this Journal a list of the 
ferns collected in and around Perak by the Rev. Father Scortechim. 
This collection was deposited in the Natural History Museum, 
South Kensington, after having been exhibited at the Colonial 
Exhibition. The Rev. Father made further collections before his 
lamented death, and Dr. King, of the Calcutta Botanical Gardens, 
has lately forwarded one set of these to Kew, and a similar set to 
me. The following is a list of the species represented which did 
not occur in the first collection, those marked with an asterisk 
being, I believe, new to the Perak district. 

Gleichenia hirta Bl. 

Hywenophyllwn dilatatum Sw. 

Tnchomimes hispididum Mett. 

Alsonhila comosa Hook. — A. dubia Bedd. 

*A. latebrosa var. denudata. Appears to agree with the type of 
Malayan latebrosa in cutting and venation only the main and 
partial rachis and the rachis of the pinnules are quite glabrous 
underneath, giving it a very different appearance. The indumentum 
on the upper side is similar to the type. It may, when better 
known, prove to be a new species. Some of the specimens were 
labeTled « Beddomri," and others « Scortechinii ," MS. names of 

^IZ^v^nensis. Agrees with the Himalayan fern 
described by Clarke and Baker under the name of sikkonaws, 
Jaum. Liml Soc. xxiv. 409, except that the stipe and main rachis 
are more prominently niuricated. 
*Diac«lpe aspidioides BL 
Davallia triphylla Hook. ., 

T divan Jaw. a^pUmma. This fern is die same as Mr 
Mann's Cachar var. mentioned at page 14 of the Supplement to the 
Mann s y™™*J d [U (1892)> It was called by Scortechim D. 

';;;;^ ***** *- ** ** to be 

considered a variety. 

Microlepia Kurzii CL . 

Schizoloma davallioides BL-S. ensifoha Sw. 

Adiantum emulation Sw. 

*%A^™tuo6a«. Texture more coriaceous than 
in the iype ; the wing and lobes of the pirn* more than double as 
hroad • veins rarely somewhat anastomosing. 

IMobrochia incla var. inteyri folia. Pinnules perfectly entire 
but unlike Mr. Day's specimens, a basal pair of auricles is present. 

HPrrated than in the Indian examples. - . 

ThLLpteris Nidus var. un^efolia Mett. Fronds 14 in. wide. 

Journal of Botany.-Vol. 31. [Aug. 1893.] Q 



226 



SCORTECHINI S MALAYAN FERNS. 



I 



Asplenium Wightianum var. vulcanicum Bl. — A. unilaterale Lain. 

Diplazmm Prescottianum Wall. After seeing copious specimens 
of the Malayan sylvaticam from King's collectors and others, I think 
that this should rank as a distinct species. 

Hemidictyum Finlaysonianum Wall.? A simple fronded state. 
Specimens poor and insufficient. 

Polystichuin semicordatum S\v. 

Aspidium semibipinnatuiu Wall.— A. repandulum Willd. — A. poly- 
morphitm Wall. — A. decunens Presl. 

Pleocnemia membraniifulia Presl. Contracted form. 

Nephrodium braehyodon Bl.— A 7 , larutmse Becld. 

Polypodium subpinnatifidum Bl.— P. nutans Bl. 
*P. repandulum Mett. var. malayanum. Agreeing with the Ceylon 
species, except that the sori, instead of being only slightly immersed 
are deeply sunk in pits or cavities with raised margins. Scortechini 
considered it a new species, calling it brevifrons. 

*Goniophlebium Prainii, n. sp. Rhizome stout, densely 

clothed with long hair-pointed chestnut scales, which are very 

iridescent on the broader portion near their peltate base ; stipes 

U-8 ft. long, firm, erect, naked ; fronds deltoid-lanceolate, about 

1 ft. long by 10 in. broad at base, pinnate ; pinna* numerous, about 

f m. broad, narrow-lanceolate from a broad dilated base (which 

never forms a wing to the rachis, the pinna, being quite separate), 

quite glabrous on both sides, except some minute scurfy scales and 

a few hairs on the partial rachis below ; margins slightly crenated, 

particularly towards the apex ; texture somewhat papyraceous • 

veins very prominent on both sides ; areoles in 2 series, with a few" 

tree or anastomosing veinlets towards the margin ; sori in 1 or 2 

series.— Perak. Sent under the name of amamm, but quite unlike 

that or any other described species. 

Niphobolw, adnascens var. hoyaj blius Moore. 

Drynana quercifolia L. 

. Mopeltis Werficudi, Bl. var. latifrom. The peltate scales of 

foldeT^ ; l( ; ' witl v chest ? ut r rgins > more close1 ^ *%***»&, 

rounded and ot spreading; fronds on shorter stipes, and shorter 
and broader ban m the type. Perhaps a distinct species, but 
very closely allied to the Himalayan fern-Scortechini named i 
'pdtata ; also gathered by Dr. King's collectors. 

*P. Zippelii Bl.— P. pterupus Bl. 

««, P ' J kJ *y a f a B1 - A , kr g e ^ite of specimens from Dr. King and 
%%L ^JE-JM** J* * .»* distinguishable 8 *™ 



P. dilatata Wall. 



latifc 



Wall 



la tifi 



227 



"( 



NOTES ON INDIAN FERNS. 

By Col. R. H. Beddome, F.L.S. 

* At page 5 of the Supplement to the Ferns of British India 
I referred the two ferns, Dennstcedtia ampla and Kinyi by mistake 
to Dicksonia ; they are true Dennstoedtias. 

Schizoloma Gueriniana Gaud, is from the Moluccas, not from 
Malacca, and mast be eliminated from the ferns of British India. 

Aspleniwn suharenium Hooker. Further specimens prove this 

to be only a form of A. hirtum. 

A. contiguwn Kaulf. The Nilgiri and Anamallay fern figured at 
Plate 140, F.S.I., should remain under this name; the typical 
wudatum," with long, narrow, very finely caudate pinnae, and sori 
closely pressed against the midrib, has only been found (within our 
limits) in the Malay Peninsula, and has not been figured by me ; 
continuum is nearer in its sori to caudatum than to falcatum. 

biplazium chlorophyllum Baker. This should be omitted from 
our limits, the Penang fern being certainly only tomentosum.- 

D. Grijithii Moore, Ind. Fil. 331. " Fronds deltoid, pinnate, 
bipinnatifid, subcoriaceous ; pinnae curved or ascending, the lower 
distinctly stipitate, elongate-triangular, acuminate, the upper 
oblong-acuminate, sessile, the uppermost confluent, forming an 
acuminated pinnatifid apex; pinnules oblong, falcate, subauriculate, 
acute, crenate-serrate, those of the lower pinnae slightly unequal ; 
sori curved, borne near the costa. Stipes 9-12 in. long ; frond 
12-15 in. long, and nearly as much in width across the base." 
The above is Moore's excellent description of this fern. It has 
been collected by Clarke at Surnaween, Khasi Hills, 5000 ft. alt. 
(Nos. 45186 & 45594); also abundantly by Gr. Mann in the same 
locality, and by Jerdon and Oldham. (Mettenius's and Hooker's 
types of Grijjithii are the fern I figured under that name at 
Tab. 328, F. B. I., now referred to uinbrosum var. multicaudatum, 
hence much confusion until Mr. Mann unravelled it in the Kew 
Herbarium.) It is the fern referred to by me under latifolium at 
page 188 of the Handbook. Mr. Clarke has referred it to sylvaticum, 
and Mr. Baker to latifolium; it is nearest to latifolium, from which 
its comparatively small, short, very deltoid fronds sufficiently dis- 
tinguish it. Mr. Mann has gathered the true sylvaticum in the 
Nainbur Forest, Assam, with the margins of the pinnae as in the 
Perak specimens, rather more cut than in S. Indian specimens, but 
less so than in Thwaites's Ceylon var. dentatum, C. P. 3892. 

Nephrodium erolutum var. /?., page 77, Fern Supplement. Copious 
specimens of this fern from Mr. Mann prove it to be quite distinct 
from evohttum, so I separate it as N. Gustavi (after Mr. G. Mann) ; 
it has a widely creeping rather thin rhizome with distant stipes ; the 
pinnae are similar to those of multilineatum var. assamicwn in 
texture, &c, and 2-3 pairs of veins anastomose, 2-3 pairs of the 
lower pinnae are distant and much reduced in size, or more rarely 
the upper portion of the stipe is more or less auricled. Mr. Mann's 
specimens are all from the Nambur Forest ; Mr. Clarke gathered it 

<* 2 



228 



PLANTS OBSERVED IN E. SCOTLAND. 



at Bocajau, 400 ft. alt. on the Naga Hills. I am not sure that Mr. 
Mann s fern from Kopili hot springs, 1000 ft. alt., belongs here, 
not having seen the rhizome ; the pinna are very similar, but 
rather less cut down, 5-6 pairs of veins anastomosing 

N. multihneatum var. assamicum. The Assam form alluded to 
under mxdtihneatum in the Supplement to the Handbook can readilv 
be distinguished from midtUineatum, and may have to be ranked as 
a species. The rhizome is very stout and shortly creeping, with 
the stipes approximate ; the auricles are small and lanceolate, and 
more like those of truncatum, but the texture of the frond is that of 
multilmeatum and Gustari; were it not for the very different 

W°m' V h< £ ld ? fe J h to GmtarL Jt is important that fiek 
botanists should note how far the rhizome of these two ferns is 
constant m different soils and situations. 



SOME PLANTS OBSERVED IN E. SCOTLAND JULY 

AND AUGUST, 1892. 
By the Rev. Edward S. Marshall, M.A., F.L.S. 
My northern tour last year was a varied one embraoW 
lowland, alpine and maritime districts. Two or Zte ve?v enTov 

ffiprt tT^L Sri SH I 

1893, pp. 28-31. PeSs Tmoff ^nd History for January, 
teres ing of them -sTr cT 1 W ? U mentl0n here the more ^ 
Glen Slfee; SS^JS^ SSSi toSSST i™* the L ° Cbsie ' 

appear to be new to Britain V 9 ?! / , e Lochsi e (these four 

%mn^,fromGLnCalS ***?« X 

from the Lochsie ; and S TuJricZT, L(q %° nwn > m three f ° r ™, 
After leaving Glen Shee I rSS ♦ 3^' fr ° m near the S P ittil1 ' 
in examining the lit oral IZ I i° B ? auly » and s P ent » few days 
bourhood. C UJb^n^^ J^ to of the ™^ 
CttfetVfe var. ««»ten/«/;,„,7 "Prffo ^ P , obtained was Alumaranun- 

An asterisk deno's I 1?^ f COrded in this Journal, 
vice-counties being 79 Selkirk fto F° U S ty ,, reoord " ; the Watsonian 
deen, 96 E. Inverness, and 06 E Ro^' *° F ° T ^ 92 S ' Aber ' 



Plants observed !n e. Scotland. 229 

My obligations to Mr. Arthur Bennett, of Croydon, are again 
very great. Help has also been received from Messrs. Alfred 
Fryer, F. J. Hanbury, Linton, and Moyle Rogers. 

Ranunculus Drouetii Godron. Sparingly near the boat-house, 
on the north side of Eescobie Loch, *90. — R. peltatus Schrank, var. 
elongatus Bab. ( Batrachium elongation F. Schultz). CauldshieldsLoch, 
♦79 ; determined by Mr. Bennett. A curious little submerged Ranun- 
culus grows in another part of the same sheet of water ; for this, 
as well as for two or three other forms obtained, I have hitherto 
failed to get a definite name. — R. Lingua L. Unusually abundant 
in marshes near Faldonside.- — R. Steveni Andr. Bocks in Glen 
Shee, and near the top of Caenlochan Glen. I do not know 
whether this differs from 2?. vulgatus Jordan, placed under acris in 
the last edition of the London Catalogue. 

Aquih'ijia vulgaris L. This occurs by the stream, a little below 
the Spittal of Glen Shee, but evidently as an escape from one of 
the gardens. 

Berberis vulgaris L. Hedges near Faldonside, -79 ; almost 
certainly planted. 

Nymphaa alba L., var. minor Syme. Peaty pool at the west end 

of Loch-nam-Bonnach, near Beauly. 

Corydalis claviculata DC. On a bank at Kilmorack, near 



Beauly. 



iJJora DC. Plentiful in cornfields between Blair- 



gowrie and Marlee Loch, 89. 

Cardamine jiejcuosa With. Woods at Faldonside, -79. 

Cochlearia anglica L. Abundant by the Beauly Firth, *96, and 
at Dingwall, *106. A curious plant, which has leaves not unlike 
the English coast form, but differs from it in the fruit. It was 
mostly over at the time of my visit, and deserves further study. 

Sisymbrium Thaliana Hooker. Ascends to 1700 ft. on rocks in 

Glen Shee. 

Lepidium Smithii Hooker. By the Shee Water, at 1100 ft. ; 

one fine plant. 

Thlasjri alpestre L. A small specimen was met with in Caen- 
lochan Glen at fully 2900 ft., on the opposite side to its recorded 

station. 

Viola canina L. Sparingly in Glen Shee and Glen Beg, 89 ; 

and by the Beauly river, *96. 

Polygala oxyptera Reichb. Frequent in Glen Shee, *89, on dry 

banks; ascending to 1700 ft. 

Stellaria nemorum L. Growing in a streamlet above Corrie 
Kandor, *92, at 3000 ft. ; very scarce, small, and flowerless, but 

unmistakable. 

Sagina Linncei Presl. On Craig Leacach, and a hill adjoining 
the Cairnw T ell, 89. A remarkable form with the leaves somewhat 
ciliate, and the pedicel and calyx more or less glandular, was found 



on exposed rocks in Glen Canness, at about 2500 ft. ; it may be 

called f. gland ulosa. 

Lepigonum salinum Fries. By the Beauly Firth t near Lentran. 
*96. 



2S0 

PLANTS OBSERVED IN E. SCOTLAND. 

on flSSV 1 *^ St0kes and tL Krsutum L. grow toother 

sss^jsssss a quautity ° f ***** *"*»- l - s 

luJumf U " l r ate,,Se h Nea1 ' Conan > 106 J <*rtainly wild.-0. 
5 ?# /;• T ™?" g r0cks ln Glen Sliee. ^ 1600 ft. ; very scarce 

^Sate^ This ri a oq the JtSSKT- 

Caenlochan ' ****" L " attains tlie same alt ^ * 

Falls o KifnT^ °V nd 116ar the "accessible cliffs of the 

fruit is small, red and rat W S S * being indigenous ; the 

the Tweed at'Faldonsfde ^9 bltter "- p - ***"' On the banks of 

a. 5S££- w Vn & Lr^r rack ' ^ 96; aiso near «■*•**-* 



b 1 ; Bet W ^ ss and y^SFSSisr *= 

plant was me? vithTv l.^v '"? T Aytf i" W ' & N ' A BtriJrin 8 
Eogers const ^f,^? 63 ab ° Ve Tain ' which 3? 
A fe** Weil e Neai Foil i ^ ln an legate sense.- 
A pretty littl hrub ^E£k*?*ZL ~ * S 1 "*?*" W « & N ' 
between ***»£ *J Z r ± IT™ , C0 "? ler f intermediate 



Conan, *106. 



«n$Ufa. Smith. About Beauiy, 4?" 

(man rtvaJe x urbanum id ,-..,' 



the railway at 
ifolius. — R. 



■-«« urate X urbanum (G. intervmlhn,, i?i i x r, , 

frequent near Faldonside *7ft T -i ^ Ehrh.). Rather 

Conan. "aonsioe, 79. I also saw it at one spot near 

A'jrvnonia EupatoHa L. Near Dingwall *10fi 

^S^^My the Beg Bum, 

Smith. Near Faldonsfde *7Q 1 ^ at H5 ° ft — »• ""^ 

Mr. Boyd. A yerj^ntiM^A^ P ° intvd out Ul m « '* 
the coast between Wan and ^' ^^ locilly plentiful on 

be var. Xic^/soni Gv^ uf ^T {' **•,**" considers to 

wWeh I hardly thin? to 'uSiS^ta ^ * t0 « "*' 

living plant. Several inimLSr, ' m m ^ own note s on the 

cerning which I hZ as yet no F22S f™ ab ° Ut Beau1 ^ con " 
"'«///* Smith. Most abundant « satisfactory determinations.-^. 
Woods, was gathered nLrPhihnh" * al<lon , side ' *™'> var. «„*. 
with this in So fewer ttafiv > ountS /" T^** " L " J me * 
looked suspicious.-y,'. JL* ,^f n ' ^ 0nl > T 0ne of its st ^ions 
Faldonside, * 7 9, bnt^Hy p^S ' JF** f* ***» near 
l*r»; unusually sweetsceni? i' f U 1S assoclated with Her- 
flowers than i£ thTsoutb ' F^' ^f ' and ^'-coloured 
Several line bushes, £ar PhilS^ J ,™--*. V«* Savi. 

fWs large, pink /with he n ' k gh ' 7V now to Scotland. 
distant ; st yl es ^ h ™ U \^ r c ™f Jo below s0 as to appear 

/ airy. Another plant from Beauiy, which Mr. 



PLANTS OBSERVED IN E. SCOTLAND. 231 



Rogers places under this species, appears to me to form a con- 
necting link with B. Borreri Woods, which occurs thereabouts, 
the other canina varieties noticed being lutetiana, urbica, dumalis, 
arvatica and dumetoritm. The last named was also found near 
Faldonside. — R. arvensis Hudson. A fine bush, to my great surprise, 
grew near the iron railway-bridge over the Conan river, *106; but 
its presence as a garden shrub at the station, about half a mile 
away, solved the question of its origin. 

l\i/rus iorminalis Ehrh. A fine tree, fruiting freely, was met 
with beside the Conan river, not far above the last-named plant ; 
but I suppose it to have been introduced. 

Hipjniru vulgaris L. In a swamp, near the farm of Easter 
Moy, Conan river, 106. Rare, so far north. 

Mi/riophi/lltim alternijlorum DC. Beauty *98« 

Cfdlitriclie stag u a] is Scop. Long Moss, near Faldonside, *79. — 
Var. serjjyllifolia Lonnroth. Muddy cart-track in Glen Shee, at 
about 1200 ft. *89. — C. kawnlata Kuetz. Ascends to 2800 ft. on a 
hill adjoining the Cairnwell, just in S. Aberdeen. — C. autummdis 
L. Loch Schechernich, 89 ; Loch Ussie, near Conan, 106. 

Lythrum Salicaria L. Near Beauty, 96. 

Ihrysnsplenium alternifolium L. Faldonside, "79. 

Epilohium anymtifolium L. Very dwarf and flowerless at 

2600 ft. on exposed rocks, Meall Odhar, 89. — K. montanwm L. 
reaches the same elevation in Caenlochan. — K. palustre L. The 
form tavandulmfidia Lee. & Lamotte (var.) was found in Glen Shee, 
well marked. — K. (dsinifolium x anagallidifolitiw. Head of Glen 
Thailneiche, *89. Streamlet in Corrie Kandor, *92 ; ■ ravine of 
Glen Cannes-, 90. In all three ens >s the parents grew with it. — F.. 
montanum x pidustre. Ditch near Kilmorack, :,: 96. 1 had often 
previously searched for this hybrid without success. My plants are 
much nearer to palustre in habit, but the inflorescence, shrunken 
capsules, &c, leave little room for doubt. — K. obseunun x judustre. 
Kestenneth, 90 ; Glen Shee, 89. — A 1 , obscurum x parvijlorum. 

Restenneth, *90. 

Circaa intermedia Ehrh. Wood by the Tweed at Faldonside, 
: 79 ; this had been passed by as C. lutetiana, with which it seems 
to be frequently confused. 

Cicuta virosa L. Whitlaw Moss, near Faldonside, *79; Ion,' 

known to grow there. 

rimpinella Saxifrarja L. Ascends to 2400 ft. in Glen Shee. 

(Enanthe crocata L. In one locality on the right bank of the 
Beauty river, below the railway-bridge ; very rare in the north. 

[A spend (i taurine L. was given to me by Mr. Boyd in a fresh 
state from the banks of the Yarrow, below Selkirk, where it is 
naturalized] . 

IJellis perennis L. Reaches 3000 ft., above Caenlochan. 

Arctium intermedium Lange. Beauty river, below Kilmorack. 
I understand from Mr. Bennett that Lange considers his plant 
identical with Lejeune's A. nemorotum; in which case it seems as 
though our present "A. nemorosum" would require re-naming. — 
Var. subtomentosum Ar. Bennett. A plant with densely woolly 



*• 
i 



v3 



23 ^ PLANTS OBSERVED IN E. SCOTLAND. 

heads, about identical with Mr. Griffith's Anglesey form, was found 
above Kilmorack, *96, and by the Conan river, *106. 

™Jr It ™ PU \ ^ , . Coasfc bet ween Fowlis and Novar, *106 ; in 
good quantity, and looking wild. 

Hieratium Pihsella L., var. nigrescent Fries. Ledges in Caen- 
Dde™?^ 2 f° 0i tl- Mr> Hanbu ^has recorded it from Glen 

lo n»i f ?°m hS . ™ m i ns > so far ' a remarkably distinct- 
ooking plant.-tf . Mosenceum Backh. Sparingly on a hill adjoin- 
ing the Cairnwe 1 89, together with H. eximiui Backh. and H. 
r'Tlrj Backh -«- iricvm Fries. Ascends to 2800 ft in 



Caenlochan. — H 



^aeniocnan.— H. argmteam Fries. In various parts of Glen Shee 

but rather scarce.-^, murorum L., var. rotundatum Kit. Pfontifui 

^to*KK ^escendmg from the Cairnwell into Glen Beg *89 a 

dv me in 18aV n n/ S f y i l ^ tlG ^ With a Clova Plant collected 

vy me in i«h«, and assented to by Dr. Lindphp™ T>ii v,w+ i 
constant variety has thp m™a J if" ' ™ ebeVg ; V? ls P™^ and 



rounded 






bach (cori/mbosum Fru* ihl \v I ^oee.— #. Zupatonum Gnse- 
Conai s/atioT^n. 1^^.!^ If^Z^ Cl- 



eanness, S MtS ftH t' ^H -Tf' Glen 
form with yellow sfyles and uL^LJJTS? " Lmdeber ^ , A 
on the S. side of Glen Tha fneTche *89 H Tf™, °Y° Cl ? 
Touvet. Near the Spittal of Glen Shee*'^ ' ft" *?" Arve " 
mens were seen.-H eunreves FT w V ' ° ol y a few s P eci " 

Glen Shee, from 1100 S2?flS £ H sG bu T . St ' eam sides ia 
bat BCaw^^^^fAi 80 ^^ -89; also m Glen Collator,- 

at 2700 ft.,onlmeston P all?' m ad J 0lnin g the Cairnwell, *89, 
F. Linton.-?/ Fa, S F T t? **? Cann °^ Namcd h * *™. E . 
Corrie Ardran ioc^ ^ £"**& p ?f» ^ee *89. The 

as the plant collected there was 7/ S ) 8 °" ld be erasod > 

murorum Lindebere Th?« T a Plcto ™ m ^nton.— //. *«,«,. 

occurs in various pfrts of rL q^^ well -™arked species 

B. auratum Fries P the mL gl' J£ ^ 10 °° t0 17 °° fl - 
one or two specimens in lit? 'J 9 \ Be , auIy mer ' ;:96 - J found 
black insuJ^^ 8 ^^ p J^^ ^^ ^e Btyles almost 

ff. reticulum LinffiT n * J?" W1Se fe W6fe ^ uite *ypcal.- 
species, though nearH V„ , me '' ;:106 - I think ^a good 

root-leavesistrycha^cSr 7 "'"'' " CUltiVati ° n the rosette of 
the '^StSS ftZ BeaX Ce ;- ^ ? t^ a «« «** - 

Loueleurut procumbent ZJ S ^ °f ° UrS near BeauI y- 

of the CairnweU, nSZL ; ? pann ^ on ^ Perthshire side 



PLANTS OBSERVED IN E. SCOTLAND. 233 

Pyrola minor Sw. Reaches 2900 ft. in Caenlochan. 
Symphytum tuberosum L. Banks of the Tweed, Faldonside, 

*79 ; by the Conan river, *106. . . ■ 

MywotM jpofartro With., var. strbjulosa (Reichb.). Near Beauly, 

;=96. — M. repens D. Don. Near Beauly, * =96. 

Veronica arvensis L. Ascends to 1600 ft. by the Braeniar road 

in Glen Beg, 89.— V. persica Poir. Cultivated ground about 

Beauly, -96. ., ._, __ 

Utricularia neylecta Lehm. Long Moss, near Faldonside, *7» , 

pools on Eestenneth Moss, -90. 

Calamintha Clinopodium Benth. By the Beg Burn, 89. 

Gahopsts speciosa Miller. Near Conan, 106. 

4*ripkas littoralis L. Near Lentran, towards Beauly, -96. — A. 
patula L. About Lentran and Beauly, *96; both type and var. 
errata.— A. Babinytonii Woods, var. virescens Lange. Near Lentran, 

*96, and Dingwall, *106. 

jRhwu-.c sanguineus L., var. wruto (Smth.). Conan, •1UB.—-A. 
em/ws X obtusifolius {R. acutus L.). Glen Shee, 89.— i?. Awn**** 
Hartmann. Glen Shee. With this grew a plant which seems to 
be a hybrid between it and another species, probably erttpm; but 
the fruit characters are too immature to allow of certain deter- 
mination.— Ii. Jlydrolapathum Huds. In a reed-bed of the Beauly 
river, *96, below the town ; only one plant seen. Apparently very 

rare in Scotland. , , . .. 

Euphorbia dulcis L. Thoroughly naturalized on the bank of the 
Conan river, flowing through the grounds of Brahan Castle, -106. 

Humulus Lupuhts L. Roadside near Kihnorack, *9b ; not 
looking like an introduction, though no doubt really such. 

Ulmus montana Smith. About Faldonside, *79. 

Betula pubescens Ehrh. Not uncommon near Beauly, *9b. 

Sali.v Smithiana Willd. I noticed two bushes by the roadside 
near Dalnagarn, between the Spittal of Glen Shee and Persie 

Inn, -89. TX . .... . , 

Goodyera repens R. Brown. Very plentiful in woods near 

Beauly, Conan, and Stratbpeffer. Babington's remark about the 
leaves being "netted with brown'.' must be based on dried 
material ; they are not so when fresh. _ 

Orchis mascuh, L. I obtained a specimen in good flower, high 
up on the rocks in Caenlochan, where Gentiana nivalis grows, at 
2900 ft— O. incuniata L. Whitlaw Moss and Long Moss, near 
Faldonside, 79 ; ascent of Craig Leacach, 89, up to 1700 ft. ; and 
very fine in a marsh to the west of Marlee Loch.— O. lahfolia 
(segregate). Mosses near Faldonside, -79 ; near Beauly, *96. 

Habenaria conopsea Benth. Moorland near Faldonside, -79. 
H. viridis R. Brown. Ledges of Caenlochan, at 2800 ft. 

Juncus alpinus Vill. A plant or two in Glen Shee, 89. Abun- 
dant by Loch Ussie, -106 ; a slender and remarkable plant, which 
Dr. Buchenau names a. genuinm, forma yracilior. 

Luzula multijlora Lej. Moors near Faldonside, *79. 

Sparaamm simplex Hudson. Faldonside Moss, *79.— ST. atfnie 
SchnizL Moorland streamlet near Conan, *106, and in pits near 



Co 1 
U * PLANTS OBSKKVED IN K. SCOTLAND. 

chan B Tfi riVer i 9 °;- ° U , e o 0f the S P ecies ^ rows in Loc » Brota- 

S \nt \ deVatl ? U ° f ??°° fi ' but ™ nofc 8 ^n in flower. 
-S. vunwnm Fnes. Long Moss, near Faldonside, *79. Also by 

Loch-nam-Bonnach, 96, and near the - Spittal of Glen Shee * 

92 (TnZT°l l TT h ,\ Near Fald °nside, *7$. At 2300 ft. in 

W itl rAl -To C />"' /' Homem - C« plantayinem DuCroz). 

Moorl-md It,; : ' :7J - ~~ £ " /7 """ 6 ' Balbis ( P « "*■*«• Schrader). 

It 2300 ft t Q?a lie T n? ^ 111 ,' ^° 6 ^ R **4*f»ii Schreber. 

Loci Ust OP ( 1 *»toto*V A pretty little form grows in 
liocli Usbio, IOC, and a deep-water form with very lone peduncles 
at the west end of Marlee Looh fiO » i „ ■ i ,, h i ,euuncics > 
(L J nitm* <wipM t« t u tt ? tf -*~ f - "*teropht/llu* x perfoliate 
K . '".* r a . nct -)- I" Loch Ussie, *10G, with the DarWrs P 
«/^^.s Ti, B. side of Rescobie Loch, *90 Messrs Kokand 

This is no 'a STttTbE^U ' Ca " ldsbield * Loch! 79. 
overlooked. Loch UssTe^ IOC P 3!?* SG T emS t0 have beeu 
Loch Brotachan 92 a 2300 f;~! * V&T* ¥ Plentiful in 
previously fonnd in BriL ? n t( r i ^ hlghe f than Jt had been 
the **rJwS oMhe Le wtV 10 ^ 0Wer "t"""* UnIike 
*106.-p' i-ririi BuwpS? t £'~~ fW L ' Loch Ussie » 
near Faldonsid ? ^S^J^I ""f ^ &t Whita « 
side, *79 ; Loch Ussie -loV T g M ° SS ' near F;lldon - 

pools near the Beauly rfw 96 Lw *£?&* ** *">™ » 
Ar. Bennett. A new s tatinn fa, ♦ ° ^n"'^' «<«»**« 
species is Loch SchlcheS «q *"« W ^ m «^ and elegant 
about ir.no * t5Cliecnem »ch, 89; the elevation is soin fl wh«r« 



about 1500 ft. 



nJ^Z^":^^ £"»' V J^™' **»' The va, 
specimens just fit his M$^??** "g *°™> * 10G ! «V 
been obtained before on tbT E ,li do not thlnk thafc thi s lias 

j-^ssat t^ ist ^ ttish main,and - 

^^^S^-vSaJT^U ^J 10 ***** ou the chores of the 
with the exception ^^Jtt?** f 1 '™ was see »> 
shore near Fowlis —/ J,Tl m t type ' Washed U P on the 
freely, on the muddy cfas n ,, r 1 l ,ri ' fusion ' and fruiting 

seen in flower, J^SS^JS^b * 96 : abunda ^' »»»* not 



~~, -uui.uaa near L.och Ussie, IOC. 
'/'« Wablb. Coast near Dingwail, but scarce. 



PLANTS OBSERVED IN E. SCOTLAND. ' 235 

Carcx teretiuscida Good. Remarkably fine and abundant by 
Ardblair Loch, near Blairgowrie, 89.— C. paniculata L. Swamp 
near the Conan river, 10G. I believe it to be very rare in the 
northern Highlands.— C. curia Good. Glen Shee. The var alpi- 
cola (Wahl.) was well marked on Meall Odhar, 89, at 3000 ft,-~C. 
rbdda Good. Mr. Bennett believes that the " var. inferalpma 
Laestad." of the London Catalogue, would be better named C. 
lunula Fries ; but he has not been able to see a type-specimen of 
either. I think that the Glas Maol plant should remain under 

riqida as a variety.— C. salina Wahl., var. kattegattensis (Fries). 1 
searched several miles of coast, both in 96 and 106, but could only 
find this sedge in Mr. Druce's Beauly station, where the yellowish 
tint of its foliage attracts attention from a considerable distance.— 
C. Goodenomi Gay. A queer little viviparous state was obtained by 
the Canness Burn, 90, near its source. The var. juncella grows at 
Bestenneth.— G. capillar* L. Ascent of Craig Leacach, 89.— 6. 
Uvigata Smith. Near Kilmorack, 96.— C. fiava L. Torms ap- 
proaching C. Icpidocarpa Tausch. grow plentifully by Long Moss, 
79, and by Ardblair Loch, 89 ; they differ greatly from the var. 
minor Townsend.— C. fiava X fulva (G. .vantlmcarpa Degl., C. sWrdts 
Syme). Near the Spittal of Glen Shee, and in a moorland swamp 
near Loch Ussie ; in the latter case the combination may perhaps 
be with ehryfita rather than with fiava. — C. chnjsiUsLmk. 

Beside Cauldshields Loch, *79, and Loch Ussie, 106.-- ■G.fihlormis 
L Whitlaw Moss, *79, and swamp at the W. end of Loch Ussie, 
-106.— C\ vesicaria L. Bank of the Conan river, near Brahan 
Castle, * 106; only a few plants seen. /_ _ 

Deschampsia discolor B. & S. Wet moorland, south of Loch 

Ussie, -106. ' t_.ni 

Avena pubescem Hudson. Ascends to 1700 ft. on rocks in Glen 

1 Molinia cceruha Moench. The form or var. M»tn«w»a Rabenhorst 
grows with J uncus alpinus in stony ground by Loch Ussie. 

Glyceric* plicate Fries. Glen Shee, at 1000 to 1150 ft.~V«. 
depaupmm Crepin. Muddy roadside, Kilmorack, *96. Named 
by Hackel ; a prostrate form, with the inflorescence nearly — 

quite unbranched. Ir >-* t \ 

Bromm qiaanUm L., var. trr/hrus Syme (/>. trifiorus L.). 

Swamp at Easter Moy, Conan ™™ >;} 0Q • ~ B ' a °j! er N™*' 

Railway cutting, about 1* mile north of Dingwall, -106 ; na 

li. moUu L., var. glabrescen* Cosson. Glen Shee, in sown 

fields • 

Lastrea Filix-mas Prcsl, var. pal, area Moore. At 2600 ft., on 

a hill adjoining the Cairnwell, 89. — /,. mad* Brackenbndp. 

Ascendincr to Loch-nan-Eun, at the head of Glen Ihailneichc, 
*89 ; at 2500 ft., in small quantity. An interesting addition to the 

Berth-shire flora. M _ on 

Botrychium Lunarh, Sw. At 2700 ft., on Meall Odhar 89. 
KnulsHum variation Schleich. By the Lochsie, 89, at 1250 ft. 

Chart* fraailu Besv. Cauldshields Loch, 79 ; Loch Brotachan, 
92 at 2300 ft. Apparently the var. deUcaiula m both cases. -- C, 



or 



grass 



* 3 " SOME BRITISH SPECIES OF (ENANTHE. 

aspera Willd Cauldshields Loch and Long Moss, 79.-0. poly. 
muntha A Braun. Long Moss, 79.— C. contraria Kuetz. Abun- 
dant on the south side of Rescobie Loch, 90. It is likely to be 
already recorded from this station.-C. vulgaris L. A small and 
very dense form, growing on mud, was met with on the border of 
Long Moss, 79. Mr. Bennett says that it resembles the form 
called montana by Braun. 



SOME BRITISH SPECIES OF CENANTBE, 

By Arthur Bennett, F.L.S. 

are aware ot the difficulty there was some years ago in elucidating 
the three species of this genus standing 7 in the 8th ed of 1 f 

and (E iMchenahi Gmel. From the publication of the 1st eri of 
Babmgton's Manml (1843) wrong naming preva led and i was 
ojdy by the united efforts of Mr. Ball,* Prof. Babington" and Mr 

obiated Mr V^/ anythmg Hke & fair kn0wled S e <>'«** ™ 
obtained. Mr. E. Lees's S paper contained, with some addition^ 

information, so many mistakes, that it can hardly be placed n the 

S^STtE*? fS I' 11 "' 8 ' a,th r gh h& had We "er mean 
ot aiming at the truth, having gathered all three. 

It may be of some interest to take a retrospective dance at ih« 
naming of these plants In 1ft49 p m f p„i . *p' , ' lv giance at the 

existing as to he^nam; SkfLSZ?*** ^ The doub ' 
who su-ested PhZif ft? /i WaS e , x P ressed ^ Mr. Watson, 
;W ., tt > .T** "• 14 ) tlle ^me of (E. Smithii. it it ' 



edanift 



(E. silaifolia 



W - - — — —— 

peucedanifolia 



i[T a ! ( { l 851) ? Ch , an S e is mad * to ®. sil,,* 



STpeS th° e t't' e a dlon of B^ SfflV* » «*** * 

followed by the remark « T^T*2 fthethre 1 e > Wlt k two varieties ; 
depend on soil LdStuationffti^ 11068 - have been shown to 
stent differences have hZ ' - ♦ 5 Sa T- tlme ' rather mo ™ con- 
although even^e in^^^ ^ 



<}■: 




' A»» Nat m,L, iy., (m . ih f| . 



'J 



m Uonton Jour, Bo, iii. „ ( 1844) ; P^,, , ^ n 



§ J. c. ii. 854i 



SOME BRITISH SPECIES OF (ENANTHE. 237 

be considered rather as marked varieties than as true species." 
Mr. Watson's remark (Compend. Cyb. Brit. 78) seems the fittest 
comment on this passage : — " The comprehensive knowledge of the 
general botanist is not sufficiently precise ; the precise knowledge 
of the local botanist is not sufficiently comprehensive. " 

In the 8th ed. of Hooker & Arnott's British Flora (1860) we 
have (E. pimpinelloides L., (E. Lachenalii Gmel., and (E. silaifolia 
Bieb., the last with the synonym " (E. peiicedanifolia Sibth. (non 
Poll.)/' In Babington's Manual, 8th ed. (1881), the last plant 
stands as (E. silaifolia Bieb.?"; in Hooker's Student's Flora, ed. 3 
(1884), it is styled CE. peitcedanifolia (Poll.). 

Nyman (Sylloye, 1854, p. 155) gives our English plant under 
" (li. peiicedanifolia Poll."; and in his Conspectus, p. 298 (1879), he 
places the English and Irish plant under the same name. 

The object of this note is to put on record the opinions of two 
excellent botanists on this particular plant, as represented by the 
series sent them consisting of examples grown in my garden from 
Surrey roots; showing the plant from the seed-leaves to the per- 
fectly ripe fruit, and the decayed winter state. 

Maximowicz wrote on April 7, 1889 : — " I have examined your 
(E. silaifolia, and could not find any stable differences from the 
continental plant, of which we have lots of specimens from very 
different European countries. Generally the continental plant has 
shorter and a little broader leaflets, but some garden specimens 
from Germany have as long and narrow ones as your British plant. 
All the rest is identical, however, the fruit excepted, which I never 
saw so broad and with such broad prominent ribs as yours have. 
But in breadth and length the parts do vary a good deal, but the 
ribs remaining always narrower, as in your plant." 

Br. R. Schumann, of the Berlin Herbarium, wrote on March 
10th last : — " Regarding the umbelliferous plant, I completely agree 
with your determination ; after having carefully examined it, 1 can 
find no difference from (Enanthe silaifolia M. B., of which we have 
a type communicated us by Steven." 

As regards the three plants as at present named by our botanists, 
I find that they are rarely now mixed (by names) one with the 
other. As to their differences, I have had all three growing for 
many years. At the time I write (March 11th), silaifolia has 
abundance of radical leaves, while pimpinelloides has made no sign 
of appearing, and does not usually do so until the end of the 
month. Lachenalii I lost when moving to my present home, but 
I think its radical leaves appeared about the same time as silaifolia, 
or perhaps a little later. Between silaifolia and pimpinelloides there 
is abundance of difference ; in the first, the radical leaves, on first 
appearing, grow strictly upright from the ground, only inclining as 
they grow older ; in pimpinelloides, they begin, directly they have 
pushed through the ground, to spread by a very peculiar gyrate 
growth, the apex of the leaves representing the spokes of a wheel, 
with the leaf- segments very close together, and pressed close to the 
ground. They only resemble the detached leaf in English Botany, 
t. 594 (ed. 8), after some weeks, 



238 NOTES ON THE FLORA OF CO. ARMAGH. 



The first radical leaves of either silaifolia or pimpinelloides are 
not shown on the E. B. plate. (E. silaifolia will be in flower 
sometimes by May 20th* to June 20th. (E. pimpinelloides in culti- 
vation I have never seen earlier than July 10th. Lachenalii I have 
not seen in flower before July, but in the Flora of Dorset, "June to 
October" is given. I hope to sow seeds of all three at one time, 
and note their differences in the first year's growth. 

I ought to add that Grenier (in a letter to Dr. Boswell in 1858) 
refers our plant to (E. peucedamfolia Poll. On this I may perhaps 
add my own opinion. In the Kew Herbarium there is a specimen 
from Schultz, which seems to me to exactly agree with the peucedani- 
folia of Pollich, and comparing ours with this I cannot make it 
agree, hut would name our plant silaifolia M. Bieberstein, Fl. 
Taur. Cau*. iii. p. 232 (1819). 

Finally, I do not believe that any botanist could grow these 
three plants for several years, carefully watching them at all 
stages, and regard them as one species, even from a Linnean 
standpoint. 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF COUNTY ARMAGH. 

By R. Lloyd Praeger, B.E., M.R.I. A. 

Armagh is a rather small county, with an area of 512 square 
miles, lying in the north-eastern portion of Ireland. With the 
exception of its south-eastern corner, where it borders the narrow 
estuary of the Newry river for a few miles, it is entirely an inland 
area. Its northern boundary is the southern shore of Lough Nea^h 
the largest sheet of inland water in the British Wanda, and lo°ng 
known as the home of several interesting and extremely rare plants 
Armagh forms the most easterly part of the tenth botanical district 
of Cybele Hibemiea, which also includes the counties of Tyrone 
Fermanagh, Monaghan, and Cavan. ' 

There is a variety of geological formations in Armagh, and 

these have a due effect in their respective areas, both on the 

physical features and on the flora. In the north, stretching aloii" 

the Lough Neagh shores, there is a thick deposit of lacustrine clays 

of Older Tertiary age; this low-lying area is now covered with 

extensive peat-bogs. South of this, to the eastward, a tongue of 

lertmry basalts protrudes into the county from the basaltic plateau 

01 the north-east, while westward is a corresponding tongue of 

Carboniferous limestone, the north-eastern extremity of the great 

central limestone plain of Ireland, bringing with it a number of 

limestone-loving species. Rocks of Lower Silurian age hold sway 

over the centre and south-west of the county ; here, as on the 

limestone and basaltic areas, the surface is generally undulating, 

fertile and well tilled. In the south-east lies a mass of ancient 

granites, basalts, and porphyries, which rise in rugged, barren, 



* This early spring it is flowering on May 11th. 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF CO. ARMAGH. 239 

heath-clad hills, with flat stretches of poor land between ; the 
highest of these hills is Slieve Gullion (1893 ft.), famous in Irish 
romance as the scene of marvellous adventures, and as the home 
of dread magicians and of frightful monsters. 

The flora of County Armagh had not in past years received a 
large amount of attention from local botanists, and, though a 
number of records of rare plants existed, they were the result of 
desultory rather than of systematic search. It appeared, therefore, 
especially in view of the approaching publication of a new edition 
of Cybele Hibernica, that a botanical survey of the county was 
desirable, and with this object I devoted a three- weeks' holiday last 
season to a rapid investigation of its phanerogamic flora. For the 
full list of plants obtained, and their stations, the reader is referred 
to the pages of the Irish Xaturalist (January- August, 1893) ; in the 
present notes I wish merely to indicate the more interesting features 
of the flora, to point out the effect of varying penological conditions, 
and to briefly compare the Armagh flora with that of adjoining 
areas. 

The total number of plants found in the county, omitting those 
whose claim to be considered native is more than doubtful, is 616. 
There is a poverty of maritime and montane species ; the former is 
of course to be expected ; as regards the latter, the scantiness of 
the upland and alpine flora is remarkable, considering the elevation 
of the southern hills. Out of forty-seven Irish plants of Highland 
type, only four occur in Armagh, and none of them are confined to 
alpine situations. Galium boreale inhabits only the shores of Lough 
Neagh (50 ft. elevation) ; Vaccinium Vitis-idtEa is recorded from the 
northern bogs (50-100 ft.), and grows also on the summit of Slieve 
Gullion (1893 ft.) ; Sehujinella a)>ino$a ranges from 700 ft. upwards; 
and Isoetes lacustris in lakes from 200 to 444 ft. Not a single 
Hawkweed (excepting of course the ubiquitous H. Pilosdla) was 
found in the county, although at least fourteen species inhabit the 
adjoining granite hills of Mourne. Of Mr. Watson's Atlantic type, 
Co. Armagh possesses only five out of forty-one Irish species — ■ 

Sedum ant/HciiM, Cotyledon I'mbilicus, Pinguicnla lusitanica, Lastrea 
(Emilia, Hymenophyllum tunbridyenw. Out of eighteen Irish Ger- 
manic plants, one only, Orchis pyramidalis, grows in the county. 

Armagh may conveniently be divided into five botanical regions, 
defined by physical or geological conditions, and characterised by 
the presence or absence of certain plants: — (1) Lough Neagh and 
connecting waters : includes the shores of Lough Neagh, and the 
banks of the Bann, Newry Canal, Blackwater, and Ulster Canal. 
CiciUa, (Knanthe jistulosa, BuUnnus, and iSityittana are abundant 
throughout these waters, all of which are in direct communication 
with Lough Neagh, and, with the exception of a single station for 
Cicutit, none of the species mentioned are found in any other lakes 
or rivers in the county. (2) Northern bogs : embraces the extensive 
bogs which cover the flat district lying along the southern margin 
of Lough Neagh. Confined to this region, and occurring in some 
abundance therein, are Drosera anylica, D. intermedin, Yacvinium 
Qjcycoccos, Rhynchospora alba, Osmunda regalia; Ulex Gtdlii is con- 



NOTES ON THE FLOBA OF CO. ARMAGH. 

spicuously absent. (8) Limestone region : embraces the Carboni- 
ferous limestone area m the N.W., and the adjoining patch of New 
Red Sandstone which yields a similar flora. Carduus acanMoiZ 
Verruca Anarjallis Labium album, Orchis pyranndaUs, Jmcus^laZZ 

5 a ft' are cha racteristic of this district, most of them bein- 
abundant here, and all of them very rare in, or absent 1 £ 

Centra 1 2d tt P S *^~ *^ over Yhe whol 
wd 1H M fl P ° rtl0n !i ° f thG C0Unty ; surface adulating and 
?« I fl; T ^ eneral \ « ni »teresting, but it was here* that 

fZ)LT?r Jm WaS obtained - Lepidium SmUhn, unknown 
further north is common on this area ; Linaria vulJris becomes 
much more frequent; Ule* Ga/lU haunts the higher grounds 
Uromca An^a/lis and poppies are conspicuously absent • and Sflora 

whn?'"' f2SiT /0r ' a , nd <**•"****» «A whic are somT 

GfeW J « ? ; r am ° ng th6Se ai ' e «**» Ww« J^ 

extension of this formation in *r f a J V • , on the 

nmnatus and Orchii nnrm»i,i„j;. Juu ,. m . 01e » ^nuncuhis 

I have nothin^f add to mv?^f. fif"*^" ; ™P<*«ng which 
the latter again th eeaZ T^r"? 3 ' CXCep ' lhat J S^ 6 ^ 

Nation ^2f iC'^ISE ^tt~£ 



IN MEMORY OF ROBERT HOLLAND. 241 

for the present to say that it had been found in five stations 
altogether— two on the Co. Antrim shores of the lake, one in 
Derry, and two in Tyrone. In three of these stations the plant 
appears to be now extinct ; in a fourth it is rapidly becoming so ; 
and in the fifth it occurs extremely sparingly. It was therefore 
with feelings of much satisfaction that I found it growing in the 
greatest profusion in a damp meadow on the margin of Lough 
Neagh, in the extreme north-east corner of Co. Armagh. It 
abounded here over an area of perhaps a couple of acres, among 
Phraymites, Lythrum Salicaria, and Lysimachia vulgaris, growing 
from two to three feet high ; in a space of a few square yards 
I gathered two hundred stems ; the greater portion of these speci- 
mens have since been distributed through the two Exchange Clubs. 
Among the other more interesting additions to the flora of 
Armagh, and of district 10 of Cybele Hibernica, are Elatine hexandra, 
which grows with Isoetes lacustris in the lake where Car ex rhyncho- 
physa is found ; Rnbus Borreri, a great extension of its hitherto 
restricted range in the South of England ; Crepis biennis, a colonist 
at Armagh, where it was first observed by Mr. A. G. More some 



years ago ; 
of Killowen 



W 



bahiisiensis, abundant in estuary of Newry Eiver ; Potamogeton 



fiUf 



the latter 



m 



was in Ireland previously known only in lakes on the west coast ; 
Scirpus Savii, estuary of Newry Eiver ; Festnca sylvatica, woods at 
Tanderagee ; and Chara polyacantha, lake and pools at Loughgall, 
near Armagh. Other additions to the flora, which, though°not 
uncommon plants in England, are very rare or local in Ireland, are 

mlas cireinatm, Fumaria densiflora, Diplotcuis mnralis, Silene 
ra, Lepiyonum ritbrum, Galium Mollugo, CluvrophyUum temu- 
id Typha a?igustifolia. I had the satisfaction of re-finding 
several rare plants already recorded from the county ; of these, the 
best were Barbarea arcuata and B. intermedia, recorded from near 
Armagh by Mr. More nearly forty years ago, which still flourish in 
their old stations ; and Lathyrus palmtris, found some years ago by 
Eev. H. W. Lett on islets at the mouth of the Closet Eiver, in 
Lough Neagh, where I saw it in abundance, as well as on 'the 
banks of the same stream. 



IN MEMOEY OF EOBEET HOLLAND. 

It was in 1865 or 1866 that I made the acquaintance of Eobert 
Holland. I was then studying medicine at High Wycombe and 
devoting my leisure to British botany. Being anxious to see as 
many British plants as possible in a living state, I asked a 
correspondent, Mr. Leo H. Grindon, if he could send me Geum 



-ivale, which did not grow in our neighbourhood. He referred me 
to Mr. Eobert Holland, of Mobberley, who promptly sent me 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 31. [Aug. 1893.] R 



242 IN MEMORY OF ROBERT HOLLAND, 

specimens, with a friendly letter which was the foundation of our 
subsequent friendship. 

Robert Holland, although born at Peckham (on the 2nd of 
August, 1829), belonged to a well-known Cheshire family— that, 
indeed, of which Lord Knutsford is a member. His ancestor, 
William Holland, bought the Dam Head estate in 1650, and from 
that time until quite recently it has been in the possession of the 
family : it was there that I first visited him in the autumn of 1808. 
He had studied agriculture at Cirencester, under Prof. Buckman, 
and, at his father's death, had settled down to farming. Natural 
history, and especially botany, was the subject in which he took 
most interest; but he was a useful man in the village in many 
ways, and a true friend to its inhabitants. Mr. Leo Grindon and 
Mr. Joseph Sidebotham were his chief botanical companions, and 
his help is acknowledged by the former in the Manchester Flora, 
published in 1859. His knowledge of British plants was Ben- 
thamian rather than Babingtonian, but for many years he paid 
considerable attention to teratology, with which subject his few 
communications to this Journal (1871, 244 ; 1872, 267 ; 1882, 282; 
1884, 348) were connected. 

One result of my visit to Mobberley in 1868 was the most 
important work with which Mr. Holland's name is associated— the 
Dutumary of English Plant-names. At that time both of us were 
frequent contributors to Science- Gossip, in which periodical one of 
us had published an article on plant-names, and this was followed 
by many lists. We thought it would be well to bring these 
together, and the first announcement of this will be found in this 
Journal for 1869, p. 32. Our collection grew beyond our expecta- 
tions and the work was accepted by the English Dialect Society ; 
but it was not until 1878 that the first part made its appearance, 
!?"' e ™ e . tlmd ani1 concluding portion was not published until 
1886 It is unnecessary to refer to the amount of labour which a 
compilation of this kind involves, and Mr. Holland took his full 
share of it We have since been engaged upon a Supplement to 
the work, towards which Mr. Holland had made an important 
contribution ; and it is to be feared that his death will delay its 
completion. J 

Ai*W ^f^n ! lad a ™ marka ble knowledge of Cheshire customs, 
dialect and folk-lore. He contributed valuable notes to a volume of 

2*2 Z !' y J™ ^ hl - ch I compiled for the En B^ &»*<** 

r/, ! y , iV 88 °, ; an , d m 1885 the same So « iet y Published h.s 

tieZZ^Z \ Um ? '*? C0UHt y ° f Cheste '-> a «™* ad ™nce on 
thP ™ Jn?I , 7 e lossanes ' and full of curious information on 

of C^ Z ' l T& rhymeS , and proverbs > le 8e»ds, and folk-lore 
3 , H ' s ^tfrary style was remarkable for its simplicity: 

as a me,Tof etter **- V ^ ° f strai ^forward everyday Engl4 
che a tPr!nL? C0 T nve y^ ^eas. He frequently lectured in Man- 

w ith mtnll T?™ ° n P ,° PU ar and Scientific Wets connected 
ImlLZ i ° ry V and , alwa y s suc ceeded in interesting his 
nractS'kn i W f ext / eme] y fo »d of his garden, and had a good 
practical knowledge of agricultural matter! nn WMWh .„„„„„♦. i,« 



MR. J. G. BAKER, F.R.S 



243 



was appointed consulting botanist and examiner of seeds to the 

Cheshire Agricultural Society. 

In 1875 the prevailing agricultural depression and the expense 
attendant on bringing up a numerous family compelled Mr, Holland 
to leave Mobberley. He became agent to Sir Richard Brooke at 
Norton Priory, near Hal ton, — one of the places, naturally beautiful, 
which have been ruined and devastated by the noxious vapours 
given off by the chemical works of Widnes, that most desolate 
and hopeless of all manufacturing towns. In 1882 he went to 
Frodsham, where he remained until his death. He had for some 
time been suffering from heart disease, and his altered physique 
had been matter of regret to his personal friends ; but there seemed 
no reason to expect any serious result. But the end came very 
suddenly. On the 16th of July, Mr. Holland was talking to a 



signalman on the railway 



Acton Grange, when he fell to the 



ground, and on being raised, life was found to be extinct. Many 
besides the writer of this notice have lost in Robert Holland a genial 



companion and a true friend. 



James Britten. 



MR. J. G. BAKER, F.R.S. 




We trust that it may be very many years before it will become 
necessary to give in this Journal any estimate of the life-work of 
Mr. J. G. Baker, and that the record of such work may be far more 
lengthy than it is at present before it arrives at its close. But we 

think that many of our readers who have not the happiness of 

2- . . . . 



244 



FLOWERING 



knowing Mr. Baker personally, will be glad to have a sketch of the 
portrait by Mr. Joseph W. Forster, exhibited in the Royal Academy 
Exhibition of this year; and we therefore, by Mr. Blackburn's per- 
mission, reproduce the block given in his Academy Notes. Mr. 
Baker was among the contributors to the first number of this 
Journal, and for thirty years our pages have been enriched by 
papers from his prolific pen. 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 



COMPILED BY 



Peucedanum 



William A. Clarke, F.L.S 

(Continued from p. 152.) 



1562. "I 



™~™""" i "uiuiuaie J-., op. ±-i. ^45 1753). 1562. ' 
found a root of it at saynt Vincentis rock a litle from Bristow." 
lurn. n. 83, back. 

P. palustre Moench, Method. 82 (1784). 1778 "Inml.uli 
bus, prope Doncaster. D. Tofield."-Huds. ii 115 P 



sativum 



t( m, r; — ■ -— • »> ^uuii. i. vzen. n. i, y^O 1867 . 1562 

»r|2S $£&% to^ToO 1562 - 



"Ye wild 



D _— j- '^^o. — lurn. 11. »u. 

. gummifer Lam. Diet. i. 634 (178m 17Q« « t « j. 



in Bot. Arr. ed. 3, 290. 



-SMS^'AMfiSJS «"* £' 



(Cambs.).— R. C. C. 31. 



C. arvensis Huds. 7. 98 (1762 1666 «T~ * * , 3L 
O. nodosa Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2, i 192(177^ iroq t i 



Ger. em. 1023 (1633). 



Helix 



greci cisson v^ angliTy^Trrn!^' 1538 ' "^^ 



"On the 



En.dande.'t_Turn. Names Cv (5 ^ 1548 ' " Plentu0U8 *» 

Adoxa Moschatellina L. Sp. PI. 367 (nm lc;7n „ T 



. . ." a Tamils an Ell"; S ^ 2 ° 9 < 1753 )- 1538. « Sambuctu. 

■ugji. a n i,iaer tree .... vocatur."— Turn, Lib, 



il 



FIEST BECOEDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS* 245 

S. Ebulus L. Sp. PI. 209 (1753). 1548. " Groweth abrode 
in Cainbryge fieldes in great plentie."— Turn. Names, C vnj. 

Viburnum Opulus L. Sp, PI. 268 (1753). 1570. " In . . . 
An«liffl .... pratensibus udis convalliumque."— Lob. Adv. 444. 

V. Lantana L. Sp. PI. 268 (1753). 1570. " In . . . Anghae 
.... senticetis & sylvosis passim."— Lob. Adv. 436. " In the 
chalkie groundes of Kent, about Cobbam, Southfleete and Graves- 
end, and al the tract to Canterburie."— Ger. 1305. 

Linnsea borealis L. Sp. PI. 631 (1753). 1795. Found by 

Prof. James Beattie " for the first time in Britain m an old fir 
wood at Mearns, near Aberdeen," and exhibited at the Linnean 
Society, 2 June, 1795.— See Linn. Trans, iii. 333. 

Lonicera Periclymenum L. Sp. PL 173 (1753). 1548. 

" Wodbyne is commune in every wodde."— Turn. Names, F lj. 

Rubia peregrina L. Sp. PI. 109 (1753). 1562. "In the 

yle of Wyght" and " besyde Wynchester in the way to South- 
ampton."— Turn, ii. 118. " Mr. George Bowles found it growing 
wilde on Saint Vincents rock and out of the cliffes of the rocks of 
Aberdovie in Merionethshire."— Ger. em. 1120 (1633). 

Galium boreale L. Sp. PI. 157 (1753). 1670. "Pfope 

Orton, Winandermere et alibi in Westmorelandia." — Bay, Oat. 268. 
G. Cruciata Scop. Fl. Cam. ed. 2, i. 100 (1772). 1597. 
I found the same growing in the Churchyarde of Hampsteed 

neere London also it groweth in the Lane or highway beyond 

Charleton, a small village by Greenwich." — Ger. 965. 

G. verum L. Sp. PL 107 (1753). 1548. " Gabon 

named in the North countrey Maydens heire."— Turn. Names, 

D ij, back. . - ■ . 

G. erectum Huds. i. 56 (1762). 1762. " In pascuis montosia 
humidiusculis."— Huds. I.e. " Heydon Common, Norfolk. Mr. 
Bryant."— With. Bot. Arr. ed. 2, 152 (1787). , 

G. Mollugo L. Sp. PL 107 (1753). 1576. " Mollugo vulgatior 
herbariorum .... Collibus incultis & cretuceia agrorum margmibus 
.... Anglise plurima."— Lob. Stirp. Hist. 465. 

G. saxatile L. Sp. PL 107 (1753). 1634. " Galium album 
minus, Tab., in montosis."— Merc. Bot. 37. 

G. sylvestre Poll. Fl. Palat. i. 151 (1776). 1762. "In 
montibus prope Kendal, in comitatu Westmorelandico."— Huds. 

i. 57 (pusilium). 

G. palustre L. Sp. PL 105 (1753). 1632. Johns. Kent, 24. 

G. uliginosum L. Sp. PL 106 (1753). 1724. " On the Lower 
Bog at Chisselhurst. Mr. J. Sherard."— Bay, Syn. iii. 225. " This 
I found on ye bogs at Hampstead."— Buddie m Sloane Herb. cxxi. 
fol. 2 and 10 (cue. 1700). 

G. anglicum Huds. ed. 2, 69 (1778). 1690. " Found at 
Hackney on a Wall," by W 7 illiam Sherard.— Bay, Syn. i. 237 

(Aparine minima). 

G. VaillantiiDC.FLFr.iv.263(1815). 1844. Discovered in 
Sept. 1844 by G. S. Gibson near Saffron Walden.— Phytol. i. 1123. 

G. Aparine L. Sp. PL 108 (1753). 1538. " Auparine 
vocatur ab anglis Goosgyrs aut Gooshareth."— Turn. Lib. 



246 FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 

G. tricorne Stokes in With. Bot. Arr. ed. 2, 158 (1787). 
1663. In Cambs " Inter segetes passim "— K. C. C. App. hi. 6. 

Asperula odorata L. Sp. PI. 103 (1753). 1568. " Wood 

rose or wood rowel .... A short herbe of a span long, four square 

and smal, about y« which growe certaine orders of leaves, certayne 

spaces goynge betwene, representing some kindea of rowelles of 

sporres, whereof it hath the name in English."— Turn. Herb. iii. 25. 

1597. "Under hedges and in woods almost everywhere."— Ger. 
966. 

A. cynanchica L. Sp. PI. 104 (1753). 1632. Johns. Kent, 38. 



arvensis 



. , ■-.---—- -*-• - •• *"■" v A ■ *«v 1548. "A rare 

herbe whiche I could never see but once in Englande and that was 
a litle from Syon" (Middx.).— Turn. Names, A vij, back (Alysson 

u V, m Dorsetshire and about Welles in Summerset- 
shy re. "—Turn, i. 36 (1551). 

Valeriana dioica L. Sp. PI. 31 (1753). 1597. "In moist 

places hard to river sides."-Ger. 918 (Fig. 917, 3). - In humidis 
pratis & sylvis.' —Johns. Merc. Bot. 76 (1634). 

V. officinalis L. Sp. PI. 31 (1753). 1548. "About water 
sydes and m the moyst plasshes," &c— Turn. Names, F iii. 

Valenanella olitoria Poll. Fl. Palat. i. 30 (1776). 1570 

Sfepe nobis visa et enata in Angli a ."_Lob. Adv. 319. 1597.' 

Wilde in the come fieldes."— Ger. 243. 

V.enocarpaDesv.Journ. Bot. ii. 314 (1809). 1865. "Between 

Henley Castle and Barnard Green, Worcestershire, collected by Mr. 

E. Lees . m 1845. "-Syme, E. Bot. iv. 244. The plant from 

the Ormeshead N Wales (Hook. Fl. Brit. ed. 1, 16) was EdES 

Mr^' FnrtS ,n° 1S ' NC V 49 ( 1810 >- 1835. '« Gathered by 
xvii.^ gar ' m Essex '"- Woods in Trans. Linn. Soc. 

DC 7imv° 3 1 ?oa' *?t D T' J ° Urn ,- B0t - h 20 ( 1814 )- ?> Auricula 
ferri to S tnpv ?1' ■ ? ? e ?, m fields befcween 0re and &* foot 

he ^r "h? 1 S n/ A n K ?\ M -° in , the third or fourth field °» 
S Alhfnc ■ • w JJ le ^°. ad S° m 8 from London-Coney towards 
bt. Albans m Hertfordshire; Mr. Dale."-Ray, S Y n iii 201 

24^1835^' C ° rnWa11 - ReV ' R - T ' Bre -"-Hoo y k. K e d 1', 

CoIJrXf Fn ^ lat - l 30(1776) - 1804 ' " Fou » d iu 
1385 y ° Ster ' Jun " in ^^."-Sm. Fl. Brit. iii. 

■^^T^^^TS dicitur • • ■ • angLum 

^ C&bl Z*^- SP - PL ^ (1753)^ b 56 A 8 dV '. 8 Tt devil's 
in meddower^^aine ^SK^Si * ""* ^ " 

temLfa^tTK^tt iLi" ^ } 629 - " Scabio8a 
(1507). * 8 ' But see fi *' and &»m Ger. 582, 2 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 247 

S. arvensis L. Sp. PL 99 (1753). 1568. "Groweth amongest 

* * * *~* ^-^ 



y e corne." — Turn. iii. 68. 

rium cannabinum 



1548. 



" Groweth about watersydes and hath leaves lyke Hemp."— Turn. 

Names, H ii, back. ,-„« lc » ,- 

Solidago Virgaurea L. Sp. PI. 880 (1758). 1570. " Angl.ic 

Septentrionalibns : nemorosis et saltuosis opacis. — l.ob. 

Adv. 125. " In Hampsteed wood," &c. — Ger. 349. 

Bellis perennis L. Sp. PI. 886 (1753). 1538. "Belhs . . . 

est ilia herba quam voca.nus a Dasy."— Turn Lib. " In North- 
umberlande men call thys herbe a banwurt."— Turn, l. 31 (loalj. 

Aster Tripolium L. Sp. PI. 872 (1753). 1570. " Scatent 
. . . liac Norbonica, et Anglica littora & fluminum crepidines. 
Lob. Adv. 123. "By the fort against Gravesend" (Kent), &c— 

^A Linosyris Bernh. Syst. Verz. Erfurt. 151 (1800). 1813. 
"Discovered in September, 1812, by the Rev. Charles liolbecli, of 
Farnborough, Warwickshire, ... on the rocky cliff of Berryhead, 

Devon."— E. B. 2505. ■ - ■ T 

Erigeron acre L. Sp. PL 863 (1753). 1632. Johnson, 
« Kent,' p. 38 (" Conyza coerulea acris "). "I first observed it . . . 
by Farmingham in Kent."— Johnson, Ger. em. 485. 

E. alpinum L. S P . PI. 864 (1753). 1790. Found by James 
Dickson in 1789 on Ben Lawers.— Dicks. Crypt. Fasc. n. 29 ; and 
Trans. Linn. ii. 288. ,.„,, -_ co 

Filago germanica L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1311 1762). 1562. 

•'« I have sene the herbe ... in some places of Englande. — 1 urn. 
ii. 11, back (with a figure). ,„>.« T -> j 

F. apiculata G. E. Sm. Phytol. ii. 575 (1846). 1846. found 

by Rev. G. E. Smith " at Cantley, Rossington, &c, near Doncaster. 

~ P R spathulata Presl, Del. Prag. 99 (1822) 1848. Found 
(1843-4) by Mr. G. S. Gibson near Saffron Walden, Essex, and 
described (as F. J „$8i*i).— Vhytol. ui. 216. 

F. minima Fr. Nov. ed. 1, 99 (1822 . 1632 Johnson 
♦ Kent ' p. 81. " About Gamliugay " (Cambs).— R. C. C. 64 (1660). 

F. gallica L. Sp. EL ed. 2 1312 (1762). 1696. "Among 
corn in sandy grounds about Castle-Heveningbam, m Essex, plenti- 
fully Mr Dale." — Ray, Syn. ii. 85. 

Antennaria dioica Gaertn. Fruct. ii. 410, 1. 167 (1791). 1641. 
" Gnaphalium montanum album."— Johns. Merc. Bot.parsalt. p. 22. 
" Neer Donkester. Mr. Stonehouse."— How, Phyt. 48 (1650). 

Gnaphalium uliginosum L. Sp. PL 856 (1753). 1597. 

" Upon drie sandie banks." — Ger. 518. 

G. sylvaticum L. Sp. PL 856 (1753). 1548. " Centunculus 
.... Chafweede .... called in Yorkeshyre cudweede."— Turn. 
Names, C i. " Tertio a Londino miliari opacte sylvse clivus multam 
all t , cis Tamesim."— Lob. Adv. 202 (1570). 

G. norvegicum Gunn. Fl. Norveg. (1772). 1777. As a 
variety of O. sylvaticum, occurring *■ upon the highland moun- 
tains.''— Lightf. FL Scot. 472. See Sm. FL Brit, ii. 870. 



248 

SHORT NOTES. 

supinum 



g a a=wiM£* « j»s .ar-as- 



Helenium 



villarum & pr*diorum Angl?aL"-Lob Tdy V^T »* 12^ 
as you go from Dunstable to Puddlehill » L f< 7ln %t fieldes 

I. Conyza DC. Prod, v 464 n«qn ikq^'V 6 ^ (1597 ^ 
in the West parts of England ""-Ger G47 ? ' dim ' S plaoes 

Moo^l™ ^48* on thf? (175 ?V 1865 ' Found by Dr. D. 
Journ.Bot 1805, 33i. * ^ ° f Lou * h Der o> Co. Galway. 



rithmoides 



Marsh in 1^ X of SWv ' ^ (1753) ^ 1597 ' " Ll the **** 

Sherland house/'-Ger 428 ^ g ° fr ° m the En « a fenie to 

SgS-^^ (1791). 1597. 

Tuthill fields, &c.»-Ger. em .482 (1688 JameS Lis Paike ' 

P. vulgaris Gaertn. Fruct. h 461 nfoi » 1R *« T 
greyn ara et fossis, altero aKi ,^ 157 °- " ^ Beiiard 
"At Islington by London ' ? -Gef 39?° la P lde '"- L ^- Adv. 145. 



1570. "InAnglia 



Bidens cernua L. Sp. pj 8 32 n?«\ 

ubique udorutn, pra>serthn Londoni ^S' A<£ V5, ~ 

B. tripartita L. So PI «q« /i4*^7 , Adv ' 227 - 

p-V^^^c^M^) 1629 ' JoWl ^^"V 

Achillea. TVTilla^n -r ,. _! n - > 



Millefolium 



A. Ptarmica L. Sp PI 8Q« /i ^ Urn ; Llbellus ' 

great fields next ad&n g t i ^H ' 1597 ' "I* the three 
Kentish towne," & C .-Ger 484 ge lleere Loudon called 



candidissim 



•; At a Place TaM M ™1 X JL£ % f 61 < 17i «>- 15". 
He sea side."-Ger. 618 * S from Col ^e s tcr, neere uuto 



Anthem 



fields oeere unto t.ZZjL^V"^- 1597. " I„ Come 

A. arvensisL. Sn pi sni/i^ir . 

Lond. Pecldiam Ke?ds."lp° et ( g h %. »» " White Ox eye. 

A. nobilis L Sn pi on 7 ,7 „ ""'• xlx - 8. 
pIeet le ."_ Tur „. Names, B 1 ? lmdsle J r [Hounslow] ] leU , i„ great 



(To be continued.) 




SHOUT NOTES. 



noticed one plant, which a tl£ *""'•'"'"* **«••* I oof; 

carmine flowers, it was no! rl d ? y ««utiou by its brieht 

Cscm II. Se. tW?^" not ne « -W dwelliog-house or garde u?_ 



SHORT NOTES. 249 



HlPPOPHAE 



This occurs in the church- 



yard on Stert Point, at the mouth of the Parret, below Bridg- 
water, Somerset, where it was introduced by the Rev. H. A. 
Daniel by seed from Ireland, some fifteen years ago, as a plant 
which would stand the extremely exposed situation. On the Point 
it has not spread beyond the churchyard, where the shrubs are far 
larger than the Lincolnshire specimens, but it has spread to Burn- 
ham Links, the sandhills forming which are immediately across the 
estuary, and with more than a mile of water between. I found it 
growing there in a few places, and evidently not long established, 
in September, 1892 ; but as it has been recognised by a member of 
the club who knows its habits on the Lincolnshire sandhills, it will 
probably be extirpated as most undesirable on the golf links. 
The seeds must have been carried by birds from the few shrubs at 
Stert, as there is no land communication for very many miles, and 
that only in one direction, through Bridgwater itself, and a long 
barren island in the estuary completely prevents any cross set of 
current directly from one shore to the other. Fieldfares and 
thrushes, which feed largely on the yellow berries in hard winters 

on the east coast, have been the most probable vehicle. — C. W. 
Whistler. 

Azolla caroliniana. — About a week ago I was fortunate enough 
to find Azolla caroliniana fruiting abundantly in the open air, in a 
friend's garden at Ashford, Co. Wicklow. The plants were 
received by my friend about two years ago from France, with 
Nymphreas and other aquatics, and were placed in a pond in the 
open. They multiplied with great rapidity, and had to be cleared 
out almost in cartloads, having become a perfect nuisance. Some 
were recently placed in a shallow, peaty pool, which with the dry 
weather has been reduced to a few inches in depth of water. Here 
every well-developed individual is producing inicrosporangia in 
abundance ; the macrosporangia I have not yet detected. — Green- 
wood Pim. 

Middlesex Plants. — It may be worth noting that Sagittaria 
sagUtafolia and Potomogeton pectinatus are both exceedingly abun- 
dant this year in the Eegent's Canal, near Cumberland Basin, 
Regent's Park. The locality is not mentioned for either plant in 
Trimen and Dyer's Flora of Middlesex. — Alfred W. Bennett. 

Ruppia spiralis in W. Kent. — This species, not given for either 
division of the county in Topographical Botany, was found in ditches 
at Port Victoria, on June 28th, by Captain Wolley Dod and myself. 
— Edward S. Marshall. 

Eriophorum gracile in Dorset. — During a recent walk from 
Corfe Castle to Studland, in company with the Rev. E. F. Linton, 
we came across Eriophorum gracile in some abundance. The first 
specimen, found by Mr. Linton, was growing, as usual, in about 
two feet of water ; a little further along the road, however, I found 
the plant in considerable abundance in a spongy bo^ which is 
usually too soft to bear treading upon, but which during the recent 
dry season has become sufficiently firm to walk across. The plant 



2 5° SHORT NOTES. 



was easily recognisable at a distance by its tall, slender stems 
and smaller tufts of hairs, which seem regularly truncate at the 
larger end like an artist's badger brush. This is, I believe, the 
first record of the occurrence of the plant in Dorsetshire. On the 
slope of the chalk down between Corfe Castle and Studland I found 



ifolia 



mi • i n , i i T1 \i — V7" ^— "ov vli iuuoc uiiaiJi s&ones. 

-E M Holme" ® recorded for this count y- 



RoMANZOFFIANA 



oruiAHiUiB ROMANZOFFIANA IN Co. LONDONDERRY.— On July 17tll 

I was greatly interested by receiving for identification from my 
correspondent Mrs. Leebody, of Londonderry, a fresh specimen of 

bpiranthes Romanzoffiana, collected near Kilrea. f!n n OT „, t„ 



Co. Derry. In 



.i/ - 7 .v«,.v» uu "tan -ivineti, »_iu. juerrv. 
response to a request for particulars respecting this important find 
rtv ^^ T n f ^ : - << . On July 15th, while collecting plants on 
he Derry bank of the river Bann, near Kilrea, I was struck wit 

A ZdZf f Pla ? tWhi f h S6emed t0 be one ofTeS^ 
A second glance showed me, however, that it was something with 

which I was unfamiliar, and I gathered the specimens, of which I 

iragiant. Ihe land m the vicinity of the place where I found the 
plant consists of worn-out and long disused bog, as is proved by 
the portions of bog-oak projecting into the riv£ It anmren.lv 
^^«!*&«* P-ture or melwT^ 



T fnnnri m n~ a i i j "v"v na J iueiiwcai wun me plants 

Lk L *SL r/t' aS ' Je f, r ' , eMe f ' in ha ™8 a ^^a 

„i u i P 7 ' »° d ,i»r« with less inrolled margins both of 

po^ bM Thr, S iZ? ld be "Ti by , its &°™S * • S exposed 
position. Ihe situation in which the plant grows in Derrv nl,l 

IrTagt b S' nfw T '? *?" '? " lat ^ *KS 
arniagn. ihe new station lies about 48 miles north of tl,» 

Bann° Then 1*' t " n , d W m ■ sitUated in «•• ™'« sLea of & 
NorTh Cne P r SI'S »? "- ** « *• bogs o, 



West Antrim.— JJ. Lloyd Praeger 



eluded J, communis L. and J. nana WilM ov><i +1 i\ / 

I should be „„£ inchned t0 S pTi tas alarLtvt 8 ,^ ■ " nd 
Nymantes in hie Co ^ cto R {LV^tfifiSES 

P^£^» zSEJV"- (P - 16 V In Mr - Har ™y Gibson's 



BEITRAGE ZUR MORPHOLOGIC UND PHYSIOLOGIE, ETC, 251 

Prof. Schmitz's remarks on the specimen sent him, and that the 
sentence ought to read:— "Prof. Schmitz, to whom I sent a 

specimen, gave his opinion on it in the following words : ' Der 

Thallusbau erinnert sehr an Nemastoma? polmata, Harv. Phyc. 
Aust. 262, so dass wohl beide Arten zu derselben Gattung gehoren 
diirften^ doch gehoren sie meines erachteus keinenfalls zu Nema- 
stoma: " (The structure of the thallus reminds one very much of 
Nemastoma t palmata Harv. Phyc. Aust. 262, so that both species 
might very well belong to the same genus, but in my view they do 
not by any means belong to Nemastoma.) 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 
Beitriif/e zur Mvrpholoyie und PIrysiolt>;/ie der Pflanzenzelle. Herausgeg. 



t>~& 



von Dr. A. Zimmermann. 8vo. Bd. I. pp. 322; with 5 plates 
and 23 figures in the text. Tubingen, 1893. H. Laupp. 
14s. 



urn 



an 



various lengths, on the microscopic structure and contents of the 
plant-cell. For the greater number Dr. Zimmermann himself is 
responsible. Thus of the three "Hefts/' Nos. I. and II. are 
entirely his, while of the seven articles in No. III. he contributes 
four and C. Correns two, a shorter one on the alga Apiocystu 
Bmuniana Naeg., and a longer on the minute structure of the mem- 

i in the Chlorophycea and Floridea. Finally, K. Schips has a 
note on some cuticular formations in the epidermis of the fruit of 
the liliaceous plant, Rohdea japonica. 

The book begins with a brief historic note on plasma con- 
nection, in which Dr. Zinnnermann points out that while we owe 
the first published account to Tangl, it is evident from some notes 
and drawings found at Tubingen among Hofineister's effects, that 
the latter botanist had previously observed the perforation of the 
pit-closing membrane in the endosperm. The author thinks it 
an act of piety to make this more generally known, and therefore 
exactly reproduces Hofmeister's figures of sections of the endo- 
sperm of Phytelephas macrocarpa and Raphia tecdujera. 

This is followed by some facts about leucoplasts. In species of 
Tradescantia and Zebrina these bodies are not homogeneous, as has 
hitherto been supposed, but contain spherical bodies in greater or 
less quantity, which are designated provisionally " Leukosomen: 1 

Leucosomata, according to present knowledge, are, however, not 
widely distributed. The author finds them in the epidermis, 
mechanical tissue, and parenchyma of the leaf-trace bundles, but 
not of the cauline, of Tradescantia albi flora, 1\ discolor,' and 
Zebrina pendula, whereas in the common species of Tradescantia 
and Commelina the leucoplasts are homogeneous, and never contain 
leucosomata. He thinks they are of proteid nature, standing as 
regards function in the same category with the crystalline proteid 



252 



BEITRAGE ZUR MORPHOLOGIE UND PHYSIOLOGIE, ETC. 



contents of the chromatophore, the physiological significance of 
which is, however, not yet clear. Experiments only gave negative 
results. Absence of light had no effect; after fifteen days of 
darkness a plant of Tmdescantia albiftora showed no alteration in 
the form or size of the leucosomata, and cultures in solutions, both 
rich and poor in nitrogenous food-stuff, were equally barren of result. 
In the third article, on the chroniatophores in chlorotic leaves, 
the same observer shows that such leaves always contain sharply 
defined chromatophores which on treating with iron solution 
become chloroplasts, growing considerably as well as becoming 
green. In the case of strong chlorosis it was often only possible to 
make out the chromatophores by aid of suitable stains. As 
regards capacity for breaking up carbonic acid and forming starch, 
he finds that in relatively strong chlorosis the chromatophores are 
not only unable to assimilate the carbonic acid of the atmosphere, 
but will not even form starch when supplied with a sugar solution ; 
at any rate, will only do so in a very limited degree. 
,. The fourth article deals with the demonstration, properties, 
distribution and function of the granula, a new structure discovered 
in the assimilation tissue when investigating the leucoplasts of 
1 radescantm ducolor, and revealed by subsequent research in verv 
many other plants of the most diverse families. The granula is 
sphenca in form or , in one case, the young leaves of Polypodiwn 
trades, drawn out into rod-like structures. In size it is considerably 
SlhM"?- f clll0 /?P Ia / ts ' but ™™s according to the species 

™ .f WI * e l T\\ and 1S 0ften so sma11 that very good objectives are 
necessary for its detection. The number in a cell is also very variable, 
and the position is not the same in all cases ; rarely are they regularly 
distributed over the whole primordial utricle, but mostly occm near 

Fmm a Tw >f li0re !' ° r Som T etimes ^ped up round the nucleus. 
tlnrL J 0bser Y atl0ns on the chemical reaction Dr. Zimmermann 

2S * J \ 8 T nh mUSt COn8ist onl ^ of P™ fc eids. It is of very 
wide distribution, occurring in many families of Dicotyledons 
and Monocotyledons, in CtypUmma 'elegant among the ConiS 

ferns T;r^r tWtrt T ng the CyCads > and ta ^genera of trtm 
tans. Its presence in the mosses is uncertain, and in al-® con- 
taining pyrenoids it could not be found. The only otl er al*a in- 

w^tund'in tV P r S ° f Ckam < J*" ^ -unS a c!umps 
sTdeLSe sle a S ? eamil JS cytoplasm, which from their con- 
the TinuTa Ac , T^ fo ™> «e probably not identical with 

evfdence of ,>. • ^ fimCtl ? n ' its wide distribution seems 
evidence of its importance in the chemistry of the organism 

probably m connection with the formation or travelling of TroteS' 

conten sof t hisr ark ?- ^ i glVe tlie reader some idea ^&e 

that in two jt St 7 VOkme ' For the rest we will only say 

loid Sb occ„Trtn,!f r ' Zlmmermailn d^cusses the protein crystai- 

h o'uili the nlnnf ^ T° US Pa ? S ° f the cell > and * distribution 

cell win He 1 kmg ?T \ and in ofcber fcwo t^ growth of the 
.ZTiL&.S? mSg!**« «*! on oif-plastids ; on 



ifoliiis 



epideimis 



BRITISH FOREST TREES. 253 

secretion of sphaeroids of calcium phosphate in the cells of an un- 
determined species of Cyperus. 

We may add, in conclusion, that the text and illustrations are 
in every way satisfactory. A> R R 



British Forest Trees and their sylvicultural characteristics and treat- 

menu By John Nisbet, D. (Ec, of the Indian Forest Service. 
Macmillan & Co. Pp. 352, 8vo. Price 6s. net. 

Dr. Nisbet is undoubtedly justified in the suggestion in the 
Preface to this work that sylviculture is as yet but little under- 
stood in Britain. It may also be inevitable that such a work must 
at present "be, to a considerable extent, a compilation from the 
best German sources," and not "based on long experience in the 
treatment of forests in Britain"; but we are hardly prepared to 
admit that " fifteen years' active service in the teak forests of 
tropical Burma" is an altogether relevant test of the correctness 
of the scientific principles enunciated in Germany for the treat- 



ment of woodland in this country. 



fi 



the plantations are not quite so dense as they should be in order to 
attain the utmost outturn and the best development producible by 
the soil ; and secondly, that the importance of underplanting for 
the protection and improvement of the productive capacity of the 
soil is either not recognised, or at any rate not practically given 
effect to." These opinions he maintains, though "taking into 



consideration the damper insular climate of Britain, in which the 
soil is not so likely to deteriorate as on the inland forest tracts of 
the Continent." 

Even "the best German sources" of information seem any- 
thing but infallible, judging from the statements (p. 2) that the 
hornbeam was "introduced before the end of the fifteenth century," 
the juniper and. the holly "during the sixteenth," and the maple 
and buckthorn "during the seventeenth"; that England and Wales 
are " the richest countries in coal in the whole world " (p. 9) ; and 
that " ash, maple, sycamore and elm, require a moderate quantity 
of lime in the soil, and beech, hornbeam, oak, as also larch and 
Austrian pine, thrive best on soils that have at least some lime in 
their composition " (p. 31). 

The book contains much valuable matter as to the require- 
ments, treatment and dangers of each of our forest trees, though 
it might have been more convenient if this part of the work had 
been subdivided into chapters. There is, however, one important 
practical matter to which, although not purely botanical, we feel 
bound to refer, r/:., that the author, after very rightly laying down 
in his Preface the principle that sylviculture in Britain should rest 
on a sound financial basis, strongly advocates the planting of spruce. 
He does so apparently on the purely theoretical ground of its rate 
of growth in cubic contents ; but we cannot help suspecting that 
he is thinking of a soil somewhat superior to that usually devoted 
to woodland in England. What is, however, a more vital objection 



254 

BULBOUS IRISES. 



T ^i ga& £ -tw s brants 



Gr. S. BoULGER. 



#u/te Jn Ses . By Prof. Michael Foster Secretarv R« . 



We 



W. 5s. 



we did when I mono-ranhe Z.- n nebulbous Wses than 
twenty years a-o aS m thlS Journal more than 

what Lids good g mo r ; to £ <£Yll "'i ??' ^ em P^-lly 
all descriptions o Aperies drawn ™ P e * aloi , d .^^ocotyledons, that 
to be corrected andTmphtd TLn? ^t^TT™ 'T™ 
Twenty-nine species (oountin* Zi ' , / * V"^ pIant 
known, against fourteen in 1871 TW? i ^ 1 «"*"™«) are now 
and Oriental regions extendinl into P 7 ^^? 1 the Med ^erranean 
India. They hav ? now 3 a h^i Af ?. "?* the n0rth of 
and several of them arT trv Lnamen^'V: 11 * C " ltivation 
splendid beds of Ms 3&?g £^1 ST Were tw ° 
the Cactus-honse, showiii ereir v^ZJJ 7 tLls summ er near 
bulbs only cost eight KS and ltL? U \^ d the tl,ousand 
ofito, which flowered a fortoi^hM, !° Sln J llar be <ls of In, xi pki- 
price of the others. tovtm S h ^ later and only cost double the 

Professor Foster civps fW n y^ i 
species and their cultural r ^^uirLSfld^" 11 ' <*«»**««* 
synopsis of their diBtinctiveTha^tSs^nd ^^ * & tanioal 
a great many woodcuts of ^1",!/™^ He gives 
dissections of each stip^o oik • e J s ' and m the synopsis 

branches and ptl K^enta ™ g t W 1^/ ****** 
book is a complete handbook f< r tK ^together the little 

either of the botanist w the enfw! ^ SUlted for the ^eds 
Royal Horticultural Sodetv en&^i 2 1S P ubli «^ed by the 
but as it will not be included if tl.T *' h f? r ce to the Fe "°™ I 
want it will haye to mate spedal t^T* * w? S ° Ciet ^ a11 who 
not a yery convenient plan Tf Z hffiS r Cat,onat . fche office, which is 
and Ituberosa Professor $wjK^f f ? "^"f ?**-* 
bulb be wanted, we may Bern™,™ '7 • a gardea definition of a 
separates from the ™Z Zk in « a * FT^"** bud which 
existence." This of co mfe com^ ! e V° llVe an dependent 
include under the term TW ?<f hends . far m °re than botanists 
omission which seems to be S^°^^ *" title - pa ° e ~ an 



' 



255 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 

Annals of Botany (June). — D. H. Campbell, ' Development of 
Azolla filiculoides ' (3 pi.). — J. G. Baker, ' Synopsis of Genera and 
Species of Musea.' — P. Groom, « Dischidia Rajfleaana' (1 pi.).— 
D. H. Scott & E. Sargant, 'Pitchers of D. Rafflesiana' (2 pi.).— 
H. T. Brown & G. H. Morris, 'Chemistry and Physiology of 
Foliage-leaves.' — W. B. Hemsley & A. Zahlbruckner, ' The genus 

Trematocarpus.' 

Dot. Centralblatt. (Nos. 27-30).— St. J. Golinski, ' Zur Entwick- 

der Griiser.' 



Inngsgeschichte des Androeceums und des Gynaeceums 
—A. Hausgirg, « Ueber Gomont's « Monographie des Oscillariees.' ' 
Bot. Gazette (June 20). — J. D. Smith, ' Undescribed Plants from 
Guatemala' (3 pi.).— R. H. True, < Development of the Caryopsis ' 
(3 pi.). — G. F. Atkinson, ' Biology of organism causing leguminous 
tubercles' (cont.). — B. L. Robinson & H. E. Seaton, Allium Hen- 

dersoni & Calochortus ciliatus, spp. nn. 

Botanical Mayazine (Tokio). — (June 10). R. Yatabe, Eria 
luchuensis, sp. n. 

Bot. Zeituny (July 16). — L. Jost, ' Ueber Beziehungen zwischen 

der Blattentwickelung und der Gefassbildung in der Pflanze' (1 pi.). 

Bull. Soc. Bot. de Belyique (xxxi., 2nd fasc. 2 : July 6). — T. 

Durand & H. Pittier, ' Primitiaa Florae Costaricensis.' — P. Nypels, 



' Tubercules d'Apios tuberosa et Helianthus tuberosus.' — (xxxii., 
part 2). — F. Renauld & J. Cardot, ' Musci Exotici novi vel minus 
cogniti.' — P. Clerbois et A. Mansion, ' Phascum Floerkeanum en 
Belgique.' — F. Crepin, ' L'obsession de l'individu dans l'etude des 
Roaes.' — C. H. Delagne, ' Lejeunea culcarea & L. Rosettiana.' — T. 
Durand, 'Charles Antoine Strail' (d. Mar. 25). — Id., 'Alphonse 
DeCandolle.' — L. Errera, 'Frederic Christian Schubeler' (d/1892). 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club (June). — W. W. Bailey & J. F. Collins', 
' Flora of Block Island.' — J. F. Collins, ' Rhode Island Flora.*— 
S. E. Jelliffe, ' Plants in Rnlgewood Water Supply, Brooklyn.' 
B. D. Halstead, ' Identity of Anthracnose of Bean and Water- 
melon.' — T. C. Porter, Aster leiophyllus, sp. n. (1 plate). 

Erythea (July). — J. B. Ellis & B. M. Everhardt, ' New Cali- 
fornian Fungi.' — E. L. Greene, ' Novitates Occiden tales.' — S. B. 
Parish, 'New Station for Notholcena tenera.' — 0. Kuntze, 'Remarks 
on the Genoa Congress.' 

Gardeners' Chronicle (June 24). — Coeloyyne Clarkei Kranzlin 

sp. n. —(July 1). S. P. Oliver, ' Pierre Poivre ' (1719-86). 
(July 8). M. C. Cooke, 'Anthracnose of the Vine.' — (July 15). 
Epidendrum Wendlandianum Kranzlin, sp. n. — (July 22). Aylaonema 
rotundum N. E. Br., Caladiuin venosum, N. E. Br., C. rubesceus N. E. 
Br., spp. nn. 

Journal de Botanique (June 16). — C. Flabault, ' Alphonse De 
Candolle.' — E. Belzung, ' Nature des Spherocristaux des Eu- 
phorbes cactiformes.' — E. Bonnet, ' Plantes de Tunisie.' — N. 
Patouillard, ' Une forme radicicole de VUrocystis Anemones.' 



(July 1, 16). L. Guignard, ' Sur le developpement de la graine' 
(cont.). — F. Jadin, ' Dobinea et Podoon: — H. Hua, Mocquerysia 



multitl 



256 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC* 

diatomee?'" (N °' 8) '~ P ' Pet0 ' ' Di a ' CUni fenomeni bi ° lo 8 ici J ^ 
det regTe OU«£&S- ''^'"^ ?»"** ' F1 ° ra 

R H Fr«T. <T f v, '• . Mykologlsche Mittheilungen • (1 pi.) _ 
K. H. Fianze, • Ueber eimge niedere Algenformen.' { * h 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 



striking appearance iS ^h«? g 7C ° lon f e ? floWer ' ancl S eneral 
There Is someXTbt T \n * T ^V?' hOTtic ^«™l value. 

from Mr. Bu 1 und r th nam o?* l^T ^' &S \ WaS pUrcha8ed 
resembles in foliage thonTJL fl ele l )hanUce P s > which it closely 
probably imp^^^^/^^ f *e distinct It wJ 

from Ocanaf in the province nf q , f S s P ecm ? en s of elephanticps 
delicate fragrance of the flnl Santander > ln Colombia. The 
in the genusl^as suL s tl lT~* n u nn ! ommm characteristic 
Another spedes ^K„*£ f e namo #• f'T™ for the Plant, 
specimens! is T^ » ,T &fe «^» *™f P^ /dried 
discovered this snecip* in t ,," u s ue ?- be „ nor Barbosa Rodriguez 

kindly sent Miss WooTward li fw"" °^ U T! Geraes ' "^ 
cation in his IfaZSS ^w2f B ? n % d for fetaw P»M- 
species described and fi^ ed ae ulSSl I ? J'^' The other 



alluded last month, bes de bein, Z i * C ° IIege ' to wllich ™ 
system of classifica iorpositive^ tZ °i ' Very "satisfactory 
the families of Cry^^'ltl^^^^ 100 ^ 1 ^^ Amo 4 
Perenosporace*. AnthoStaZ q'l' **" f ° 1Iowin * ••-Botrydea^ 
silace* ; while koweZl^nU^ Schl f™?™> Cyothace*, Mar- 
Nymphaces, LygoXL C tlf "^ 7 lth such ord ^ as 
book bears the n!me of P* f WHK *' ™* Salinic ^- The hand- 
Botany at Owen'aTo^ge, ^ f^ WeH UCCe8SOT * ^ Chair ° f 

^^ £ W a r?' aPPe r d * the ' a ^ 

May. Considering that onl ft -\ dou i b , le . num ^r for April and 

Paper, "thepuhlXn^ the ^-news- 

functions" of Kew, it is SfcSfSS! f ° ne 0f the most nseful 
ensure its regular appeaTa nco Tl ** T* Care is not taken to 
very little matter of bE ca i n tere sfc ^^ ^ US COntain 






1 ld y Jl ■ J> - ] ~>0. Pi 12s. (I. s. A. 3-50). 

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CONTENTS:— Introduction.— Prelirninar Bemark -Structure of IHa — 

Ti n-em of D uns.— C on o iatom . with a Consne<nu3 

of the Families I Gene - M of R hi< — c • Diatom* — 

M. mm- ta roscopi nation oi >iatoms.- Bow to Phofa raph 

Diatoms.— Bi! raphy.— 1 B v 

Londom ILIFFE SON, 8, r , Brt Stj t, EC. 
Washing* D.C U.S.A.: Th M oa ,, Pcbushing C mpaxy. 



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Edward A. 1 h, F.L.S., Ac. j W. Ware », M.A., F.E S- 
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257 




SHROPSHIRE MOSSES. . 

» 

By R. de G. Benson. 

This provisional list of Shropshire Mosses is compiled from the 
collections.being made by Mr. W. P. Hamilton, of Shrewsbury (H.), 
Mr. A. W. Weyman, of Ludlow (W.), and myself (B.). I have 
also incorporated a number of species from a list of mosses of the 
Wrelan district compiled by Mr. R. Anslow, and published in the 
iransactions of the Severn Valley Naturalists' Field Club for 1870 (A ) 

iSto*,^ T Cie r. C ° llected at Brid S n orth by Miss Sparkes in 
l«78 (b.). Localities are given for all but the common species 

S?.m X I n ™ hers ° ' th f botanical *"*«**. adopted by the Caradoc 
J^ield Club The nomenclature is that of the London Catalogue, ed. 2. 

Tot io ? e ? s l 3ecies . and 20 varieties of British Mosses in this 
list 19 do not appear m the London Catalogue as recorded for anv 

w * SIX ° oun * les ' deluding Salop, which are comprised in the 
Watsonian Province 5. These ne-Andreata petrophila, A. Rothii, 
Hhabdoivmsia fugax Dichodontium flavescens, Dicranum fuscescens, 
trrimmia contorta, G. montaua, Bacomitrium protensum, Orthotrichum 
rupestre retroplodon bryoides, Splachnum ampullaceum, Orthodontium 
gracile, Webera elongata, Bryum alpinum, Pogonatum alpinum, Fissi- 
dens fontanus, F. osmundioides, Cinclidotus riparius (Mr. Weyman 's 
discovery of which is recorded in Journ. Bot. 1891, 53), Xeckera 
cnspa, and Hypnum cupressiforme var. ericetorum. 

It is hoped that continued research will make the list worthy of 
so interesting a county. I shall be glad to hear of further records 
and discoveries. 

Dr. Braithwaite, Mr. J. E. Bagnall and others have rendered 
generous help on several occasions in the identification of species 
and their kindness is hereby acknowledged. I owe specb.l gratitude 
to Dr. Growers for his assistance in my bryological studies. 

Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. 4. Bomere (in fruit) ; H. ' Stiper- 
Sf j B - 5 ; Stapeley Hill (in fruit) ; H. & B. 8. Cothercotand 
Wilderley (in fruit) ; B. 9. Longmynd; Shelve; B. 10. Brown 
Clee Hill; W. 11. Wrekin ; A. - Var. «. rubellum. 9. Long- 
mynd; B. 



Jimbriatum Wils. 7. Whixall Moss ; B. 

S. sqimrroMm Pers. 4. Stiperstones ; B. 8. Marl-pits, Pul- 
verbach ; Wilderley (in fruit) ; B. 9. Longmynd ; B. 

S. intermedium Hoffm. 4. Stiperstones; B. 8. Wilderley 
Green (in fruit) ; H & B. 9. Longmynd ; Stapeley ; B. 10. 
Brown Clee Hill ; W. 

S. cuspidatum Ehrh. var. plumosum Nees, Hornsch. 7 Whixall 
Moss; B. ' 

S. subsecundum Nees. 4. Shomere Pool ; H. 9. Longmynd • 

5' ,7" V , ar ' contortum Schultz. Frequent. — Var. obesum. 9. Near 
Rathnghope; B. 

S. papillosum Lindb. 7. Whixall Moss ; B. 8. Wilderley Hill • 
13. 9. bhelveHill; H. 

Journal of Botany.— Vol. 31. [Sept. 1893.1 s 



258 



SHROPSHIRE MOSSES. 



S. cymbifolium Ehrh. Frequent. — Var. squarrosulum Nees. 
7. Haughmond Hill ; H. 8. Wilderley Green ; B. 

Andreaa petrophila Ehrh. 5. Stapeley ; H. & B. 10. Brown 
Clee Hill ; W. Titterstone Clee Hill ; H. 

A. Rothii W. & M. 13. Wrekin ; A. (in Severn Valley Trans. 
1870) ; B. (Sept. 1892). J 

Systegium erispum Hedw. 11. Osbaston; A. 
Gymnostomnm tenue Schrad. 4. Ems try Bough ; H. 

G. microstomum Hedw. 4. Near Shomere Pool ; H. Near Oaks 
Hall ; B. 7. High Ercall and Poynton ; A. 8. Pulverbach ; B. 
9. Priors Halton, Ludlow ; W. 10. Ashford; W. 

Weissia viridula Brid. 

W. mucronata B. & S. 8. Clay-pit near New House, Pulver- 
bach ; B. 

W. cirrhata Hedw. 

Rhabdotveissia fugax Hedw. 4. Stiperstones ; B. 9. Light 
bpout ; 13. ^ 



Cynodontium Bruntmii B. & S. 4. Oaks Wood ; Pontesford 
Hill, B. LydHole; H. 7. Haughmond HU1; H. 11. Lawrence 



B. 



Dichodontium pellucidum L 4. Lyd Hole ; Skin Mill (in fruit) ; 
w 1 P'w \t Stretton ' H - 9. Marshbrook; B. Whitcliffe 

Dicranella Schreberi var. elata Schimp. 8. Church Stretton; H. 
\s9«arr°sa Schrad 4. Stiperstones; B. 8. Church Stretton ; 

b: ri&oif r cot Hiiis : b - 9 - L — a * «) « 

WreMnTT™^ ^^ ** B ° mere; H ' 7 ' Whixa11 ' B ' 13 ' 
Z). van'a Hedw. 

bach D ;' b{ eSCem TUm * 8 ' Cothercot HiU I Broomhill j Pulver- 

D. heteromalla Hedw. 

^Bicrmum fuscescws Turn. 4. Stiperstones; B. Nr. Lyd 

Lod»e HuT b" L V a /rT ent TrTf- •**»-■ 8 " Frodesley 
uoa e mil , tf .— Var. ««;/ OTMW i Milde. Brown Clee Hill • W 

£>. nta;«i Turn. 4. Oaks Wood- Vesaons • B ft nV i 
Stretton; W. 9. Whitcliffe Wood; W. 11 ArkoH- A ' 

D .pains,, , Bzy Brit. m. ^W«^l be N^^ ] 'stmere (in 

Sag 8tev;n^ w * 9 - Lo - 

Campylopue flexuosns L. 4. Nr. Lyd Hole ; Lord's Hill • H 
Radleth ; Vessons (in fruit) • B ' * 

tJMSSfw B ' & S ' 4 " ' Sh;iton Ro «^ i H. 12. Titterstone 



Wrel 



W 
iformis Brid. 4. Bomere ; H. 8. Nr. Light Spout ; B. 



mereT^ * She- 



7. Hawkstone Park ; B. 



SHROPSHIRE MOSSES. 259 

Plearidium nitidum Hedw. 2. Eacecourse ; H. 8. Broomhill ; 
Pulverbach ; B. 10. Tinker's Hill ; W. 

P. subulatum L. 

P. alter nifolinm Kaulf. 4. Nr. Sliomere Pool ; H. Nr. Oaks 
Hall; B. 11. Lilleshall; A. 

Sphcerangium muticum Schreb. 4. Nr. Underdale ; H. 7. Nr. 
Roden ; A. 

Phascum cuspidatum Schreb. Frequent. — Var. Schreberi. 8. 
Castle Pulverbach ; B. 

P. bryoides Dicks. 11. Arkoll Wood; A. 

Pottia minutida Schwg. 4. Nr. Sharpstones ; H. 8. Pulver- 
bach ; B. 10. Nr. Huck's Barn, Ludlow ; W. 

P. truncate* L. 

P. intermedia Turn. 4. London Road; H. 8. Pulverbach; B. 
P. Wilsoni Hook. 8. Pulverbach ; B. 
P. lanceolata Dicks. 11. Steeraway; A. 

Didymodon rubelliis B. & S. 

D. lundus Hornsch. 4. Shelton Rough ; H. 



jleocifolium Dicks. 7. Grinshill ; H. 
D. sinuosus Wils. 10. Hope Gutter ; W 
Eucladium verticillatum L. 10. Hone Gi 



W 



Ditrichum homomallum B. & S. 4. Hunter's Wood ; Vessons ; 
B. 8. Broomhill; B. 9. Ratlinghope ; B. Whitcliffe Wood ; W. 
D. flexicaule Sch. 11. Steeraway; A. 

Trichostomum tophaceum Brid. 7. Haughmond Hill; H. 10. 
Hope Gutter ; Woofferton ; W. 

Barbula aloides Koch. 4. Shelton Rough; H. 8. Pulverbach; 
B. 9. Norbury; B. 10. Woofferton; Ludlow; W. 

B. muralis L. Common. — Var. astiva Brid. 7. Quarry ; H. 

B. iinguicalata Dill. 

B. fallax Hedw. 

B. rigidida Hedw. 8. Pulverbach ; B. 

B. spadicea Mitt. 4. Pontesford; W.Phillips. 10. Ludlow; W. 

B. cylindrica Tayl. 4. Lyd Hole ; B. 10. Titterstone ; W. 

B. vinealis Brid. 4. Lyd Hole ; B. 

B. Hornschuchii Schultz. 4. Monkmoor Coppice ; H. 8. Pul- 
verbach; B. 9. Norbury; B. 

B. convoluta Hedw. 

B. subulata L. 

B. lavipila Brid. 8. Church Stretton ; H. Pulverbach ; B. 
9. Marshbrook; B. 11. Crudgington ; A. 

B. latifolia B. & S. 4. Shelton; Sutton; H. 9. Halton 
Lane; W. 

B. nivalis L. 

B. inteimedia Brid. 7. Haughmond Abbey ; H. 8. Pulver- 
bach ; B. 10. Wigley; W. 

B. papulosa Wils. 9. Prior's Halton ; W. 

Ceratodon purpureas L. 

Encalypta vidgaris Hedw. 9. Norbury; B. 11. Leegomery " 
A. 12. Bridgnorth ; S. — Var. y. obtusifolia Braith. 10. Whitton 
Court; W. 

s 2 






260 



SHROPSHIRE MOSSES. 



E. streptocarpa Hedw. 4. Gatten's Lodge; B. 7. Sundorn; H. 
8. Longden Wood ; B. Church Stretton ; W. 10. The Heath ; 
Woofferton; Henley; W. 13. Steeraway; A. 

Grimmia apocarpa L. 4. Lyd Hole ; B. Sharpstones ; H. 
5. Stapeley Hill ; H. & B. 7. Haughmond Hill; H. 8. Church 
Stretton; H. Pulverbach ; B. 9. Bridges; Wentnor ; B. 10. 
Woofferton; Knowle Gate; W. 11. Steeraway; A.—Y&v. (imcilis. 
4. Lyd Hole; H. * 

Q. puhinata Dill. 

G. eontorta Wahl. (G. incurra Br. M. PL). 10. On the granite, 
Titterstone Glee Hill; Rev. A. Ley, 25 May, 1893. This has been 
verified by the Bev. C. H. Binstead. 

G. trichophylla Grev. 4. Longden (in fruit) ; B. 7. Haugh- 
mond Abbey ; H. 8. Pulverbach (in fruit); B. 11. Hodnet 
Churchyard; H. 12. Titterstone; W. 

G. montana B. & S. 13. Wrekin ; B. Verified by Rev. C. H. 
Binstead. 

Racomitrium aciculare L. 4. Lyd Hole; B. 8. Pulverbach ; B. 

Church btretton ; H. 9. Wentnor; B. 10. Titterstone; W. 12. 
'Ihe Luowle; W. • 

R. pwtemum A .Braun. 4. Radleth ; B. 8. Castle Pulverbach 
(dwarted form on boulder stone) ; B. 
R. heterostichum Hedw. 

11 \ f vekiu da k Sclimd ' 8 ' Pulverbach 5 B. 10. Titterstone; H. 
R-lamyinosum Brit 4. Lyd Hole; Oaks Wood; Stiperstones; 

I iv T i ; CArC f ; R 10. Titterstone ; H 1 : Brown 
Clee W. 11. Steeraway; A. 12. Titterstone; W. 

R. canescens Bedw. 7. Haughmond Hill; H. 8. Cothercot 
ZZl.a 9 T ; Lon ? m .y nd i B - 10. Titterstone ; H. 12. Bridg- 



north; S.— Var. ericoides Bry. Eur. 12. Titterstone; W. • 

1 tychomitnum polyphylhim B. & S. 4. Oaks Wood ; B. 8 

Broomhill ; Church Stretton ; B. 9. Bridges ; Norbury B. 11 
Steeraway; A. 12. Bridgnorth; S. J 

^oridiurn McnyeotiiB. AS. 4. Brook under Pontesford 
Mill B 8. Church Stretton ; H. 13. Wrekin ; A. 

Zygodonvindissimm Brid. 4. Shelton Bouffh fin fruit) ■ H 

^ d ?o de Ho^G 8 utrr s; weniock; a - 9 - wsfi&s 

glSfiSt" 9 8 'fe£^d ; • B W 13 ' Wrek - A - 
Pulverbachf B? ****** ^ Vel Schimp ' k * L R 8 ' Eocke ^ 

WaL-T^"" 8 ^^ 7 ' High Erca11 ' A " ' »< Osbastan; 

O. rupatn Sehleich. 9. Longmynd; B. 

O. affine Schrad. 

O. diaphanum Schrad. 

O. Lyellii H. & T. I„ f ruit : _ 9 . Nr. Cold Hill • B 

O. laocarpum B & S. 8. Smethcot Dingle?!! 

O. Sprucn Mont. 4. New Park, Shrewsbury; II. - 



SHROPSHIRE MOSSES. 261 

Tetraplodon mnioides L. 10. In depression between masses of 
granite on Titterstone Clee Hill; Rev. A. Ley, 25 May, 1893. 
Splachnum ampullaceum, L. 4. Stiper^tones ; B. 
Ephemerum serration Scbreb. 11. Wrockwardine ; A. 
Physcomitrella patens Hedw. 2. Bacecourse ; H. 4. Mare 

• Pool ; H. 9. Nr. Craven Arms ; Mr. Stone. Nr. Burway ; W. 

Physcomitrium pyriforme Ii. 4. Lincroft Pool; B. Uiiderdale- 
H. 8. Pulverbach; B. 9. Priors Halton; W. 11. Leegomery; A. 

Entosthodon ericetorum C. Muell. 7. Haughmond Hill : H 8 
Church Stretton ; H. . * 

I 1 itnariafascicularis Dicks, 
F. hygrometrica L. 

Bartramia UhrjphyUa Brid. 8. Ragleth; H. Light Spout: B. 

• 9. Nr. Brickhouse ; W. 

B. pomiformis L. 
Philonotis fontanel L. 

P.calcarea B. & S. 5. Stapeley Hill (abundant male flowers) : 
H. & B. 8. Cothercot Hill; B. 

Breittelia arcuata Dicks. 9. Longinynd ; Shelve ; B. 10. Tit- 
terstone ; W. 

Orthodontinm gracile Wils. 7. Hermitage Farm, Hodnet ; H. 
Leptobryum pyriforme L. 2. Pritchard's Nursery; H. 10. 
Biverdale ; W. 

Webera elonyata Hedw. 7. Bury Walls, Hawkstone ; H. 9. 
Whitcliffe; W. 

W. nutans Schreb. 

W. camea L. 4. Sbelton Bough ; Belvidere Wood ; H. 8. 

Marl-pits, Pulverbach ; B. 9. Nr. Burway. 10. Tinker's Hill ; W. 
IV. albicans Wahl. 

B r yum pendulum Homsch. 10. Hayton's Bent ; W. 8. Church 
Stretton; H. 

B. inclinatum Swartz. 4. Stapeley Hill ; H. 

B. intermedium W. & M. 4. Nr. Belvidere House ; H. 10. 
Woofferton; W. 11. Ellerdine Common; Limekiln Wood ; Ar- 
koll; A. 

B. bimum Schreb. In fruit : — 2. Hencote Pool : H. 4. Lin- 
croft Pool ; B. Near Bedbill ; H. 

B. atropurpureum W. & M. = erythocarpum Brid. 4. Cemetery ; 
H. 7. Haughmond ; H. 

B. alpinum L. 8. Church Stretton ; H. 

B. cccspiticium L. 
B. argenteum L. 
B. capil/are L. 

B. pailens Swartz. 4. Nr. Lyd Hole ; B. 8. Cothercot Hill; 
B. 9. Minton Beach; B. 10. Brown Clee ; W. 11. Arkoll; A. 

B. pseudotriquetrum Hedw. 8. Light Spout Valley; H. 9. 
Minton Beach; B. Shelve; H. 10. Wooiferton; W. 12. Tit- 
terstone ; W. 

B. roseum Schreb. 7. Haughmond Hill ; H. 11. Hollybu^h 
Lane ; Cold Hatton Common ; Arkoll Hill ; A. 12. Bridg- 
north ; S. b 



262 



SHROPSHIRE MOSSES. 



Mnium a/fine Bland. 9. Minton Beach ; B. (male flowers only). 
M. undulatum Hedw. 4. Oaks Wood (in fruits B. 



M 
M. 
M. 



serration toclirad. 10. Banks of River Ledwych ; W. 
M. stellare Hedw. 4. Lyd Hole ; H. 9. Whitcliffe Wood; W. 
12. Bridgnorth; S. 

M. punctatum Hedw. 

M. si(bglobosum B. & S. 5. Stapeley Hill ; B. 8. Wilderley 
Green; B. 12. Titterstone; W. 

Aulacomnium androgynum L. 

ApalvstreL. In fruit:— 7. Whixall; B. 8. Wilderley Green. 
9. Rathnghope; B. J 

Tetrayhis pelliicida L. In fruit :— 4. Bomere and Shomere ; H. 
7. Mr. Hodnet ; H. 

Atrichum undulatum L. 

Pogonatum nanum Brid. 4. Westcot. 8. Broomhill ; B. 11. 
Isombndge ; Ellerdine Common ; A. 

P. aloides Hedw. 

11. AVkoll^B"" L * 9 ' ChUrCh Strefcton; H ' Longmynd; B. 

P. alpinum L 4 Lord's Hill ; H. & B. 8. Church Stretton ; 

D , Lon 8 m y nd I Stapeley ; B. 10. Titterstone ; H. 

Polytnchum gracile Menz. 4. Bomere ; H. 7. Whixall Moss; 
B. 10. Brown Clee; Rev. A. Ley. 11. Arkoll; A. 



P. piliferum S< 
P. juniperimon 
P. commune L. 
Fissidens bryoides Hedw. 



Willd 



Wood 



F exMs Hedw. 4. Belvidere Wood; Sutton; H. 11. Arkoll 



Wood^ZoirA 19 4'., Belv ^ Wood ; H. 11. Limekiln 

Valtay ;T'* H * dW ' 8 * LIght Sp ° Ut ; B " Cardin S Mill 

F adiantoides Hedw. In fruit :-8. Broomhill ; B. 
stJw tv *//'/• Q Be Jy ide ^ Wood ; H. Lyd Hole ; B. Min- 

^^^t^ u ^T^ 1 B ' 9. Whitcliffe; W. 10. 
xiaytons ±5ent , W. 11. Arkoll; Somerwood; A. 

bckistostega osmundacea Dicks. 8. Broomhill • B 
Cinchdotus fontinal aides Hedw. 10. River Temej W. 
C. npanus Walk. Am. 10. River Teme ; W. 
Pontinahs antipyretica L. 

str;rs/t'^t;„pef-B Sharp8to " cs; H - 8 - c "- h 

CtyM«a heterowalla Hedw. 8. Wilderlev ' B Red Hill • H 

cJrssr't Sc o" w p • *• ng* S* **£ * «• 



SHROPSHIRE MOSSES. 263 

Neckera crispa L. 4. Lyd Hole ; Oaks Wood ; B. 
N. complanata L. 

Homalia trichomanoides Scbreb. 4. Lvd Hole ; Hnglith ; B. 

7. Belvidere Wood ; H. 8. Pulverbach; B. 11. Arkoll Wood '; 
Dotbill; A, 

Pterygophyllum lucens Brid. 8. Smetlicot Dingle ; H. & B. 
11. Limekiln Wood ; Arkoll; A. 

Leskea polycarpa Ehrht. 4. Monkmoor ; Nobold; H. 10. 
Steventon; W. 11. Lawrence Hill ; A. 

Anomodon viticulosiis L. 8. Buildwas and Wenlock; A. Pitch- 
ford Park; B. 9. Nr. Downton; W. 10. Hope Gutter; W. 

Heterocladium heteropterum Bruch. 8. Srnetbcot Falls: H. &B. 
10. Titterstone ; H. 

Thuidium tamariscinum Hedw. In fruit : — 4. Oaks Wood ; B. 

Thamnium alopecurum L. 4. Lyd Hole ; B. 7. Haugbmond ; 
H. 8. Underbill; B. Srnetbcot Dingle (in fine fruit) ;°H. & b! 
10. Hope Gutter; W. 12. Bridgnortb; S. 

Climacmm dendroides L. 4. BettonPool; H. Stiperstones; B. 

8. Broombill; B. Wenlock's Wood ; A. 9. Churcb Stretton ; H. 
10. Woofferton; W. 11. Steeraway ; A. 12. Bridgnortb; S. 
13. Coalbrookdale ; A. 

Isothecium myiirum Poll. 4. Lyd Hole ; Huglitb ; B. 8. Pul- 
verbacb; B. 9. Wbitcliffe Wood ; W. 11. Wrekin ; A. 

Homalothecium sericeum Scbirop. 
Camptotheciuyn lutescens Dill. 

C. nitens Scbreb. 13. Soutb-west end of Wrekin ; A. 
Brachythecium glareosum B. & S. 9. Nr. Lady Halton. 10. 
Hope Gutter ; W. 

B. albicans Neck. 4. Underdale and Sutton Road ; H. 11. 
Limekiln Wood ; A. 

B. velutinum L. 

2?. rutabulnm L. 

B. rivuJare Brucb. 8. Wilderley Hill ; B. 

B. popxdeum Hedw. 

B. plumosnm Swartz. 4. Lyd Hole ; B. Bea Brook ; H. 8. 
Srnetbcot; H. Underbill; Cothercot ; B. Cburch Stretton ; H.' 

Eurhynchium myosuroides L. 4. Oaks Wood ; B. 7. Haugb- 
mond Hill; H. 8. Srnetbcot; Clmrcb Stretton; H. 9. Wbit- 
cliffe Wood ; W. 

E. striatum Hedw. 

E. crassinervium Tayl. 9. Wbitcliffe Wood; W. 10. Steven- 
ton; W. 

E. piliferum Scbreb. 

E. Sxcartzii Turn. 4. Red Hill; Radbrook and Meole: H. 9 
Wbitcliffe Wood ; W. 10. Hope Gutter ; W. 

E. pmlonguni Dill. 

E. pwmlum Wils. 4. Lyd Hole; H. 7. Haugbmond Hill ; H. 
Khynchostegium tenellum Dicks. 11. Apley Lawn Walls; A. 

Jl. confertum Dicks. 

i?. murale Hedw. 4. Belvidere; H. 8. Pitcbford Park; B. 
11. Limekiln Woods ; A. 






Whitcliffe 



* U * SHROPSHIRE MOSSES. ' 

R. ruscifolium Neck. 

Plagiothecium latebricola Wils. 4. Lord's Hill ■ H. 
P. denticulatum L. ' 

R£^; P orreric ^ im \ n S P™ce {Hypnum elegans). 4. Lyd Hole-; H. 
Stiperstones ; B. 10. Brown Clee ; W. Titterstone Clee H. 
lo. Wrekm; A. 

. Limddfn Woodsf'A 8 - Underhi11 Wood ' B - "• Ellerdine Heath ; 

P. undulatum L. 4. Hunter's Wood; Oaks Woo 1 T ' 
7. Hawkstone Park ; H. 8. Church Stretton; H. 
Wood; W. 11. ArkollWood; A. 

Amblystegium serpens L. 

Lois Hfll-H W « 1S P 1 4 ' 1 Nr - Pei ^rn Boat-house; Radbrook ; 
S W IdV'i P"lverbach; B 9. Castle Mill Weir, LikU 
low W. 10. Poughn Hill ; nr. Ledwych ; W. 

Pool TT" L V I I ? en ^° te P ° o1 ; H - 4 - B °mere Pool ; Mare 
Pool, H. Lmcroft Pool ; B. 8. Pulverbach; Longden- B 10 

mod?; T*S%££ £ frdt ^ Wigl6y: W - * ^ 
,,,,?9{"™ aduncum L. 9. Stapeley Hill ; B — Var Kvrimi s 

W.lderley Green ; Marl-pite, PulverLh ; E . 9. S B 

derlfv SXr'td 9 to'' ^ W^* fataBSVra. 

H „ ' an °. 9 -, Loi igmyna; B. 10. Titterstone : H. 
B. 1iS^ 8 - ™der,ey Green ; H. Correct Hill ; 

9. ^^t^X^Hm^H"'- 8 ' ™ teI ^«-n; B. 
H. Se„dtneriSchim V . 8. Wilderley Green ; B. 

Stretrw " STi^f T erley ,? reen (in frdt ) i B ' *«* 
ouetton w. y. JNr. Rathnghope ; Mmton Beach ; B. 

H.Mtansmi 7. Whixall ; B. 10. Brown Clee Hill • W 
H. wmnattan Hedw. 8. Cothercot Hill (S fruit) B IS 
Betvveen Wrekin and Little Wenlock ; A ( } ' 

H . JiUcinum L. ' 

11. Limekiln Wood; A. 

^ss^ss&s&i H v B mi -. 

lA^JS-Vr* 7.*Grinshill; H.-Var. 

9. WdS W^ 1 ^""^ 4 - Oaks Wood; B. 

4. Shelton Rough; H. 8. Pulverbach; B. 



erton; W 
H 



H 
H 



9. Nr. Church Stretton H in W ; A 8 ' £ methcote ! H - 
kiln Wood- A is Ti/f. t 10. Hope Gutter; W. 11. Lime- 

H Zusttl a n rSt0m] W ' Brid gnorth; S. 

8. Li^Spoat B 4 in Cr ° W Wmer ^ ; H ' ^Hole; Reabrook ; H. 
^fSamsrfm Myr. (H**^ HedT)'. 10. Nr. LucU 



FUKTHER RECOKDS FOK THE SCILLY ISLES. 265 



H. 



chrynphyUum Bnd. 4. Nr. Oaks Hall. 8. Pulverbach : B. 
11. .Limekiln Wood; A. 4. Nr. Shomere Moss; H. 

H. stellatxun Sclireb. 5. Stapeley Hill ; H. & B. 8. Wilderley 
Green ; B. Church Stretton ; W. & H. In fruit at Minton Beach ; 
B. bhelve; B. 11. Limekiln Wood; A. 

H . cordifolium Hedw. 4. Lincroft Pool (in fruit) ; B. Lord's 
Hi ; Bomere ; H. 8. Marl-pits, Pulverbach (in fruit), B. 10. 
baltmoor; W. 11. Leegomeiy; A. 

Beach • Ul i mtmm Scllim P- 8- Wilderley Hill; and 9. Minton 



H, 



Frequent in fruit. 



H. Schreben Ehrh. In fruit:— 4. Hunter's Wood; B. 

H.picrumL. In fruit:— 4. Pontesford Hill ; Westcott; B. 8. 
Pulverbach; B. 9. Whitcliffe Wood ; W. 10. Nr. Tenbury; W. 

H. stmmineum Dicks. 4. Stiperstones. 8. Wilderley Green 
(m fruit). 9. Longmynd ; B. 

H. scorpioidesL. 8. Light Spout ; H. 9. Longmynd, nr. Pole : 
Minton Beach ; B. 12. Titterstone ; W. 

Hijlocomium splendens Dill. In fruit :— 4. Hunter's Wood; 
8. Jiroomhill; B. 

H squarroswn L. In fruit :— 4. Oaks Wood ; Westcott ; 8. 
Abundantly at Broomhill ; B. 

H. loreum L. 4. Oaks Wood; Vessons ; Huglith: B. 8. 
Church Stretton ; H. Underhill ; B. 

H. triquetrum L. In fruit :— 4. Oaks Wood ; 8. Broomhill ; B. 



FURTHER EECORDS FOR THE SCILLY ISLES. 

By E. D. Marquand. 

In Mr. A. Somerville's interesting paper on p. 118, allusion is 
made to the unpublished Flora of Scilly compiled by my old friend 
the late Mr. John Ralfs, of Penzance. Some ten or twelve years 
ago I made a copy of the little manuscript volume, and on now 
referring to it I find that whilst it covers about fifteen of Mr. 
Somerville's additions, it also comprises a considerable number of 
species which have not been recorded in these pages. 

As there seems but little probability af KaTfs' Flora of West 
Cornwall ever being published, it may be advisable to print this 
list without any farther delay, and so bring the Scillonian Flora up 
to date. I know Ralfs visited the Islands on several occasions, and 
I am almost certain he was there in the year 1852. 

I give the list exactly as I copied it, so far as these additional 
species are concerned. The names in brackets are those of the 
first finders of the species, or perhaps the only ones ; in all other 
cases Mr. Ralfs himself is the authority for the localities noted. 
Sometimes no locality is specified, indicating probably that the 
author had not himself met with the plant. 

Under Ulex nanus in Mr. Townsend's list there is this note ; 



266 



FURTHER RECORDS FOR THE SCILLY ISLES, 



"This is undoubtedly U. Gallii, which is common; I believe the 

true U. lianas has not bp.p.n found in flnrnwall J Tt " - ond fVi^vn 



Cornwall. — J. E." : and there 



is also a note to the effect that the author had searched in vain for 
Acanthus mollis, a plant said to have been " introduced by unknown 
agency into the Isle of St. Agnes, Scilly." 



Ranunculus peltatus Fries. St. 

Mary's. Tresco. 
R. intermedins Hiern. Higher 

Marsh, St. Mary's. 
jR. acris L. St. Mary's. 
R. Ficaria L. Common. 
Papaver Rhmas L. St. Mary's ; 

very scarce. 

P. duhium var. Lecoqii Lam. St. 
Agnes (Tellam). 

Sinapis arvensis L. St. Martin's. 
Tresco. 



Callitriche obtusangula Le Gal. 
The common species at St. 
Mary's {fide Mr. Briggs and 
Mr. Hanbury). 

Anthriscus sylvestris Hoflf. St. 

Mary's. 
Galium Mollugo L. 
Valerianella Olitoria Moencli. St. 

Mary's ; not common. 
Scabiosa arvensis L. 

Carduus nutans S. St. Mary's. 
Carlina vulgaris L. 



Cardamine sylvatica Link. St. Inula Helenium L.' Field at Old 

Town Marsh, St. Mary's (Mil- 
lett). 



Mary's. 
Barbarea prcecox Br. Near Old 
Grimsby, Tresco. 

Cochlearia officinalis L. St. 

Mary's. 

C.danieaL. St. Mary's. Tresco. 
St. Agnes. 



Viola tricolor var. Curtisii Mack. Veronica 



Aster tripolium L. 

Solidago Virgaurea L. 

Mary's. 

Bartsia Odontites Huds. 
Mary's. 



St. 



St. 



Sandhills near New Grimsby," 
Tresco {Cunnack). Sandy field 
below School, St. Martin's. 

Stellaria Holostea L. 

S. graminea L. St. Mary's. 

Moenchia erecta Sm. Common. 

Scleranthus annuus L. 

Hypericin 

ry's. 
Lavatera sylvestris Brot. Old 

Grimsby, Tresco ; very abun- 
dant. Higher Town, St. Ag- 
nes. Hugh Town, St. Mary's, 

sparingly. 
Oxalis Acetosella L. St. Mary's. 
Anthyllis Vulnerana L. Common 

(Millett). 

Melilotus arvensis Wall. Tresco. 
Trifolium suffocatum L. Tresco' 

St. Agnes. St. Mary's. St! 

Martin's. 



Mary's. 



i folia L. 



St. 



Mentha 



m urn L. St. Mary's, 
near the Giant's Grave; scarce. 



Holy Vale. 
M. sylvestris L. 

St. Martin's. 
Tresco. 



St. Mary's. 



St. Agnes. 



St. Ma- Marrubium vulgare L. 

Stachys sylvatica L. St. Mary's. 
Lamium album L. 

Myosotis versicolor Reich. White 
variety, with paler foliage. 
Battery Ground, St. Mary's. 

Chenopodium olidum Curt. 

0. rubrum L. 



Tresco. 



Old Grimsby, 



Lotus angustissimus L. 

Mary's. Tresco. 



St. 



Rumex rupestris Le Gal. The 

Gugh, St. Agnes. 

R. maximus Schreb. St. Mary's 

(fide Mr. Briggs). 

Euphorbia I'eplis L. St. Agnes, 

J. Woods, 1853. "I have 
searched for it in vain/'— J. K. 



SYNOPSIS 



Hamulus Lupulus L. St. Mary's, 
Sparganium ramosnm Huds. Bog, 

St. Mary's. 
Arum maculatum L. Tresco. 



rfoliat 



Tres- 



co. 



) SPECIES OF MALVEiE. 267 

Hordeum prateme Huds. Old 
Town Marsh. 

Nardus stricta L. 
Lomaria Spieant Desv. Salakee 
Down, nr. the Giant's Castle 



Butomus umbellatus L. (Millett). 
"I have failed to find this 
plant."— J. R. 



(Millett). 

Asplenium Ruta-muraria 

(Cooke). 
Aspidium annulare Willd. 
Nephrodium mmulum Bak. 



L. 



Scilla autumnalis L. ._ w W , IVWVIV „ V JL ,„ MXm 

LiizulacampestrwT>G^$i. Mary's. Ophioglossum vulgatnm L. Bar 

Point, St. Mary's (Millett). 

Botrychium Lunaria Sw. Bar 

Point, St. Mary's, in the 
neighbourhood of the Tele- 



L. congesta Koch. St. Mary's. 

- lit\ 



St. Mary's. 
Sclerochloa maritima Lind. Higher 
Marsh, St. Mary's (Curnoiv). 



(Millett) 



SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OP MALVEJE. 

By Edmund G. Baker, F.L.S. 



* * 



(Continued from p. 217.) 

Australasica et Ins. Norfolk. 



-w Carpella ad apicem aristata vel angulato-apiculata. 

Carpella calycem breviora vel subasquantia. 

t Sepala calycis tubo breviora vel subsequantia. 

80. Abutilon tubulosum Walp. Ann. ii. p. 158; Benth. in Fl. 
Austral, i. p. 200. Sida tubulosa A. Cunn. ; Hook, in Mitch. Trop. 
Austr. p. 390. 

Hab. Queensland ! N. S. Wales ! N. and S. Australia. 

Var. (?) breviflorum Benth. I. c. 
Hab. Dawson River ! 

81. A. amplum Benth. I.e. 

Hab. North Australia. Nichol Bay ! 
Petals 1^-lf in. long. 

82. A. leucopetalum F. Muell. ; Benth. Z. c. Sida leucopetala 
F. Muell. Frag. ii. p. 12. 

Hab. N. and S. Australia ! N. S. Wales. Queensland. 

83. A. Mitchelli Benth. I.e. p. 201. 



Hab. Q 



S. Australia. 



Var. (?) mollissima Benth. I. c. 
Hab. Stony Ridge ! 

Abutiliea enjptantha F. Muell. in Linnaea, xxv. p. 379, ought, 
according to Mr. Bentham, to be considered a form of A. Mitclulli. 



in Herb. ! 



MICROPETALUM 



Sida micropetala B. Br t 



Hab. Q 



N. S. Wales I 



268 



MALVEiE 



F. Mai FraTr p T Tl M * *"* ' ^ ' * ** ^°^ 

Hab. N.S.Wales. W.Australia! N. and S. Australia. 

Prod 6 'i. p*. 4 7 E 4 ANIOIDES Benth - Lc - P- 202 - «*• gvwtioid* DC. 



Hab. W 



■ 

t t Sepala calycis tubo longiora. 



87. A. otocabpum F. v. Muell. ; Benth. I. e. p. 202. 
Australia! AuStralia " Q ueen ^and. N. S. Wales. W. and 8 

88. A. subviscosum Beuth. /,. c. 
Hab. Queensland ? 

89. A. longilobum F. v. Muell. Frag. ix. p. 130 
Hab. N. and W. Australia. ' 

90 A. exonemdm F. v. Muell. in Frag. xi. p. 63 
Hab. N. Australia. Niokol Eiver I P 

lnis plant is only 1-2-ovuled. 

O Carpella calycem superantia. 
^A^^^^ ^^ yS ^e folns parvis 

petiolatis, floribus axillaribaa pSd^oS 7ux fL C Tt? S 
sepa is ovatis acummaK* ™lir, i ta florem articulatis, 

pubescent^ calyce m 5to sn.JI^LT^^^ v**"* 
No Hab. Queensland. Cape York Peninsula Exp., W. Hann, 

Petals i in. long; carpels f in. long. 

92. A. austbale Garcke, Ind. Sern H Rp™1 ion 
oxyearpum F. v. Muell. ; Benth / 7 n Si S ' P ' 10 ' A ' 

Muell. Frag. ii. p. 13. ' '* C ' P ' 204 ' &*« oxycarpa F. v. 

Ausfraha. N ' ^ S ' AuStralia ' *■*"« ! N.S.Wales! W. 

Benlh." . ? ] MA ™ 0LI ™ = A. oxycabpum var. t ma.v^ouum 
Hab. N.S.Wales. Mt. Murchison. 

qq a V Carpelk ad apicem ro ^ndata vel angulata 
93 A. Cunningham Benth. I. c. p. 205 

Hab. N.Australia! Queensland. 

94. A. Fbasebi Walp. Ann. if n 1 ^ • p„, a , 
^W Hook, in M.tch.Vop. 1 Ausfr'. fi^ L *' P ' 205 ' ^ 

Wab. N., S., and W. Australia. Queensland. N. S Wales 

Var. pabvifloba Benth / r 4 ,/• , , • , « vvaies. 

Limnea, xxv. p. 380. diplotnchum P. y . Muell. in 



Hab. S. Australia 1 



HALOI 



Fnwri var. halo^hilum Benth £ « ' 
Hab. N.S. Wales. S.Australia! 



(. 



W 




Queensland 



MALVEJE. 269 



96. A. macrum F. v. Muell. Frag. ix. p. 59. 
Hab. South Australia. North of Fowler's Bay ! 
Aspect of Sida virgata Hook. 

tJ 1 ' ™ f UL c N ^ . End ' Prod ' Fh Ins « Norfol k. p. 75. £«fa 
Juliana Dietr. Syn. iv. p. 856. 

Hab. Norfolk Is. N.S.Wales. 



* * * Sandvicensia. 



-- »• T9 

98. A. Menziesii Seem. Fl. Vit. p. 15. 
Hab. Sandwich Is., Menzies ! 

* t * 

* * » Malayana. 

99. A. neurocarpum Miq. PL Jungb. p. 285. 
Hab. Java. 

I do not know the number of ovules of this plant. 

100. A. Listen, n. sp. Caule vel ramo ligneo tereto, foliis 
mem branaceis cordatis ovatis acuminatis petiolatis petiolis sajpe 
torquatis crenato-serratis subtus minute stellato-pubescentibus 
noribus axillanbus solitariis pedunculis teretibus strictis lon*is 
versus apicem articulatis et curvatis, sepalis lanceolatis acumi- 
natis externe cmereo-pubescentibus margine pubescentibus, petalis 
(in sicco flavis) calyce longioribus, carpellis calyce brevioribus 
dense stellato-pilosis aristatis 2-spermis. 

• Hab. Christmas Island, J. J. Lister ! 

_ Fruiting peduncles 2-3 in. long; calyx nearly I in.; petals 
f in. long. 

C. Carpella 4-ao ovulata. 

t Folia peltata vel subpeltata. 

101. A. peltatum K. Sclmm. he. p. 398, t. lxxii. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. Minas Geraes. 

102. A. FLuviATiLE K. Sebum. I.e. p. 399. Sida fluviatilis Veil. 
Fl. Flam. vii. t. 8. 

Hab. Brazil, nr. Bio Janeiro. 

t t Folia baud peltata. 
Calyx tubulosa margine dentata. 

103. A. megapotamicum St. Hil. et Naud. Ann. Sc. Nat. ii. 

w U V ?* Q f ; F1 * de Serres > *• 15 ®Q- ^- vexillarium E. Morr. Belg. 
Hort. 1864, p. 289. Sida megapotamica Spreng f. Tent. Supp. p. 19. 

Hab. Brazil. Prov. Bio de Janeiro ! 

104. A. inflatum Garcke et K. Schum. Fl. Brazil, I. c. p. 401. 
Hab. South Brazil. 

105. A. longifouum K. Schum. /. c. p. 402, t. lxxiv. 
Hab. Brazil. 

■+- -*- Calyx basi turbinata. 

106. A. mollissimum Sweet, Hort. Brit. i. p. 53. A. calycinum 
Presl, Keliq. Haenk. ii. p. 116. A. asiaticum Griseb. Symb. ad 
Flor. Arg. p. 48. A. sordidum K. Schum. I.e. p. 406. Sida 



270 SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF HALVED. 

mollissima Cav. ; DO. Prod. i. p. 470. S. cistiflora L'Herit. Stirp. 
i. p. 127, t. 61. 

Hab. Peru ! Argentine Eepublic. 

107. A. geandifolium Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1, p. 53. A. molle 
Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 2, p. 65. A. tortuosum Guill. & Perr. Fl. 
Seneg. p. 68. A. mollissimum K. Schum. 1. c. p. 403. A. Arnottianum 
Walp. Rep. i. p. 324. Sida mollis Ort. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 470. 8. 
fjrandifolia Willd. ; Bot. Eeg. t. 360. 8. Arnottiana Grill. ; Hook. & 
Arn. Bot. Misc. iii. p. 154. 



Hab. Peru ! Uruguay ! Paraguay ! Argentine Republic ! 



PAUCIFLORUM 



A. 



melanocarpum St. Hil. & Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. 2, xviii. p. 48. 
A. pedunculare Griseb. Fl. Brit. West Indies, p. 78. Sida peduncu- 
laris MacFad. Fl. Jam. i. p. 85. S. ecomis Veil. Fl. Flum. vii. 1. 16. 
Hab. Brazil ! Argentine Republic ! Uruguay ! Paraguay. 
Bolivia ! Central America ! West Indies ! Florida ! 

-f- Calyx campanulata. 
* Folia suprema baud lobata. 

Gerontogea. 

109. A. polyandrum Wight. & Arn. Prod. i. p. 55. A. oxu- 
puyllum Edgw. in Trans. L. Soc. xx. p. 35. Sida polyandra Roxb. 
Hort. Beng.p. 50. S. oxyphylla Wall. Cat. No. 1850.' ? 8. persica 
Burm. ex Cav. Dis. p. 35. S. Wallichii Steud. Norn. ed. 2, ii. 
p. 579. 

Hab. India ! Upper Burma ! Pegu. 

110. A. Sonneratianum Sweet, Hort. Brit. i. p. 54. Sida 
Sonne ratiana Cav. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 470. 

Hab. Cape ! 

111. A. sinense Oliv. in Icones Plant, vol. xviii. t. 1750. 
Hab. China. Prov. Hupeh, Henry, Nos. 3822 I 3454 | 

Neogea. 

112. A. depauperatum Anderss. om Galap.-Oar. Veg. p. 98. Sida 
depauperata Hook. f. m Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. p. 232. 

Hab. Galapagos Is., Darwin. 

113. A. AiiPLExiFOLitJM Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 502 ; Hemsl. Diag. 
PI. fcov. pars. alt. p. 23. Sida amplexifolia DC. Proa. i. p. 469 

V.ii i * n ? C °' V* d Pavonl °«zaba, Botten, No. 770! 
S, NOS ?' B ° Ur9eaU ' N °- 1512 ' ^ <*» io <*»*' 

wk A 'J°™ hopm ™ A - Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. v. p. 175. 
ilab. Mexico. Tantoyuca, Berlandier, 743, 2163 in part 
A viacranthum Peyr. in Linnsea, xxx. p. 59, non St Hil 
collected by Heller at Zacuapan, No. 46, must closely Resemble the 

DartVffJ™ L ^ fil ; i'V* S 0fc ' 1893 ' 73 )' Berlandier 2163 in 

fhan ZZl 7 { notolo !' hlHm Gmy h * the Peduncles being shorter 
than the very discolorous leaves, and by the flowers being smaller. 



SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF MALTESE. 271 

115. A. pedunculare H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. v. p. 273. Sida 
peduncular** DC. Prod. i. p. 4.69, 

Hab. New Granada ! 

The peduncles of this plant are 5-8 in. long. 

116. A. petiolare H. B. K. I. c. p. 272. 
Hab. New Granada ! 

117. A. in^quale K. Schum. I.e. p. 407. Sida incequaUs Link 

& Otto, PI. Select. Hort. Berol. p. 75, t. 34. S. Mendanka Veil. 
PI. Flum. vii. t. 23. 

Hab. South Brazil ! 

Dr. Garcke (in Engler's Bot. Jahrbuch. 1893, p. 484) states 
that A. appendicidatum K. Schum. is synonymous with this plant. 

118. A. Glaziovii K. Schum. I.e. p. 408. 

Hab. Brazil. Prov. Bio Janeiro, Glaziou, No. 10307 ! Lieut, 
Speke ! J. Ball ! 



119. A. rufi vellum K. Schum. in herb. 

Hab. Brazil. Prov. Bio Janeiro, Glaziou, No. 18136 ! 
A. benedictum Bunbury in Proc. Linn. Soc. i. p. 109, must be 
allied to the above. 

120. A. macranthum St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Mer. i. p. 208. A. lana- 
turn Miq. in Linnaea, xxii. p. 553 ; K. Schum. /. c. t. lxxv. 

Hab. Brazil. Prov. Minas Geraes ! 

121. A. Mour.ei K. Schum. I.e. p. 410. 
Hab. South Brazil, Glaziou, No. 13542 ! 

122. A. amoenum K. Schum. I. c. p. 411. 
Hab. South Brazil, Sellow. 

123. A. Schenckii K. Schum. I. c. p. 412. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. Bio de Janeiro. 

124. A. globiflorum Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 502. Sida globiftora 

Bot. Mag. t. 2821. 

Hab. Peru or Chili, " Mathews, No. 1550. Lamas" ! 

In the description in the ' Botanical Magazine ' it is thought to 
be a native of Mauritius ; but the seeds, I think, must have been 
carried to this island from the habitat quoted above. 

125. A. arboreum Sweet, Hort. Brit. i. p. 53. Sida arborea L. ; 
L'Herit. Stirp. Nov. p. 131, t. 83; DC. Prod. i. p. 469. S. peru- 
viana Cav. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 469. S. grandiflora Poir. in Encyc. 
Supp. i. p. 31. 



/' 



Hab. Peru, Dombey I &c. 
A. arborescens Medic. Malv. p. 29, and A 
are possibly synonymous with the above. 

126. A. scabridum K. Schum. I.e. p. 413. 

Hab. Brazil, Sellow, Nos. 744 & 1426. 

Possibly same as Sida tnmcata Veil. Fl. Flum. vii. t. 17 (A. 
truncation K. Schum.). 

To a plant closely allied to the above, and collected by Glaziou, 
No. 15837, Dr. Schumann (/. c.) gives the name Abutilon eosticalyx. 
The diagnosis is deferred. 



272 SYNOPSIS OF GENEEA AND SPECIES OF MALVE.3E. 

127. A. GEMiNiFLORuii H. B. K. Nov. G-en. et Sp. v. p. 274, 

t. 474. ? A. dianthum Presl, Reliq. Haenk. ii. p. 114. Sida gemi- 
niflora DC. Prod. i. p. 470. / S. diantha Dietr. Syn. iv. p. 856. 
Hab. Venezuela, Fendler, No. 98 ! 

128. A. rufinerve St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Mer. i. p. 205, t. 42. S. 
2)cBoniflorum Bot. Mag. t. 4170. 

Hab. Brazil. Prov. Bio Janeiro ! Minas Geraes ! St. Paulo. 
St. Catberina ! &c. 

Var. fj. conferta St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Mer. i. p. 206. 
Hab. Padre Correa, Pohl, No. 30. 

Var. y . latifolia St. Hil. & Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ii. Ser. xviii. 
p. 49. 

Hab. Serra de Orgaos, Gardner, No. 819 ! 

Var. £. ochracea K. Schum. 1. c. p. 416. 
Hab. Prov. Minas Geraes. 

Var. e. subglabra K. Sebum. I. c. 
Hab. Soutb Brazil, Sellow, No. 726 ! 

129. A. Bedfordianum St. Hil. & Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. ii. 
xvm. p. 48. Sida Bedfordiana Hook, in Bot. Mi 

Hab. Brazil. 

. Var. a. concolor K. Sebum. I. c. p. 417. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. Bio de Janeiro, Gardner, No. 320 ! &c 
Var. 8. discolor K. Schum. I. c. p. 418. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. Minas Geraes. St. Paulo. 

180. A. silvaticum K. Sebum. I.e. Sida silvatica Cav. : DC 
Prod. i. p. 466. 

Hab. Peru. Bolivia, Mandon, No. 821 ! M. Bang ! 

* *r 181 ; ** f CUL * NT ™ Sfc - HiL P1 - Usuel. t. 51. A. virens St. Hil. 

t$f* ? t nU> £°' 5o fc o ^ 2 ' XviiL P' 48 - 8 - ros ™ Link & Otto, 
Ic. PI. Select, p. 71, t. 32 ; Bot. Mag. t. 3150. / S. speciosa Willd 

ex Spreng. Syst. Veg. in. p. 119. S. tnflora Veil. Fl. Flum. vii! 

Hab. Brazil. 

Dr. Garcke, I c p. 490, states that Sida purpurascens Link 
Enum. Hort. Berol. n. p. 206, is probably not synonymous with the 

132. A. carneum St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Mer. i. p. 205 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. Rio de Janeiro. 

xviii 18 p." ti FALCATUM St ' Hi1, & Naud ' in Ann - Sc - NaL ser ' 2 ' 

Hab. Brazil. Prov. Bio de Janeiro. 

According to Dr. Garcke (in Engler's Jahrbuch 1893 n 4ftft^ 
may be tbesame as A. Sehenekii K. Schum ' ' P " } ' 

' 134 A. macrocarpum St. Hil. & Naud. I. c. p. 47. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. Bio de Janeiro ! 
Leaves discolorous, about 3 in. long, and 2-2* in. broad. 
135 A. macrophyllum St. Hil. & Naud. I. c. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. Rio de Janeiro ! 



jECIDIUM LEUCOSPERMUM DC. 273 



186. A^ montanum St. Hil. PI. Bras. Mer. i. p. 207 
Hab. Lrazil. Pro v. Minas Geraes. 



(To be continued.) 



<< 



MCIDIUM LEUCOSPFMMUM DC. 

By Henry T. Soppitt. 

During the spring mouths of the past four years I have given 
some little study to Mcidium leucospermum , which is parasitic on 
the leaves of Anemone nemorota. It cannot be regarded as common 
in this country, as during the past ten years I have only met with 

• i m i V ir ?L localltles > and these widely apart. There is a con- 
siderable difference of opinion regarding its life-history. Continental 
botanists regard it as the Medium stage of Puccinia fusca Belli., 
and it is included under that species by Winter, Schroeter, and 
baccardo. Prof. Traill shares this opinion, stating, " They appear 
to be related, so far as one may judge from the facts of their 
occurrence " ; but Plowright differs from the above, owing to the 

absence of direct biological evidence." My own experience of 
Puccinia fusca is that it is one of the commonest of British 
Uredmea, and I have noticed that it makes its appearance long 
before the Mcidium. 

On May 27th, 1890, I was fortunate in finding the Mcidium at 
Steeton, some ten miles distant, and a few weeks later on at Bolton 
Woods. In both localities Puccinia fusca was prevalent. The 
habitat of several plants affected with '/Ecidium was marked with a 
view to observing whether the Mcidium was succeeded by any other 
spore form ; and on several occasions later in the season I revisited 
the localities, but failed to find the slightest trace of uredospores or 
teleutospores either on the same host or on any other species of 
plant in the vicinity. 

For the purpose of experiment, during the following spring 
I collected a quantity of Puccinia fusca, which was kept during the 
winter out of doors under a bell-glass. At various times during 
April, 1891, the spores were placed in water, and repeatedly 
examined, but in not a single instance did I observe germination. 
The spores, however, were subsequently applied in quantity to 
healthy Anemone plants, but no result followed. 

In the middle of May, 1891, I transplanted into my garden from 
Steeton several plants of Anemone nemorota, the leaves of which 
were permeated with mycelium of the Mcidium. A few days after- 
wards the spores were ripe, and I had a good opportunity of 
observing their germination. The germ-tube attains a considerable 
length, and occasionally its extremity becomes dilated, assuming a 
globular spore-like form more than half the size of the fecidiospore. 
But in not a single instance— and I frequently observed it in sub- 
sequent cultures— did it become detached, or attempt to germinate. 

On May 24th, 1891, 1 had an abundant supply of spores of tho 

Journal of Botany.— Vol. 31. [Sept. 1893.1 t 



274 FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 

JEcidium, and these were applied in a state of germination to the 
leaves of healthy established plants of Anemone nemorosa. These 
were in an isolated position, and carefully watched for many weeks 
following, but without the slightest results. The leaves reappeared 
in April, 1892, and were observed daily, but bore no trace of fungi. 
The plants in my garden affected with Mcidium in 1891 again pro- 
duced the Mcidium in 1892, and the spores were mature by April 
25th. 

Early in May, 1892, 1 established a batch of seedling plants of 
Anemone nemorosa, and applied to the leaves a profusion of germi- 
nating spores of the Mcidium. No signs of any result followed in 
1892, and although the majority of the seedlings did not reappear 
in 1893, I had the satisfaction, on April 19th, of seeing several 
cups of the Mcidium on one of the leaf-segments. 

Considering the amount of infecting material used, the results 
were slight, yet, taken in conjunction with numerous observations 
made on the fungus in a state of nature, I have not the least doubt 
that Mcidium leucospermum DC. is a species distinct from Piiccinia 
fusca Eelh. ; that it reproduces itself entirely by means of its spores 
and perennial mycelium, and that its development is similar in 
every respect to Endophyllum, with this exception, that it does not 
produce promycelial spores. 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 



COMPILED BY 



William A. Clarke, F.L.S. 

(Continued from p. 248.) 

Chrysanthemum segetum L. Sp. PL 889 (1753). 1570. 
" Segetes Angliae scatent."— Lob. Adv. 237. 

C. Leucanthemum L. Sp. PL 888 (1753). 1570. "Bellis 

major.— Angl. Greate Daysie."— Lob. Adv. 200. 

Matricaria inodora L. PL Suec. ed. 2, 297 (1755). 1633. 

The "May weed without any smell," descd. Ger. em. 757, first 
paragr. 

M. Chamomilla L. Sp. PL 891 (1753). 1632. Hampstead 
Heath.— Johns. Enum. (" Chamsemelum sive Anthemis vulgatior 

Lob."). * 

1597. "Groweth 



Tanacetum nil 



wilde in fields as well as in gardens." — Ger. 526. 

Artemisia Absinthium L. Sp. PL 848 (1753). 1551. 

11 Groweth . . . aboute tounes diches," &c— Turn, i. 3. 

A. vulgaris L. Sp. PL 848 (1753). 1551. " Thys common 

Mugwurt of ours groweth . . . in hedges and among the Corne." 
Turn. i. 61. 

A. campestrisL. Sp. PL 846 (1753). 1650. "On Newmarket 
Heath. Mr. Sare." How, Phyt. i. 4 f 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 275 

A. maritima L. Sp. PI. 846 (1753). 1548. " Plentuous in 
.Nortnumberlande by holy Ilande and in Northfolke beside Lin."— 
Turn. Names, A iiij, back. 

Tussilago Farfara L. Sp. PL 865 (1753). 1548. " Groweth 

by water sydes and in marislie groundes."— Turn. Names, G vi, 
back. 

Petasites officinalis Moench. Meth. 568 (1794). 1538. 

"Petasites . . . a butter bur, northumbrienses vocant an Elden." 
Turn. Lib. 

Senecio vulgaris L. Sp. PI. 867 (1753). 1538. " Senecio 
angh vocant Grunswell."— Turn. Lib. " Groweth most in 



mud walles and about cy ties.' '—Turn. ii. 132 (1562). 

S. sylvaticus L. Sp. PI. 868 (1753). 1713. "Cotton 
Groundsel. Hamsted."— Pet. Hb. Brit. xvii. 6. 

S. viscosus L. Sp. PI. 868 (1753). 1660. " On all the Fen 
banks almost in the Isle of Ely."— E. C. C. 154 

S. erucifolius L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1218 (1763). 1677. "In 
aggeribus sepium & dumetis."— Eay, Cat. ed. 2, 170. [? " Jacoteea 
minor foliis magis dissectis."— Johns. Kent (1632), 14.] 

S. Jacobaea L. Sp. PI. 870 (1753). 1597. " Lande Kagwoort 
groweth every wh ere.' ' — Ger. 219. 

S. aquaticus Huds. i. 317 (1762). 1660. In Cambs ("In 

humidis et aquosis "). — E. C. C. 80. 

S. paludosus L. Sp. PI. 870 (1753). 1660. "In many places 
about the Fens as by a great ditch side near Stretham ferry, &c." 
(Cambs).— E. C. C. 37. 

S. palustris DC. Prod. vi. 363 (1837). 1650. " A stones cast 
from the East end of Shirley Poole neere Eushie moore belonging 
to Mr. Davey Washington. In Yorkeshire, Hoary Fleabane, Mr. 
Heaton.' , — How, Phyt. 30, 3. "About March and Chatteris, in 



1660. "OnGog- 



the Isle of Ely."— Eay, Cat. Cant. 37 (1660). 

S. campestris 

magog hills and Newmarket heath M (Cambs). — E. C. C. 80. 

S. spathulsefolius DC. Prod. vi. 362 (1837). 1800. "On 
cliffs near Holyhead, Anglesea. Eev. H. Davies. — Sin. Fl. Brit. ii. 
896. (See Babington in Journ. Bot. 1882, p. 33.) 

Carlina vulgaris L. Sp. PI. 828 (1753). 1597. "In untoiled 
and desart places and oftentimes upon hils." — Ger. 997. " Upon 



(aggregate). 1548. 



1724. " Com- 



Blackheath . . . Kent." — Ger. em. 1159. 

Arctium 

" Groweth comoly about townes and villages. " — Turn. Names, F ij 
(sub Personata). 

A. majus B . . . m 

mon before you come to New-Cross in Kent ; Mr. J. Sherard." 

Kay, Syn. iii. 197. 

A. nemorosum Lej. ap. Eeichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. xv. 54 (1853). 

1865. "Llanberis, Carnarvonshire." — Babington in Ann. N. H. 
ser. 3, xv. 11 — which see. 

A. minus Bemh. Syst. Verz. Erf. 154 (1800). 1843. First 
occurs in British Floras by this name in Bab. Man. ed. 1, p. 171. 



intermedium 



. . 



Near 



t 2 



276 FIRST RECORDS OP BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Berwick upon Tweed," &c. — Bab. in Ann. N. H. ser. 2, xvii. 375 
[as var. of A. minus.— Bab* Man. ed. 3, 179 (1851) ] . 

Carduus pycnocephalus L. Sp. PL ed. 2, 1151 (C. tetniiflorus 
't.). 1634. V C. spinosissirnus capitulis minoribus sive Poly- 

i-*tK A T ^.*k i* T^vl ^ TIT "T>^J_ r*/* 



1597. 



Curt.) 

acantha, Lob." — Johns. Merc. Bot. 26. 

C. nutans L. Sp. PI. 821 (1753). 1597. " Groweth in the 
fieldes about Cambridge." — Ger. 1012. Gerard's figure does not 
represent this species, and his description is somewhat vague ; 
Johnson (Ger. em. 1174, 1176) figures and describes the plant, 
which he had seen " growing about Deptford." 

C. crispus L. Sp. PL 821 (1753). 1629. Johns. Kent, p. 8 

(" C. Polyacanthus Theophrasti "). 

Cnicus lanceolatus Willd. Fl. Berol. Prod. 259 (1787). «,« . . 

" By highway sides and common paths, in great plenty."— Ger. 1012. 
§ C. eriophorus Roth. Tent. i. 345 (1788). 1570. " Freques 
in Anglise colhbus strigosis agri Sommerseti juxta cedes . . . . 
Eduardi Saintloo."— Lob. Adv. 370. 

C. palustris Willd. Fl. Berol. Prod. 260 (1787). 1633. 
"Growes on wet heaths."— Johnson, Ger. em. p. 1176, line 33. 

C. tuberosua Both. Tent. i. 345 (1788). 1813. "Discovered 
. . . .by A. B. Lambert,* Esq. [in 1812] in a wood .... called 
(jreat Ridge, near Boyton House, Wilts."— E B 2562 

C. pratensis Willd. Sp. PI. hi. 1672. 1576.' " Cirsium 

anghcum . provenit in pratis C. viri D. Nicolai Pointz equitis 
pnefec tiirae Glostnensis in villa vernacule Acton nomine."— Lob. 

Uos. olo. 

C. heterophyllus Roth, Catalecta, i. 114 (i 7 97). 1583. 

Descnptionein & iconem mihi anno 1581 Londini communicavit 

C. V. Ihomas Pennaeus Londinensis Medicus .... Provenit in 

pratis ad radices montis Englebrow totius Anglhe celsissimi in 

Comitate E ^acensi.-^Clusius, Stirp. Pannon. Hist. 655. 

Ken?'n% "n ld ^ L 1 Be ;' Ol 'T 5rod ' 260(1787 )- 162 9- Johns. 
Kent, p. 2. <« Upon Blacke heath," &c— Ger. em. 1158 

1597 a <MV r S ! H0ffm 'i D f, u J sch1 ' F1 - ^. 2, i. ii. 130 (1804). 
1097. By highway sides," &c.— Ger. 1012. 

Onopordon Acanthium L. Sp. PI 827 Cl7W\ i^rq 
' Besyde Sion in England. "-Turn, ii 146. { *' 



i 



Bo^ pa^ alt! 18. * "" *** *" ° f Sno ^on."-Johis. Merc. 

Serratula tinctoria L. Sp. PI. 816 (1753). 1570 " In 
nemorosis .... Anrdia3."— Lob Arlv 9qi T/i £ * j 

Woode," &c.-Ger. 577 Hampsteede 

Sn Pi n 9 ta ?n a ^ gr , K L a. Sp - ?• 911 ( 1753 )' and C Scabiosa L. 

bp. n 913 (1753). 1597. " In everie fertill naatn™ »_a«. son 



Ger. 590. 



. C. Cyanns L. Sp. PL 9n ( 753 . 1538 "cva7us 
B^^!'i^ eSSe *T -rthumbVS a fe«U 



-y-^- -wi^fcrfw \jU,LV 

Blewbottell."— Turn. Lib. 



Places «!" w SP */}- 917 (1753 )' 1597 ' " U P° n barren 
places neeie unto cities and townes."— Ger 1004 



Cichorium 



Ger. 1004. 
3 (1753). 1538. " Intu- 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS 277 

borum duo sunt genera .... Erraticus intibus dicitur etiam 
cicnonuin .... angli wjlde suckery Dominant. "—Torn. Lib. 

Arnoseris pusilla G-aerfcn. Fruct. ii. 355 (1791). 1650 "In 
some barren fields in Yorkshire. Mr. Stonehouse."— How, Phyt. 

Lapsana communis L. Sp. PI. 811 (1753). 1597. " Upon 

walles made of mudde or earth, " &c— Ger. 199. The figure is of 
another plant, but Johnson (Ger. em. 255) substitutes a correct one. 

Picris hieracioides L. Sp. PL 792 (1753). 1641. "Hieracium 

asperum in montosis pratis."— Johns. Merc. Bot. pars alt. 24. 

P. echioides L. Sp. PI. 792 (1753). 1551. - Oure Langue 
de befe . . . in great plentye betwene Sion and Branfurd.' , — Turn. 
Hb. i. 143 (back). 

Crepis foetida L. Sp. PI. 807 (1753). 1660. In Cambridge- 
shire. ("Hieracium minus Cichorei vel potius Stoebes folio hir- 
sutum.")— R. C. C. 75. 

C. taraxacifolia Thuill. Fl. Par. ed. 2, 409 (1798). 1845. 

Distinguished from C. biennis by Mr. Joseph Woods in 1841. See 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xix. 491. 

C. virens L. Sp. PL ed. 2, 1134 (1672). 1597. " In untoiled 
places," &c. ("Hieracium Apkacoides ").— Ger. 236. 

C. biennis L. Sp. PL 807 (1753). 1688. "A D. Newton in 
Cantia inventum est."— Bay, Hist. ii. 1857. 

C. succisaefolia Tausch, in Flora, ix. ( 1828) ; Erg. i. 79. 1794. 
"In sylvis Scotia? australis," 1789.— James Dickson in Trans. Linn, 
ii. 288 (" Hieracium molle "). 

C. paludosa Moench. Meth. 535 (1794). 1677. " In mon- 
tosis Septentrionalibus Anglic. " — Ray, Cat. ed. 2, 162. 

Hieracium. Instead of attempting to deal seriatim with the 

species enumerated in the London CaUUoyue % I venture to substitute 

a very brief sketch of the rise and progress of our knowledge of this 

genus in Britain. The only species clearly described by Turner is 

//, Pilosella, his " yealowe Mouseare " (Names, H. iiij, and Herb. 

iii. 58). In other works before Ray several species are described, 

of which 4< H. Intybaceum " of Gerard is H. timbellatum, " Pul- 

monaria Galloruin liieracii flore " (Johns. Eric.) is probably 

H. murorwn, and " H. fruticosum latifolium hirsutum M (Johns. 

Merc. Bot. 42) H. boreal e. Merrett's M Pulmonaria gallica sive 

aurea latifolia " and " angustifolia " observed " in the meadows on 

this side Hampstead" (Pinax, 99) have been referred to H. vuhjatam 

(Fl. Midd. p. 178). Ray gives us H. alpinwn observed by Lloyd in 

Wales (R. Syn. i. 45) (1690), and a plant found in Westmoreland 

by Lawson (R. Syn. ii. 74) (1696) may have been II. anylicum. 

From this time there is no addition to the list for nearly a hundred 



years 



II. 



IL strictum (his "H. spicatum ") from Scotland (Crypt. Fasc. ii. 29). 
In Eng. Bot. eighteen species are described ; but several of these 
are not native, and two (" II. paludosum " and " H. molle ") are 
not Hieracia. " II. pulmonarium " (E. B. 2307) seems to be 
IL nigrescens or IL pallidum; and " H. villosum*' (E. B. 2379) 
.may be H. eximhun. In Bab. Man. ed. 1 (1843) we have IL iricum 



278 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 



as 

for 



H 



«« u ^v, mo« uuuc, xiitss oymuoia* au msioriam nieraciorum 

(1848) gave a great impetus to the study of the genus, and in 1856 
Mr. James Backhouse in a monograph described thirty -three species 
as British. This number has been increased to forty in the last 
edition of the London Catalogue (1886), and many more species have 
since been described by Messrs. Hanbury, Marshall, and others in 
the pages of the Journal of Botany. 

Hypochseris glabra L. Sp. PI. 811 (1753). 1670. " On the 

gravelly heath-grounds near Middleton in Warwickshire."— Ray, 



H. radicata L. Sp. PI. 811 (1753). 1597. "In untoiled 
places,' &c— Ger. 236. Johns. Kent, (1632), 33. 

i -n H " ^ ulata L - S P- PL 810 (1753). 1663. " On Gogmagog 
hills and Newmarket heath."— R. C. C. App. i. 0. 

.^ Le °i n n° d ? n T> h , irtum L ' S y st ecL 10 » "• "M (1759). 1690. 
J ound [by J Bobert] on the banks of New Parks and divers other 
places about Oxford."— Ray, Syn. i. 237. 

nJtti ? iSI>id ,T t S P- PL 7 " (1758). 1634. « Hieracium 
Dentis leonis folio hnsutum."- Johns. Merc. Bot. 43. [? « Hiosyris 
. . . roughe Dandelion" of Turn. Herb, ii 18 1 

. L. autumnale L. Sp. PI. 798 (1753). 1629 "Hieracium 
minus pramiorsa radice."-Johns. Kent 2 meracium 

l548 ar ^D^°l ffiCinale Weber T *» FL Holsat - 56 (1780). 
D vj back y ' ' ' gr ° Weth evei ywhere."-Turn. Names, 

Lactuca virosa L. Sp. PI. 795 (1753). 1570 "Lactuca 
agrestis odore opii— In An^lia "— Lob Adv so t 1 , a ° tuca 
pey.-Johns. Kent, 5 (1629) 89 ' Isle ° f Shep - 

L. Scariola L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1119 (17fi2\ l^fia «« t + 
svlvestris "— Tnm ii oa u * \ „'• i568 - "Lactuca 
(1632) Hampstead Heath.-Johns. Enum. 

L saligna L. Sp. PI. 796 (1753). 1660. " This was found 
on a bank and in a ditch by the side of a kind of d ZZ or -lane 

utter 0?" ^ ** A * the "*? J Ust at ** water neH 
it C C 83 J0 the s P ltfcle - house end" (Cambs.). 



muralis 



™A " iU1 , a 1 us "^ -rrod. vn. 139 1838). 1633. " Upon walls 
and , n wooddy mountainous places."-Ger. em. 295. P 

i.. alpina Benth. ex Hook. f. Stud. Flora ed 3 241 n«a^ 
(J/t%«/««„ a, P nnun Less.). 1810. " Discovered t tte Aber 
E B 2?25 n ° Untam ° f L ° chna ^ re ^ Mr. G. Don, Sept. 180L" 

Sonchus oleraceus L. Sp. PI. 794 (1753). 1538 « Cicer- 

bita ... a nostns Sowthystell."-Turn Lib 

desSbXTStfn 1 ;/^^ 11 - ^i*? (1781>) - ' 1833 ' F ^red and 
i 55 Ger I9Q S Ct SpGCleS m E * B ' 8 " 27G5 : but «»e Turn. Hb. 



i. 55, Ger. 229, &c. 



hawke wele i' 5 P * PL , ™ 3 < 1753 ' l562 ' " **» greate 

is ^^robablv thi; '.% th V ned0 r a lytle from 8hene " (Turn. ii. 14) 
is probably this. Sonchus arborescens."- Johns. Kent. 18 (1632) 



SHORT NOTES. 279 

S. palustris L. Sp. PI. 793 (1753). 1666. "In the medows 
betwixt Woolwich and Greenwich by the banks of Thames." 
Merrett, 115. " Th. Willisellus invenit ad ripas Tamesis fluvii non 
longe a Grenvico."— Bay, Cat. ed. 2, 278 (1677). 

Tragopogon pratensis L. Sp. PL 789 (1753), 1548. 

11 Groweth in the fieldes aboute London plentuously. ,, — Turn. 
Names, B v. 

Lobelia Dortmanna L. Sp. PI. 929 (1753). 1677. "In a 

Pool or lake called Hullswater that divides Westmorland from 
Cumberland 3 miles from Pereth plentifully." — Ray, Cat. ed. 2, 132. 

L. urens L. Sp. PI. 931 (1753). 1778. "Supra Shute 
Common inter Axminster et Honiton. D. Newbery." — Huds. ii. 378. 

Jasione montana L. Sp. PL 928 (1753). 1629. " Scabiosa 

montana minima. " — Johns. Kent, 9. 

Wahlenbergia hederacea Eeichb. Ic. Bot. v. 47. 1633. 
11 First discovered to grow in England by Master George Bowles 
Anno 1632, who found it in Montgomerie shire, on the dry bankes 
in the high-way as one rideth from Dolgeogg a Worshipful! Gentle- 
mans house called Mr. Francis Herbert, unto a market towne 
called Mahuntleth, and in all the way from thence to the sea side." 



Ger. em. 452. 



(To be continued.) 



SHORT NOTES. 
Artificial Edelweiss. — Some enterprising persons have hit 



upon an ingenious plan for supplying the tourist with unlimited 
specimens of Edelweiss > which at the same time saves the trouble of 
growing and rearing them. The white woollen felted material of 
military coats, worn chiefly by Austrian soldiers, when cut into 
suitable strips, very much resembles the characteristic upper leaves 
of the plant, more particularly of course when the colour is some- 
what mellowed by exposure and the natural process of wearing out 
the material. So that the happy thought has suggested itself 
of buying up quantities of these discarded military coats, and 
manufacturing from them Edeliveiss, " wholesale, retail, and for 
exportation. 7 ' My attention was called to the matter in June of 
this year by a resident in Lucerne, who possibly was unable to 
dispose satisfactorily of his garden-stock, owing to the manufacturers 
in the rival method of production making the plant a drug in the 
market. I therefore bought a specimen, and on dissecting it with 
two mounted needles, found as my informant had stated. It 
appears that the strips of cloth are carefully cut out and skilfully 
grafted on a foundation of any weed that comes handy, which may 
have a superficial resemblance to the Edelweiss in habit ; the 
specimens are then pressed and dried, and the pious fraud is 
complete. — F. N. Williams. 

Lobelia urens. — On July 20th I was taken to the habitat of 

this plant, near Axminster (Devon). It may interest your readers 



280 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BRITISH AND IRISH BOTANISTS. 

to know that I found the plant scattered over about half an acre of 
ground, sufficiently abundant to give at a distance quite a purple 
hue to the ground in places from the spikes of flower. — Cecil H. 
Sp. Perceval. 

Hippophae rhamnoides in Somerset (p. 249). — There is no need 
to go as far as Stert Point to explain the origin of this shrub on 
Burnham Sandhills. It has been planted in considerable quantity 
on land adjoining the Lighthouse, — close to the Links, — and has 
also been introduced at one or two other spots not far off. H. 
rhamnoides propagates largely by suckers, some of which I observed, 
when last at Burnham, five years ago, were pushing through the 
sandy soil outside the ground belonging to the Lighthouse. — 
David Fry* 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

A Biographical Index of British and Irish Botanists. By James 

Britten, F.L.S., and G. S. Boulger, F.L.S. 8vo, pp. xv, 188. 
London : West, Newman & Co. 1893. Price 6s. Gd. net. 

All persons interested in the history of botany and of the 
botanists of these islands, but more especially those actively 
engaged in botanical work involving historical research, will 
welcome a reprint of the u Biographical Index " which ran 
through four volumes of this Journal, beginning in 1888. There 
have been delays, and some of us were getting anxious and begin- 
ning to fear that the promised re-issue would never appear ; but 
this is not merely a reprint. Saying nothing of the "business" 
difficulties attending the reproduction of a work of this kind, which 
after all does not very directly appeal to a large number of the 
community ; let anyone verily the references in one paragraph, 
and he will then be in a much better position to appreciate the 
amount of time and trouble expended upon it by the compilers, than 
if he had merely used the book for a whole year. Errors there are, 
of course, and omissions ; yet I would rather emphasize the value 
of what it contains than indulge in pointing out deficiencies and 
shortcomings. As is stated in the preface, the original issue in the 
Journal of Botany comprised 1619 names, occupying 148 pages, 
whereas in its present form it contains 1825 names, covering 188 
pages; so that there are considerable extensions as well as additions. 
The scope of the work may not be sufficient to meet all the wants 
of persons who are not within easy distance of a good library, but 
it should be remembered it only professes to be a finger-post. The 
editors say "it is intended mainly as a guide to further information, 
and not as a bibliography or biography. We have been liberal in 
including all who have in any way contributed to the literature of 
Botany, who have made scientific collections of plants or have 
otherwise assisted directly in the progress of Botany, exclusive of 
pure Horticulture. We have not, as a rule, included those who 
were merely patrons of workers, or those known only as contributing 
small details to a local Flora." From this paragraph it is clear 




BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BRITISH AND IRISH BOTANISTS. 28l 

that a selection had to be made ; there was no hard and fast line, 
consequently it depended upon opinion or upon the available 
information whether this or that person was considered to have a 
sufficient claim to appear in the list. It would perhaps have been 
as well to have put "deceased" in the title, because it is thus 
limited. To this limitation is doubtless due the absence of the 
names of certain persons, known promoters of Botany in their time, 
some of whom may indeed still be living, though they have long 
since disappeared from active life. Concerning all such doubtful 
cases, and including all those without actual knowledge or an 
authentic record — they are numerous — it is better to be silent. I will 
not even suggest a list, though an examination of the Index to the 
Hookerian Correspondence at Kew contains material — I mean in 
the sense of persons having an equal claim to be included and 
associated with the deceased British and Irish botanists. 

However, we are on safer ground when we turn to persons 
certainly long ago deceased. William Cattley does not appear, and 
I do not understand why, even on the editors' own method of 
selection. I am reminded of this by some enquiries just received 
from Dr. E. Bretschneider, the well-known sinologue and historian 
of Chinese Botany. Cattley was manifestly something more than 
an ardent horticulturist. He had a garden at Barnet, where he 
cultivated many choice plants, among them a species of the 
beautiful genus of orchids named after him by his friend Lindley. 
Indeed Seemann [Journ. But. 1805, p. 385) would seem to have 
found some evidence that Cattley floated Lindley's Collectanea ; 
and Braam's Icones Viantarum China sponte naseentium was appa- 
rently based on drawings in Cattley's library. 

Another name not in the Index that occurs to me is Samuel 
Mason, of Yarmouth, who flourished at the beginning of the present 
century. In the Kew library are three small quarto volumes of 
coloured drawings of sea-weeds, with the following note, signed 
Dawson Turner, 1800, in the first volume: — "For the drawings 
contained in this volume I am entirely indebted to the delicate 
pencil of Mr. Samuel Mason, of Yarmouth, a most indefatigable 
collector, as well as a most accurate observer of these plants. M 
Some of these drawings, I may add, are the original figures used by 
Turner in his Synopsis of the British Fuci. As I have already 
hinted, I could make a considerable list of omitted names ; but 
I will only mention one more, and that is H. N. Moseley, the 
botanist of the ' Challenger * Expedition, who not only collected 
largely, but also published most valuable notes on the vegetation of 
many of the remote oceanic islands. 

I have given a few examples of omissions in order to substantiate 
my criticism ; but the immense amount of information brought to 
light concerning persons most difficult to trace, — information only 
to be found in the archives of the Botanical Department of the 
British Museum, and information extracted at a vast expenditure 
of time,— is deserving of all our praise and gratitude. 

And this little book is, after all, the foundation, and a good 
substantial one, too, of the history of British and Irish botanists, 



282 



ENGLISH LOCAL BOTANY. 



which may some day develop into as complete and exhaustive 
a work as Colmeiro's admirable La Botanica y los Botanicos de la 
Peninsula Hispano-Lusitana. No other nation, I believe, possesses 
such a work as the latter, and no second nation, so far as I am 
aware, just such a work as the former. w# Botting Hemsley. 



English Local Botany. 

; of South-west Surrey : including Leatherhead, Dorking, Guild- 
ford, Qodalming, Farnham, and Haslemere. By S. T. Dunn, 

B.A. London : West, Newman & Co. 1893. 8vo, pp. vi, 
106. Price 3s. net. 

)rie$ of Mailing and its Valley : with a Fauna and Flora of Kent. 

By Rev. 0. H. Fielding, M.A. West Mailing, Kent : Oliver. 
8vo, pp. vi, 291. Price 7s. 6d. 



pp. 10. 



yf Gloucestershire. By J. H. Bukkitt, B.A. 8vo, 



The modest claims and neat appearance of Mr. Dunn's little 
book prepossess the reviewer favourably, and an examination of the 
work confirms the first impression. It is " a portable field-guide, 
suitable for the study of Botany in South-west Surrey," in no way 
intended to supersede Brewer's Flora of the county, nor to fore- 
stall the new Flora by Mr. Beeby to which British botanists are 
looking forward. The district included is defined by Mr. Dunn as 
" bounded on the west and south by the county boundary ; on the 
east by the Leatherhead, Dorking, and Horsham road ; and on the 
north by the northern slopes of the chalk range. The actual limit 
of the latter is conveniently indicated towards the east by the 
Leatherhead and Guildford road which runs just inside the district. 
Ike outer edge of tke Hogsback is sufficiently definite, and the 
same direction is continued beyond the western end as far as the 
Hampshire boundary." 

The author has been fortunate in securing the help of the Rev. 
Ui.b. Marshall ; there are evidences, however, of painstaking and 
a due appreciation of the relative importance of records which 
induce us to believe that in Mr. Dunn we have a valuable addition 
to the too small number of our younger British botanists. Among the 
indications of youth— the one defect which is certain to disappear 
as years roll on— we note an amiable tendency to extend to aliens 
a place in our Flora : thus Hypericum calycinum " may possibly be 
native in some localities near Dorking" ; Eranthis was " formerly 
apparently wild in Albury Park"; Martyn's locality for Anemone 
apennnia ("Woods about Shiere and Guildford") is quoted. 

Ike abbreviations are trying— e.,?., "D." for De Crespigny's 
^ew London Flora, and "J. B." for this Journal— but Mrf Dunn 
Has been anxious to economise space; this ke could kave done 
more satisfactorily by omitting the spurious "English names," 
such as "Gock's-foot Finger-grass" and "Axillary-clustered 
bedge, and by allowing Primrose, Grouudsel, Ragwort, and the 
like, to appear without tke unnecessary prefix, " common." 



I 



ENGLISH LOCAL BOTANY, 283 

But, as the trivial nature of these criticisms will show, we have 

nothing but praise for this conscientious little book, and the botanist 

who visits South-west Surrey cannot do better than take it in his 
pocket. 

What are we to say of Mr. Fielding's well-intentioned effort ? 
Well, as 248 pages are devoted to the history of Mailing, and the 
whole natural history of Kent occcupies only 28 pages, of which 
the flora claims 15, we shall not be considered to err on the side of 
severity if we speak of it as inadequate. In some respects it is 
the most remarkable flora we have ever seen, for there are next to 
no localities ; each plant, however, has an " English name," and 
4 • the greater number are found in the [Mailing] district." Mr. 
Fielding has, we believe, lived in Kent for a great many years, and 
it is a thousand pities that he did not come under the influence of 
some capable botanist when he first began to notice plants. As it 
is, with the exception of a little local help and some localities from 
11 Professor Holmes," he has been left to himself, and his acquaint- 
ance with books is most limited. 

Here are three entries from the first page of the Flora, from 
which our readers can form their own judgment as to the character 
of the list : — • 

"Trollius Europaeus. — Globe-flower; a plant common in 
Kentish gardens, but I cannot find that it has been discovered wild 
in this county." 

11 Delphinium consolida. — Field Larkspur. The London cata- 
logue gives Ajacis only. I have had the Larkspur forwarded from 
East Kent. Mr. Hepworth of Rochester has detected it. The 
Faversham Floral, published many years ago, mentions it, and 
Hooker also claims it for Kent." 

"Aconitum napellus. — Monk's hood, common wolf bane. I 
have seen this plant growing where I had reason to think it a 
native, but, as it is a very common garden plant, it may have been 
an escape." 

There are six Primulas in the list — vulgaris, acaulh, caulescens, 
veris } elatior, and hybrida — the last a comprehensive name for u the 
hybrid primroses between veris and vulgaris, veris and elatior, 
vulgaris and elatior, all found by the author in the woods around 
Cobham." Verbascum hybridum is similarly compounded. Arbutus 
Unedo appears in the list with the following note: — " Though 
common in some parts of Ireland as a wild tree, this shrub has 
never been acknowledged as an English native. In Kent, though 
only found in gardens and shrubberies, it, nevertheless, with two or 
three other trees (the evergreen or holm oak, the deodara, the Chilian 
or Araucanian pine, the cedar of Lebanon, and others), flourishes as 
if this were its native home. Perhaps it is merely reintroduced into 
what was once its original habitat*" It is well for Mr. Fielding that 
H. C. Watson is no longer with us. 

But we are sure that our author has the best of intentions, and 
the main part of the book (with which we are not concerned) shows 
that he is industrious* Perhaps Mr. Hanbury (who, we are glad to 



284 Introduction to th£ study of the diatomace^e. 

assure Mr. Fielding, is not " the late") may enable him to turn his 
opportunities to useful account. 

Mr. Burkitt's little paper — a mere ten pages of small type 
reprinted from the Cheltenham Examiner of May 17th — contains 
an excellent summary of the Gloucestershire Flora. It was read 
before the Cheltenham Natural Science Society; and is really a 
simple and pleasantly written essay on plant-distribution in Britain, 
with special application to Gloucestershire. In the last sentence we 
are told that "it is proposed to publish a reference list, indicating 
where each Gloucestershire plant is recorded " ; this is good news. 



An Introduction to the Study of the Diatomaceas. By Frederick Wm. 

Mills. London: Iliffe & Son. 1893. Pp. xi, 243. 6 fi^s. 
of apparatus. Price 12s. ° 

Mb. Mills has brought together the information contained in 
this book with the purpose of making more plain the path of 
students, especially those who have not access to expensive works, 
nor any guide to them. It would be very difficult to write a book 
about Diatoms without special appeal to the numerous, harmless, 
but eccentric class called microscopists, who seem to have marked 
Diatoms for their own. 

tn ^ ljis ^°9 k m ; a y, be d T ivid ed into two parts : (1) the Introduction 
to the btudy of the Diatomacem, and (2) a Bibliography. The 
2 0d ff' y Portion ia largely concerned with apparatus for the 
study, but contains also information about the Diatoms themselves. 

fotoA? ♦? „ lIlumme <l ^ any intense botanical light may be 
judged by the first sentence, « What are Diatoms ? They are a 
family of Conferyoid Alga," &c. It is true that there J many 
pvSIo "I 11 ' 6 les£ \ confe rvoid than Diatoms, but we need not give 
cannot biv. ," 7 eu f ^ seven P a S es > the proofs of which the author 
duZn T;*°T Wltll , an y Particular attention, we have this intro- 
e oul n 2 h "~ a h " mdl « m Performance which may be useful 
« SL f™™*****' Pages 78-240 are occupied with a 
Bibliography relating to Diatomology, by Julien Deby, F E M S 

collected and arranged by F. W Mils F B M % » u ;' ♦ ' 
tint tha onti,^ • i- * /. . iviiiis, j^.n.M.b. It is true 

that tbe author in his preface acknowledges » with gratitude the 

tribuS^n k t • b ?!^ ra P ll y is a sm all affair. Mr. Deby con- 
-a borough Jr 1 S ?**!£ Bibl j g ra P^ of Diatoms up to 1891 
to it referinl U • WOrkm " llllke Performance. Mr. Mills has added 

own work 71 L^T^i* m ° re , or leSS U P t0 date > includi "g bi» 
known to«; nT« 1 "f f W ° rk Under ll0tice ' the first lnstance 
a d ms 1 "t , iefen * mg t0 ltself in a blbll o gl 'aphy. These 

a Z o ? titlftn i I0US ? amouut ' and can hardl y give their 
Si, w °^ laimi »g collection and arrangement of the whole. 

misp ints SfiSn I" addl . tl0 , n r 18 t° Permit numerous and gross 
mispunts that do not exist in Mr. Debys work. As an examnle of 

Deb £ work uJ&S" J " W " ner H «**««*»; where in Mr. 

Deby a i ork the word « wichtigeren » is printed with a defective « h " 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 285 

resembling «n." In Mr. Mills 1 work it duly appears "wicntigeren." 

It is a trifle, but it exhibits the method of book-production in this 
case. ^ It would beeasy to cite stupid mistakes from the biblio- 
graphical point of view, but where so-called printer's errors, which 
are merely an author's carelessness, abound, this would be a waste 
of criticism.^ We are prepared to admit or to confess voluntarily 
that this bringing together of material may be of use, and will 
probably be of use, but it has been done with carelessness, and 
without merit. n \r 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 

Bot. Centralblatt. (Nos. 81, 32). — St. J. Golinski, ■ Zur Ent- 
wickelungsgeschichte des Androeceums und des Gynasceums der 
Graser.' — (No. 33). K. Meinshausen, ' Ueber einige kritische und 
neue Carex-Arten der Flora Russlands' (C. laviculmis, C. chloro- 
leuccty C. viandshurica, spp. nn.). — (No. 34). P. Kunth, ■ Die 
Bliiteneinrichtung von Primula acaulis.' — (No. 35). F, v. Herder, 
1 Die in St. Petersburg befindlichen Herbarien und botanischen 
Mu seen.' 

Botanical Gazette (July 15). — D. M. Mottier, * On the embryo- 
sac and embryo of Senecio aureus ■ (3 plates). — P. Dietel, ' New 
species of Uredinea and TJstilaginea' — G. F. Atkinson, ■ Biology of 
the organism causing leguminous tubercles ' (4 plates). — C. 
Eobertson, ' Flowers and Insects/ — (Aug. 10). J. S. Wright, 
* Cell union in herbaceous grafting ' (2 plates). — L. N. Johnson, 
' Zoospores of Drapamaldia' (1 plate). — J. M. Coulter & E. M. 
Fisher, ■ New and noteworthy N. American plants.' — A. F. Woods, 
'Recent investigations on evaporation of water from plants.' 

Bot. Magazine (Tokio).— (July 10). R. Yatabe, Trillium Tscho- 
noskii Maxim. (1 plate). 

Ball, de VHerbier Boissier (No. 6). — F. Prevost-Ritter, 'Anemone 
alpina & A. sulphurea' (1 plate). — H. Solereder, ■ Zur anatomischen 
Charakterisk und zur Systematik der Rubiaceen.' — E. Hutt, 'Neue 
Arten der Gattung Delphinium ■ (4 plates). — (No. 7). E. de Wildeman, 
■ Le Genre Pleurococcus ' (P. nimbatus, sp. n. : 1 plate). — R. Chodat 
& G. Balicka, ' Sur la Structure des Tremandracees.' — R. Chodat, 
' Polygalaceae novra.' — R. Chodat & G. Hochrentiner, 'Le Genre 
Comespenna.' — C. Roulet, l Du genre ThwibergiaJ* — J. Briquet, 
1 Du genre Galeopsis.' — J. Weyland, ' Zur anatomischen Charak- 
teristik der Galegeen.' 

Bidl. Soc. Bot. France (xl. Comptes rendus, 2). . Boulay, 

? De la marche a suivre dans Tetude des JRubiis.' — E. Mer, 'Le 
Balai de Sorciere du Sapin.' — Id., 'Le brunissement des feuilles de 
Sapin.' — 'E. Gain, ' Sur la matiere colorante des tubercules.' — H. 
Coupin, ' Sur les variations du pouvoir absorbant des graines.' 

P. Duchartre, ' Sur les aiguillons du Rosa sericea.' . Barratte, 

' Les Doronicum scorju'oides & Linum austriacum existent-ils en 

Algerie?' — L. Mangin, ' Sur l'assise a mucilage de la graine de Lin/ 



28( > BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

worHwVT* BOt ' °l\ lb (July) ' - N ' L - Britton ' * New or note- 
worthy N. American Phanerogams ' (1 plate). - E. P. Sheldon 

Notes from Minnesota State Herbaria ' (1 plate).-J. M. hS 
W 7Slf nbU rK ( n P lafce )- H -' ' Winter Buds of BE 

Peters Mora of Southern New Jersey.' — T. D. A Cockerell 
« Fungi collected in Jamaica.' ^ocKeiell, 

OalSmii^^- 7 W> P ' ^ ibb0nS ' ' The Red -™°d m the 
Uakland Hills. -E. L. Greene, « Vegetation of Mount Diablo.' 

spn -Si Sf""^ (JUly „ ^--^P^nia eximia Hemsl., 
sp.n. (Aug. 5). Hymenocalhs concinna Baker, Polvstachua T aw 

^JS&M^wT "^ HemaL, sp.n. - (Aug. 19). 



attemtt fat^f {Aug :)'T N ' ° ol S an > ' Th * Shamrock : a further 
Arma "h.' SPeCieS ' ~ *' LL ****■ ' F1 °™ of 825 

(Aug 16). A Franchet, ' Sur quelques nouvelles StZhaZus' 
—. bacleux, Ardiuna tetramera, sp. n! onopnantous. 

Joum. Linnean Soc. (xxx. No. 205 : Aug 28) — M T Moo* 
Notes on Genera of r»*n„~ ™a fWA-.v, • n t „. . Masters » 

LomfexB. --C. B. Plowright & W. 

Paris quadrifolia : — 



iEcidium 







The 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, etc. 



his residence in Liverpool h^/-/^.-^ HuGH HlGGINS at 
useful men. For I IZ^TfZf ^ f y ? f ° ne ° f its m ost 
the Museum Sub-Committef „? i5 ® he has be en Chairman of 
many hours weekly t^^a^H^f*' and haa devoted 

coUectionainaiepoLsrionofth^itv^ •"? angement of the 

must have been struck wi°h the ad ™£Lm E FOT 81 * 01 to the Museum 
and for this Mr. Higgin is ma?niv 1« 5 le « *" lm / ° f the s P<*imen S , 
Turvey Abbey, BedSh re jTu^q tW ? e WaS b ° rn ai 
bridge in 1836. He then took nWJ ? A "5 graduated at Cam- 
and after holding virion? nost wT m f e Established Church, 
Asylum, Liverpool, S P ?^T, ° iaplam to th * Eai nhill 

*- * ,-. i saw ffs-TMi sta re 



I 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 287 



Mt 



of the above particulars. 



Fran 



died on June 20th. He w^s born at Penzance, Sept. 1, 1813, and 
educated for the medical profession. He became M.B.C.S. in 1835, 
and subsequently entered the Navy as assistant-surgeon, visiting 
Australia, New Zealand, and the West Indies. In 1843 he left the 
service, and settled down in Cornwall. After 1851 he removed to 
London,^ and formed an important entomological collection. Ento- 
mology, indeed, was the study of his life, although his first published 
paper was on " Cornish Plants not included in Cybele Britannic a," 
published in the Botanical Gazette for 1850, and he was a member 
of the Botanical Society of London. He always retained his interest 
in botany, and was a well-known figure at the Linnean Society and 
at the Natural History Museum. The above information is taken in 
part from Natural Science for August, from which, by the way, we 
learn that the note in reference to this Journal, to which we ven- 
tured to take exception (p. 223), was intended to be "playful, but 
complimentary." The Editor of Natural Science is evidently of 
opinion that " language was given us to conceal our thoughts/ 1 

Messrs. Sander advertise, as "new and sensational/ 1 the rare 
Orchid Eulophiella Elisabeth®, and add, "Mr. E. A. Eolfe, the 
author and creator of this new genus, has examined our plants, and 
certified them true." There has been so much discussion as to the 
"origin of species," that it is satisfactory to find at least one genus 
of which the origin can be definitely stated. 

The first part of the Grasses of the Pacific Slope was issued last 
October, and has already been noticed in this Journal (1893, p. 62). 
The second, which is dated June 1st, must have been the last work 
on which Dr. Vasey was engaged before his death on March 4th 
the letter of transmittal bearing the date of February 11th. Fifty 
species are figured and described ; of these very few have been 
figured before, while many are new. Thus, of the fifteen Poas, 
four are new species, and one is a new variety. There are also 
alterations in the nomenclature of others. No. 74 is Poa Fendleriana 
(Steud.) Vasey in the text, Eragrostis Fendleriana Steud. following 



arm 



Vasey, by which the author states it is most widely known, though 
this does not appear in the synonymy at the head of the description. 
Similar discrepancies occur elsewhere ; No. 78 is in the text Poa 
Howellii Vasey & Scribner, n. sp., while on the plate it is ascribed 
to the former author alone. In the same way Pleuropogon cali- 
fornicum Vasey becomes P. californiciim Benth. ; and the same 
transformation occurs in the next species, P. refraction. A few 
signs of want of care in revision of the proofs are noticed, such as 
omission of an indicating letter, or, as in No. 73, where the dis- 
sections of Poa Bolanderi are wrongly described. Moreover, why 
write Poa Thurberiana (0. K.) Vasey for a species originally 
described in the Botany of California as Atropis pauciflora, changed 

for purely historical reasons by Otto Kuntze to Panindaria Thur- 
beriana (there being already a P. pauciflora), and now for scientific 



*°° BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

reasons placed by Vasey in Poa * Save for these few objections, 
we have nothing but praise for the work of Dr. Vasey and his 
assistant, Mr. Dewey. The descriptions are full, and the plates 
well arranged ; the latter not always an easy matter with grasses. 

Mr. W. H. Pearson, 3, The Polygon, Eccles, is preparing a 
work on British Hepatic®, and will be glad to receive records 
additional to those given in the London Catalogue (1881). 

The Km Bulletin for July contains several descriptions of new 
plants, including a decade of orchids, various economical notes, and 
a list ot distinguished persons who attended "a large garden party" 
given in "the reserve part of the Eoyal Gardens" by the First 
Commissioner of Works. 

n t I R °r'?' \ Geeene tells us > ^ Uryikta for August, that "Part i. 
ol the Index Kewemis, dealing with the nomenclature of all known 

?SS g A t8, i, llas ju , st been issued iu London - n had bec » 

and tt ?«££* ucb a ™ rk was ln Progress at the Kew Herbarium, 
and the promise of its publication excited curiosity and interest in 

ffiffifrfa 1 W ' ■ L r oi \ have ?<* y<* hid of theTubH 

refers L Si, Tn nS i grea i Wori f' Wlth the pr °g ress of "*** the 
readers of this Journal have been kept tolerably well acquainted. 

nf ino E De P artmen 1 t of Agriculture, Brisbane, has issued a pamphlet 

riant Lxfe. Air. F. M. Bailey, the author, has " aimed at combining 
with a glossary a view of plant life in general." Closely pr ted h 
-Z^of'M " d ° uble f co1 — . t he glossary HSEfi 
K TLmhl nf T* ! nt ? rm ^T> and ' like mosfc glossaries, a 
"IfvhvoZ , n? W ° rd ? WlUCh T by n ° means familiar-such as 
c^S* lr^ h ~ 8rey COlOU1 V ,; ^^cliorion-synonym for 
Si 1 ' rhodole «c«s J a combination of red and white"- 

^t^ssrssrr^ n Some definitions 4«^s> ; 

** iniractus much broken: synonym for inflexus " • "l.il-.H* 

h X s Zea h * e „ Sst" ' ; r d *" r v, ™ s -5-" -^ ° 

« PnS ? P • ? 1U a £ lossai 7> such as " Hyacinths in glasses " 
useful ™h ^T'" and the like - B « fc t] ^re is a great deal if 
on the pr^nt.^ "° ^ "* neXt •**» wiU be a » -plovement 

flpofW 11 ?! 6 n ?'y e * ^en able to ascertain any particulars of the 
onluly 27^1* J^T £* t0 ° k place " ™ are formed 

Anne Pkatt 'she wa?tt ^"J*™- Under her maiden name 
i« *i • ' was the au t«or of a large number of nnrmW »,J 

m the main accurate books about plants^hiefly British ones 

ReneSl b2 V* 1 " Itayal Horticultural Society is gaining in 

second 1 tor St .-. On tlitTff ?" ^tT^ Dr « F " ^ 01i?e ^ 
Plants," a P paper- by the Bpv r H 171 "?'" 1 F ^ g u P° n Cnltivatetl 
growing Plantsunder Gl a Sl' ?' Henslow '* ° U some Effects of 

essays principally of lm SL« n ^ion-tree ln Egypt," and other 

BBS8sSfe"3Si£?s«4 



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With a BIBLIOGRAPHY by Jcu s D F.tf.M.S 



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No. 370. 



OCTOBER, 1893. 



Vol. XXXI. 



I 



JOURNAL 



THE 



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BRITISH AND FORE 




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DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY. BRITISH Ml BtJM (NATURAL HISTORY 

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CONTENTS. 



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289 



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" GILBERT WHITE'S SELBORNE PLANTS. 

By the Editor. 

Among the omissions from our Bibliographical List of British and 
Irish Botanists, none is less justifiable than that of Gilbert White. 
Yet at the time we did not think his Letter xli to Barrington, 
dealing with the "more rare" plants of Selborne, entitled his name 
to inclusion, although we certainly admitted other names who had no 
greater claim than such a letter gives. We had not then noted that 
Mr. Bell, in his edition of Selborne (ii. 369 : 1877), said that he 
possessed a catalogue of Selborne plants " in the handwriting of 
Gilbert White," which he embodied in the list which he gave. 

By the kindness of the Rev. Canon Gordon, its fortunate 
possessor, I have lately seen a copy of Hudson's Flora Anglica 
(1762), which shows conclusively that White was well acquainted 
with the plants of his locality. The book has White's autograph 
on the flyleaf, with the date 1765. Facing the title is the follow- 
ing note in White's hand : « The plants marked thus x have all 
been found within the parish of Selborne in the county of South- 
ampton." He evidently used the book a great deal, for there are 
several corrections of references, figures, &c, by him, which are 
not found in the printed list of errata. But the only MS. notes 
other than these are the words " the candle rush " added to Juncus 
conglomerate (p. 129) ; an entry of Blackstonia on p. 88—" Gen- 
tian^ corollis octofidis, foliis perfoliatis : vid. p. 146"; and the 
addition to Primus Avium of the names " vulg. mery : Fr. merise." 
The volume afterwards came into the possession of " T. 
Rutger, Clowance," who employed it as White had done, indi- 
cating the plants he found by a circle. There is no entry of this 
in the book, but Miss Agnes Martelli infers it from the fact that 
Erica eUiaris is among the plants thus marked, and I find further 
confirmation in the marking of the " naked oats or pilcorn," which 
are characteristic of Cornish cultivation. Rutger, as a later entry 
testifies, presented the book to Mr. Philip Beal in 1846. It sub- 
sequently came into the hands of a Plymouth book-seller, from whom 
Canon Gordon purchased it shortlv after the White centenarv on 
June 24th. ' 

The enumeration contains 439 species, and is not therefore ex- 
haustive, although it must be remembered that in 1762 our list was 
much less extensive than it is at present. One additional plant 
Vaccinium Oa-ycoccos—1 find in Mr. Bell's list already referred to on 
White's authority, raising the number to 440. I think it may be 
of interest to print this list, and in so doing I have implicitly 
followed Hudson's order and nomenclature. Most of the names 
will be easily recognised. 

Callitriche verna Veronica Beccabunga 

Ligustrum vulgare chamtedrys 

Veronica officinalis arvensis 

serpyllifolia agrestis 

Journal op Botany.— Vol. 31. [Oct. 1893.] u 



290 



GILBERT WHITE'S SELBORNE PLANTS, 



Lycopus europaeus 
Circaea lutetiana 
Anthoxantbum odoratum 
Valeriana officinalis 

dioica 

Locusta 
Iris Pseudacorus 
Sclioenns albus 
Eriophorurn polystachion 
Phleum pratense 

nodosum 

Alopecurus pratensis 
Dactylis glomeratus 
Agrostis capillaris 
Aira casspitosa 
Melica nutans 
Briza media 
Poa trivialis 

annua 
Festuca ovina 

fluitans 

sylvatica 
Bromus secalinus 

sterilis 

giganteus 

pinnatus 
Avena fatua 

elatior 

Arundo phragmites 

Calamagrostis 
Lolium perenne 
Triticum repens 

Cynosurus cristatus 
Montia fontana 
Dipsacus sylvestris 

pilosus 
Scabiosa succisa 

arvensis 

columbaria 
Plantago major 

media 

lanceolata 
Slier ardia arvensis 
Asperula odorata 

cynanchica 
Galium verum 

Mollugo 

Aparine 
Cornus sanguinea 
Aplianes arvensis 
Potamogeton natans 



Myosotis scorpioides 
Lithospermum officinale 

arvense 
Cynoglossum officinale 
Pulmonaria officinalis 
Symphytum officinale 
Borago officinalis 
Lycopsis arvensis 
Ecliium vulgare 
Primula vulgaris 

veris 
Menyanthes trifolia 
Lysimachia vulgaris 

nemorum 

Nummularia 
Anagallis arvensis 
Convolvulus arvensis 

sepium 
Verbascum Thapsus 

nigrum 
Vinca minor 

Hyoscyamus niger 
Solanum nigrum 

Dulcamara 
Lonicera Periclymenum 
Campanula rotundifolia 

Tracbelium 
glomerata 
Rhamnus catbarticus 
Euonymus europaeus 
Ribes rubrum 
Hedera Helix 
Gentiana Amarella 

Centaurium 
Cuscuta europ£ea 
Cbenopodium Bonus-Henricus 

album 
Ulmus campestris 

glabra 
Hydrocotyle vulgaris 
Sanicula europsea 
Caucalis arvensis 
Daucus Carota 
Conium maculatum 
Heracleum Sphondylium 
Angelica sylvestris 
Sium nodiflorum 
Sison Amomum 

Oenantbe fistulosa 
Bunium Bulbocastanum 
Seselia Carvifolia 



GILBERT WHITE'S SELB0RNE PLANTS. 



291 



iEthusa Cynapium 
Scandix Pecten 5 

Chaerophyllum sylvestre 

temuluni 

Pastinaca sativa 
Pimpinella Saxifraga 
Apium graveolens 
iEgopodium Podagraria 
Viburnum Lantana 

Opulus 
Sambucus nigra 

Ebulus 
Alsine media 
Linum catharticum 

Radiola 
Drosera rotundifolia 

longifolia 
Berberis vulgaris 
Allium vineale 
Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus 
Hyacinthus non scriptus 
Nartbecium Ossifragum 
Juncus conglomeratus 

effusus 
. bulbosus 

bufonius 
Eumex sanguineus 

acutus 
obtusifolium 
Acetosa 
Acetosella 

Alisma Plantago A 
Epilobium angustifolium 

ramosum 
Vaccinium Myrtillus 

Erica vulgaris 

cinerea 
Tetralix 

Daphne Laureola 

Mezereum 

Blackstonia perfoliata 

Polygonum Bistorta 

Persicaria 
Hydropiper 

aviculare 
Convolvulus 
Fagopyrum 
Adoxa Moschatellina 
Paris quadrifolia 
Monotropa Hypopithys 

Cbrysosplenium oppositifolium 



Saxifraga trydactylites 
Scleranthus annuus 
Saponaria officinalis 
Cucubalus Beben 

Stellaria Holostea 

graminea 

Arenaria trinervia 

rubra 

Sedum Telepbium 

reflexum 

acre 
Oxalis Acetosella 
Agrostemma Gitbaco 
Lychnis Flos cuculi 

dioica 
Spergula arvensis 
Agrimonia Eupatoria 
Euphorbia Peplus 

exigua 
Helioscopia 
platyphyllos 
Amygdaloides 
Sempervivum tectorum 
Primus insititia 

spinosa 
Avium 

Cerasus 

Crataegus Aria 

torminalis 
Oxyacantba 

Pyrus Malus 

Spiraea Ulmaria 

Rosa arvensis 

canina 

Rubus c*esius 

fruticosus 

Fragaria vesca 

sterilis 

Potentilla Argentina 

reptans 

Tormentilla erecta 

Geum urbanum 

Comarum palustre 

Chelidonium majus 

Papaver Rhoeas 

Tilia europ&a 

Cistus Helianthemum 

Aquilegia vulgaris 

Anemone nemorosa 

Ranunculus Flammula 



repens 



u 2 



292 



GILBERT WHITE'S SELBORNE PLANTS. 



Ranunculus bulbosus 

acris 

arvensis 

hederaceus 
Ficaria verna 

Caltha palustris 
Helleborus foetidus 

viridis 
Clematis Vitalba 
Ajuga reptans 
Nepeta Cataria 
Betonica officinalis 
Mentha longifolia 

arvensis 

aquatica 
Glechoma hederacea 

arvensis 
Lamium album 

rubrum 
Galeopsis Ladanum 

Tetrahit 
Galeobdolon 
Stachys sylvatica 

palustris 
Ballota nigra 

Marrubium vulgare 
Leonurus Cardiaca 
Clinopodium vulgare 
Origanum vulgare 
Thymus serpyllum 
Melissa Calamintha 
Prunella vulgaris 
Scutellaria galericulata 

minor 
Latlmea squamaria 
Ehinanthus Crista galli 
Euphrasia officinalis 

odontites 
Melampyrum sylvaticum 
Pedicularis sylvatica 

palustris 
Antirrhinum Elatine 

spurium 
Linaria 
minus 
majus 

orontium 
Scrophularia nodosa 
Digitalis purpurea 
Draba verna 
Thlaspi Bursa pastoris 



Erysimum officinale 

Barbarea 
Alliaria 

Raphanus Raphanistrum 

Cardamine pratensis 
Sisymbrium Nasturtium 

Sophia 
Sinapis arvensis 
Geranium cicutarium 

pratense 
robertianum 
molle 
Malva sylvestris 

rotundifolia 

Alcea 
Fumaria officinalis 
Polygala vulgaris 
Spartium scoparium 
Genista tinctoria 



anglica 



ft 



Ulex europseus 

Ononis spinosa 

arvensis 
Anthyllis Vulneraria 
Orobus tuberosus 
Lathyrus sylvestris 

pratensis 
Vicia cracca 

sepium 

sativa 
Ervum tetraspermum 
Ornithopus perpusillus 
Hedysarum Onobrychis 
Trifolium repens 

pratense 

arvense 

agrarium 
Medicago lupulina 
Lotus corniculata 
Hypericum perforatum 

humifusum 
pulchrum 

Androsasmum 
hirsutum 

quadrangulum 
elodes 

Tragopogon pratense 
Picris Hieracioides 
Sonchus oleraceus 

arvensis 



gileert White's selborne plants* 



293 



Prenanthes muralis 
Leontodon Taraxacum 

hispidum 
autumnale 
Hieracium Pilosella 

murorum 
paludosum 
sabaudum 
umbellatum 
Crepis tectorum 
Hypochaeris radicata 
Laps ana communis 
Arctium Lappa 
Serratula arvensis 
Carduus lanceolatus 

nutans 
crispus 
palustris 
acaulos 
Carlina vulgaris 
Bidens tripartita 

cernua 
minima 
Eupatorium Cannabinum 
Artemisia Absinthium 

vulgaris 
Gnaplialium sylvaticum 

uliginosum 
Conyza squarrosa 
Tussilago Farfara 
Senecio vulgaris 

Jacobaea 
erucifolius 
Inula dysenterica 
Chrysanthemum segetum 

Leucanthemum 

Matricaria Parthenium 

Chamomilla 
Anthemis Cotula 
Achillea Millefolium 

Ptarmica 
Centaurea Cyanus 

Scabiosa 

Jacea 

Filago germanica 
Jasione montana 
Viola odorata 

canina 

tricolor 

Orchis bifolia 

Morio 



Orchis pyramidalis 

maculata 
Ophrys Nidus avis 

spiralis 

ovata 

apifera 
Serapias latifolia 

longifolia 
Arum maculatum 
Typha latifolia 
Sparganium erectum 

natans 
Car ex paniculata 

remota 
sylvatica 
Betula alba 
Urtica urens 

dioica 
Poterium sanguisorba 
Quercus Kobur 
Fagus sylvatica 
Corylus Avellana 
Salix caprea 

alba 
Viscum album 
Humulus Lupulus 
Tamus communis 
Mercurialis perennis 
Taxus baccata 
Ruscus aculeatus 
Bryonia alba 
Holcus lanatus 

mollis 
Parietaria officinalis 
Atriplex patula 

Acer Pseudo platanus 

campestre 
Fraxinus excelsior 
Equisetum arvense 

palustre 
fluviatile 
limosum 
Ophioglossum vulgatum 
Osmunda Spicant 
Pteris aquilina 
Asplenium Scolopendrium 

Adiantum nigrum 
Polypodium vulgare 

Filix mas 
F. foemina 
aculeatum 



294 



NOTES ON POTAMOGETONS. 



Polypodium lobatum Agaricus lactifluus 

cristatum campestris 

Polytrichum commune verrucosus 

Lichen candelarius Boletus versicolor 

capreatus igniarius 

resupinatus luteus 

sylvaticus Phallus impudicus 

pyxidatus Clavaria pistillaris 
rangiferinus ophioglossoides 

lremella Nostoc Lycoperdon Tuber 
Agaricus piiantarellus Bovista 

integer 






NOTES ON POTAMOGETONS. 

By Arthur Bennett, F.L.S. 

(Continued from p. 134.) 

diflS /nT'i^r ° f j 30me . of «* species of Potamogeton is 

SL? Th I T U *^y> 1 P^pose here to discuss P. 

2tL ee 1f d ?l nCt Pknts liave beeu so na ™d :-P tenui- 

S s ^tT^%% p ' 109 (1811) ; p - **»- H - B - K - ** 

Berlin, et in litt. ! (1864). 



tenuifoli 



surastan 2 ? f the 1 WG ^ Ve n ° definite ^formation ; the onlv 

Sis or of P T\ mal f n "SV* WaS either a form of P. «^m! 

S diLlwvnn T ^? Schreb - But should ifc P rove ^me- 
wing dineient horn these, the name must stand. 

variety /W H ' B ' ** mUSt be referred to * *"***« L. as a 

adop^PhllmnVf Mq ^^f 8 P^t renders it inadmissible to 

is a ptf I" T T"} alth0Ugh the Plant t0 which he 8 ives Jt 
after Prof A sotvci T*?* P ?T Se to name Jt P - ^chLmii* 
^J^1^\£ j£Z added S0 — to the knowledge of 



7,*W, f xx %X>7 «w -^V! L - and P ' B ^oanus Plnlippi in 
bufso manv on! f n 6 ?' ^ Vanes co ^iderably in its leaves, 
are b,X Preserv d £ *%??*, s P e ? imens of the pusillus group 

deSSe ctiX 004 " 8 ° aking ° Ut " * i3 diffic " lfc * 

paraVo 6 ^ 1 .** a foU °7 hlg ^henug, .--Chili, P*^ ! Val- 
S?°' CdumL Ar p ntlna | fl r«y^l *Wm !? Uruguay , 
Janeiro, OltZ^' ^^ ' Brazil * <***** " *°v. ^ £ 

slende/Sr^ft^ 1 ! P ' J*"**? Phffi PP i in ^- Stems 

^lfii^in^ e ^ eciai1 ^ in the iower 

___^_JWwmWong^3-4 in.) internodes. Leaves variable, 



Brasiliensit, 



NOTES ON POTAMOGETONS. 295 

linear, 1-3 in. long, 1-1^ in. broad, 3-veined; the outer slender 
veins connected with the midrib by very fine irregular cross-veins ; 
subacute. Stipules soon decaying, 6-9 lines long, yellowish white, 
those enclosing the peduncles more persistent and broader. Pe- 
duncles slender, equal, 1^-2^ in. long ; spikes 4-6 lines long, with 
6-9 fruits. Sepals ovate, with a rounded base. Fruit 2£ lines by 1^ 
in. broad, ovate (or slightly obovate), nearly flat on the sides, and 
impressed with a shallow depression ; the 3 keels sharply defined 
by raised lines on the smooth surface of the ventral face of the 
fruit, and without any tubercules ; beak prominent on the dorsal 
side of the medial line. Embryo-apex nearly touching the basal end. 

P. spirillus Tuckerman in Sill. Journal, 2nd series, vol. vi. 
p. 228 (1848). Dr. Morong, in his Mon. Fl. American Naiad. , 
queries my reference of P. Zetterstedtii Wallman (Schl. & Mohl. 
Bot. Zeit. i. 256 (1843), as belonging to the above plant. While fully 
believing it does so, I cannot say I have seen a specimen to prove 
it. But it is of secondary importance, if I am right in believing that 
Tuckerman's plant must bear the name of P. dimorphum Eafinesque 
in Month. Mag. & Critical Review, p. 358 (1817). 

Barton (Fl. Philad. Prod. (1815) ) names a new species P. 
diversifolius (it is doubtful whether he knew of the publication of 
Eafinesque in 1808 of the same name), and says it is distinct from 



P. hybridus Michx. (1803). 



."' 



t. 84, vol. iii., he figured his species, and the plate seems to me to 
represent P. spirillus, if there is any difference between that and 
P. hybridus as species. Eafinesque, reviewing Barton's Flora (1815) 
in Monthly May. d Critical Review of 1817, remarks that his (Barton's) 
plant is different from his diversifolius, and hence from hybridus of 
Michx., and preferred the name P. dimorphum for it ; and it seems 
to me that it must bear that name, and that Tuckerman's becomes 



a synonym 



(>< 



because the latter had been used by Thuillier (or rather Pentagna) 
for P. heterophyllus Schreb., it follows that Barton's diversifolius 
will become a synonym of P. dimorphum Eaf. 

But the "law" that is desired to be forced on us, "that any 
species or variety that has been so named, under any other species 
or variety, cannot be used in the same genus/ 1 will be of somewhat 
difficult application. Students certainly will never know, and even 
monographers will not be safe, as proved by Dr. Morong's own 
work, where he must (by his own law) change the names of at least 
three of his species, having failed to ascertain that they were in use 

before. 

Most of the American authors (Gray, &c.) refer Barton's diversi- 
folius to P. hybridus Michx. ; but I do not see how this could have 
been done with Barton's plate in existence, and his and Eafinesque's 
positive declaration to the contrary. These facts cannot be put 
aside by any suggestion of looseness of naming, &c. 

P. fluitans Both, FL Germ. i. p. 72 (1788) : ii. p. 202. In his 
recently published Monograph, Dr. Morong remarks that he hesi- 
tates to identify P. Lonchites of Tuckerman with the plant usually 



296 NOTES ON POTAMOGETONS. 

considered among European botanists as Koth's, and gives excellent 
reasons for Ins hesitation. 

I have been for some time trying to unravel the difficulties that 
surround the question, and offer these remarks as a contribution to 
the subject, though I doubtless may have been too venturesome in 
some of the results given. We have no certain knowledge of any 
specimen of Roth's species being preserved in any herbarium ; but 
there are at Munich specimens in Schreber's herbarium, named as 
such, and gathered "In Seebach, 1775," and others, "In Seebach, 
1782." It seems to me a reasonable inference that these specimens 
are from (or seen by) Roth ; the more so because there are other 
species in the same collection actually received from Roth, and 
signed by him. Thev ara t.Via nlanf ™n »oii a..*j — ,-~ u„~i — a 



fluitans 



t\ l, • 1 a\ n -""V "»« u " c LJiauv we VIM JIUUam 1H JlillgiailU 

(hybrid?), and not the Neckar plant of Schimper and Dr. Tiselius. 
13ut Dr. Morong's remarks that specimens sent to him from 
prance under Roth's name have fruit "totally dissimilar" from the 
Neckor plant sent him by Dr. Tiselius. This makes the matter 
more difficult of elucidation. I have looked through all the French 
specimens I can get access to, but I can find no more difference 
than state of maturity would show. French specimens from the 
koirelLloyd) are precisely our plant. A specimen from " Varde, 
leg. Hempel which (except that it has no fruit)' might well have 
been gathered m the United States as Lonchites* 

™n7:tV°^ Vmg J h Z Wl ?° le 0f the specimens I possess in fruit 

«™?<nf'/ ^ l Cannot discover an y real difference, 

I) Z V 3 ? 1 ' oce £ ds from degrees of ripeness. Not having seen 

musft o S S \ Ch s P ec r ens ' * can offer no explanation ; these 
must be cleared up some other time 

bv Bo°v i d 3 b n?; 01]d Eur ? pe ' l find tlmfc AI S erian specimens gathered 
Abvss ink tt 7 S > mUSt f i*° the Necker P lant ' ^ fliers from 
proSw \ ?„ i mU S h , kl ' ger and di ^i^ilar, and may be, and 
cont I SriS 7f f nb i ed SpeciGS - E ^P tian specimens in fruit 
Abvssinln ZV ° ffruit ' a i b0 ! ltlia ^ way between the Algerian and 

mens Tom InnT^ ^ ^ S > pe is as iia the A1 ^rian. Speci- 
Thom ''Spm^' * u "J aub ' Ind ia, alt. 1000 ft.; Hook. fit. et 

<Wh a me the - Same as the European plant, 

be utterlv^n" C ^i SP ? Clme , nS Damed P- M^n! Both, I believe to 

M^o^T^p t0 ref6r With Safet ^ unles s in fruit. The 
to name film JK P - m f'^nus is so like these that it is impossible 

groun ig o Tr^W frUlt ; The variati ^ in the leaves in this 
un2 in fruTt? D ° ^ CaU be laid u P on specimens named, 

n>lT £ Po a ivnesia haV J *? ei \ nothin g «^ could be referred to 

in Polynesia, of the two species named by Chamisso 

Koth, S^S^ the name of P. JiuUans 

P- Tepperi; it alio occurs in S ,.v Lena ' Siberia," I find to belong to my 
It may be that a deshe not to ^ f Y ™nan, Abbe Faure," in herb. Paris. 

two plants I^rttS m™ S, 7 ^ fal,ly Sp ieS has led me to combine 
marked altamtion i^^'J^^F™ ****** in the fruits ^ but 
much caution is needed not Li -l TUlts from haIf to f u11 maturity, so that 

uuon is needed not to describe merely conditions of growth. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES, , 297 

P. O-waikensis and P. marianensis, the former was founded on 
specimens without fruit ; the latter has immature fruit, not unlike 
the figure of that of the var. stagnatilis Koch of Reichenbach's 
Icones, but. with two teeth at the base of the side of the fruit, and 
another at the base of the keel. Kunth, Emm. hi. 128 (1841), 
places all these species of Chamisso under P. natans L. ; but the 
form of the leaves refers them to the fiuitans group. 

It may be asked (considering the great advance made in the 
study of the essential characters of plants of late years), are there 
not other characters that may be used beyond the old ones ? The 
answer to this is, there are indications of such ; but, as in all new 
things, caution, wide application, and continuous use are needed 
before these can be advanced as more than theoretic. 

The figure of the fruit of Koch's var. stagnatilis in Reichenbach's 
Icones has to me always been a puzzle ; authentic examples of 
Koch's plant show no such elongated beak ; perhaps they were 
drawn from immature examples ? 

I propose the following nomenclature as the best that can at 
present be adopted for this section : — 

1. P. fluitans Roth et auct. plur. The barren plant generally 
so named. Europe generally. Beyond Europe I have no certain 
examples that can be clearly placed here. 

2. P. americanus Chamisso, Linnaa-, ii. 226 (1827). P. 
Richardii Solms in herb. Buchenan 1 P. Lonckites Tuckerman, 
Am. Joum. Sc. & Art, 2nd Ser., vol. i. 226 (1848). — Var. stagjiatilis 
Koch (under fluitans). Europe ! — Var. Novceboracensis Morong 
(under Lonckites). N. America! Sparingly in Europe. Italy I 
Germany, Oberschesin ! Heidelberg ! Bruckhulm I Aargan ! Si- 
lesia ! Switzerland (Jura), Michalet\ Asia. Armenia, Raddel 
India. Punjaub ! Africa. Algeria ! Egypt ! Socotra ? America, N. 
Distributed from Canada ! Brit. Columbia ; southwards to Florida ! 
New Mexico ! and Porto Rico ! From the Eastern States, west- 
ward to Kentucky I Texas ! California ! 

Perhaps a better plan would be to give the Necker plant a new 
name, and place Lonckites Tuck, as a variety of it, or to consider 
americanus a subspecies; but I am unwilling to give new names 
until good and sufficient reason can be found for so doing. We 
shall doubtless in time obtain material to help in elucidating the 
obscure points in the history of P. fluitans Roth. 

(To be continued.) 



parts 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

II. — 'Botany of Beechey's Voyage' and 'Flora of North 

America.' 

In consequence of the printing of the dates of publication of the 
ts of Hooker's Flora Boreali- Americana* a short time ago, I 



In Bull. Herb. Boiss. i. (1893), p. 298. 



298 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 



have received two letters from the United States, asking if I could 



Voyage in the 



>/ 



>/ 



America. I have replied in general terms to my correspondents, 
but should like to put the facts which I have been able to get 
together on permanent record. 

The copy of Torrey & Gray in the library of the British Museum, 
Bloomsbury, is in its original buff paper wrappers, and from this 
I can submit the following statement as accurate, so far as the 
dates are correctly set out on these wrappers : 

Vol. i., Part 1, pp. 1-184, July, 1838. 

„ Part 2, pp. 185-360, October, 1838. 
„ Part 3, pp. 361-544, June, 1840. 

Part 4, pp. 545-698, Index (711), Title, &c, pp. xiv., 
Errata, June, 1840. 
Vol. ii., Part 1, pp. 1-184, May, 1841. The wrapper has no 

printing on it, but I have taken the date from Stili- 

maris Journal, xli. (1841), p. 275. 

„ Part 2, pp. 185-392, April, 1842. 



>> 



Part 3, pp. 393-504, February, 1843. 
No more issued. 



The case of Hooker & Arnott is not so easy, for I have not 
succeeded in finding any copy with the original wrappers, aud the 
fallowing dates can only be taken as probable ; if any reader of the 
Journal of Botany has access to such a copy, and would communi- 
cate to me the actual printed dates, I should be extremely obliged. 

lnere is no difficulty in ascertaining the date of the first part, 
as several announcements concur; thus in Linnaa the issue is 
given as containing pp. 1-48, with ten plates, and came out in 
i«dO. As I have failed to find more than occasional allusions 
during the progress of the work, I have pieced together all such 
indications, and assuming that each part was of the same dimensions 
as tne first, I have referred to Pfeifi'er's Nomenclator for the dates of 
ail new genera as below, as the dates therein given must have been 
gathered from some copy : 

Part 1, pp. 1-48, in 1830 (as above). 

2, pp. 49-96, in 1832 [Ptcrochilus). 

3, pp. 97-144, in 1832 (Adenostoma). 

*' P &J 4 ?" 192 ' k 183 3 (Layia ; see also Torr. & Gray, ii. 
392, in confirmation). 



>y 



>i 



>> 



„ 5, pp. 193-240, in 1836 (Aniso pappus). 



6, pp. 241-288 (no indication of date, owing to the absence 
of any new genus). 

„ 7, pp. 289-336, in 1840 (Heterocentron, &c, and several 

cited by Endlicher in that year). 
„ 8, pp. 337-384, in 1840 {Atenia, &c). 

" 9 ' P ?" ?^;t 82 ' in 1841 ? (0r«yw. &c., cited by Endlicher, 



in 1842). 



„ 10, pp. 433-(486), in 1841 {Sinclairia). 



A SKETCH OF THE BOTANY OF IRELAND. 299 

The latter half of the woyk is especially open to doubt, for 
Silliman's Journal, xxxix. (1840), pp. 172-3, states that parts 9, 11 
and 12 came out in 1839 or 1840, the twelfth being the conclusion ; 
and, if correct, this shows that the latter parts were not of the same 
dimensions as the first part. It is in this direction that I seek 
for further information from any botanist or librarian who can 
enlighten me. B Daydon j ackson . 



A SKETCH OF THE BOTANY OF IRELAND.* 

By A. G. More, F.L.S. 

The Flora of Ireland, as distinguished from that of the rest of 
the Continent of Europe, is remarkable from the presence of a few 
striking species which do not occur in Great Britain nor in Northern 
Europe. Nearly all of these plants may be classed as Western and 
South-western in Ireland. Several of them are very abundant in 
their Irish stations. For instance, Daboecia polifolia, a striking and 
handsome species, occurs plentifully throughout Connemara and 
the barony of Murrisk, in Western Mayo; in fact, through the 
whole district lying between Gal way Bay and Clew Bay. This and 
Erica mediterranea are two of the most characteristic plants of the 
Irish flora ; and, with E. Maclean, constitute a very striking group 
of species, whose head-quarters are to be found in Portugal and 
Spain. It is to be remarked here that, curiously enough, not one 
of these three heaths is found in Clare, or Kerry, or Cork — for the 
South-west of Ireland has also its own distinct group of plants, 
most of which do not occur further north. In fact, the peculiarly 
" Irish' ' species arrange themselves under four groups. 

I. — American Species. 

Plants which are much more plentiful in North America, and 
for the most part do not occur on the European Continent. These 
may be considered as the remains of a former land connection 

America, and were probably driven southwards during the 



with 



any 



land which, at that time, joined America to Jburope ; and these 
may be held to be more or less Arctic species, as well as Americo- 

European. 

The best known of these North Americans is the rare orchid 
Spiranthes Romanzoffiana, which in Europe occurs only in the few 
scattered localities in the counties of Cork, Armagh, and Derry 
near Berehaven, and also in the valley of the Ban don river. 



* [This sketch is reprinted from an excellent shilling handbook — the South 
of England Pictorial Guide, recently published by Messrs. Gay & Co., of Cork. 
The Guide also contains articles by competent authorities on other branches of 
natural history, and is in this respect an important advance upon similar 
works. Mr. More has made one or two corrections in the reprint, which has 
been slightly curtailed in unimportant particulars. — Ed. Journ. Bot.] 



300 A SKETCH OF THE BOTANY OF IRELAND. 

Another North American plant is the so-called u Blue-eyed 
Grass 7 ' of Canada (Sisyrinchium angu&tifolium), which grows in 
great abundance between Woodford and Lough Derg, in Galway, 
and has recently been found near Milltown and Killorglin, and 
sparingly in a few other scattered localities in Kerry. A third 
notable plant of the American group is Juncus tenuis, which Mr. 
R. W. Scully found in several places along the estuary of the 
Kenmare river ; a very scarce and local species anywhere in 
Europe, and in Britain occurring only in Eenfrew, Dumbarton, 
and Kirkcudbright ; in North Wales ; and in a single station in 
Herefordshire. The Sisyrinchium has given much trouble to 
botanists, for it is difficult to decide whether it should be con- 
sidered a native, — i. e., as having reached Ireland before the advent 
of man, — or whether it may have spread originally from gardens, 
as it is a plant which has shown elsewhere extraordinary powers of 
spreading where it has once been introduced. Still, whatever may 
be said of this last species, there is no doubt that Spiranthes 
Bomanzqffi a )ia is truly native ; and the unexpected discovery of a 
new Irish locality in Armagh lends some support to the theory of 
its Arctic origin. We may assume that it arrived before or during 
the glacial period on two separate points of Ireland, — Cork and 
Armagh, — both situated not far from the sea-coast. 

One more American species, quite lately observed in Kerry, is 
Polygonum sagittifolium, which was discovered only two years ago 
near Cahirdaniel, Co. Kerry, by Mr. Scully, but he does not consider 
it a native plant. With these may also be classed Naias flexilis, 
found in Galway and Perthshire, as well as in Carah and Killarney 
Lakes, and Eriocaulon sejrtangulare, which occurs on the west coast 
of Ireland from Donegal to Cork. 

We have next to enumerate the Western and South-western 
species, which, in the British Isles, find their head-quarters in 
Cork and Kerry, and extend also to the European continent. These 
are Sa.rifraga umbrosa, S. Geum, and, if it can be reckoned as a 
third species, S. hirsuta. The first reaches to the north of Donegal, 
and eastward to the Cummeragh and Knockmeildown mountains of 
\\ aterlord ; and thus is the most widely distributed of the whole 
West Irish group. S. Geum and S. hirsute (the latter probably only 
a variety) are found in Cork and Kerry only, and keep at a lower 
level than 8. umbrosa, which, in Ireland, as well as in Spain, 
appears quite at home among the alpine species, 

u. T*,^?* Irish s P ecie s may be conveniently arranged under the 
three following groups : — 



IL 



the West Coast from Galway 



Donegal to Kerry 



Saxifraga umbrosa, Carum venicillatum, Euphorbia hyberna, As- 
plenium acutum (the last also in North-east Ireland), Helianthemum 
guttatum found on Inishbofin and Irish Turk (ranges from these 

islands to Thrao.naatl/i ti^a n i.\ N ° 



islands to Three-Castle Head, Cork), 






A SKETCH OF THE BOTANY OF IRELAND. 301 



III. — Plants in Ireland peculiar to Cork and Kerry. 

Arbutus Unedo (West Europe and Mediterranean), Pinguicula 
grandiflora (Alps and Pyrenees). The next four all occur in Eng- 
land : — Gar ex punctata :., Asplenium lanceolatum, J uncus tenuis (Kerry 



nfl 



ifi 



which is nowhere so abundant as in Kerry and Cork; and my 
friend Mr Colgan has seen it growing, usually at an elevation of 
from 5000 to 6000 ft., in the Pyrenees, where, however, it does not 
attain so luxuriant a growth as in Kerry. Arbutus Unedo, so abun- 
dant at Killarney, occurs also, but more sparingly, in Co. Cork, 
about Glengarriff, &c. 

IV. — Restricted to Clare, Galway, and Mayo. 
Neotinea intacta (the locality on Lough Corrib just reaches 

Mayo). Daboecia polifolia, Erica mediterraiua, E. MackaAL All 

these heaths occur in the Spanish Peninsula, and Neotinea near 
Nice, &c. 



West 



& 



with it, on the Pyrenees. In Ireland, finding its eastern limit along 
the River Suir, and in Colgan Glen, Co. Waterford. This rare 
spurge is known to the Kerry peasantry by the name of " Bonikean," 
not ''Makinboy,'' as mentioned by some old writers, and it is still 
used for poisoning fish; its acrid milky juice, mingling freely with 
the water, stupefies all the unfortunate trout which come within 
the range of its influence. Its use, like that of quicklime by 
poachers, cannot be too strictly forbidden. 

To these may be added the few of Watson's "Atlantic" species, 
peculiar to Cornwall or the West of England, which reach Ireland! 
Their number is fewer than might have been expected from the 
similarity of position and climate of these two districts. These 
species are — Trichonuincs radicans, Sibthorjria europaa, Carum vt rti- 
cil Latum, Carex punctata, lilnjnchosporafusca, Helianthemum e/uttatum, 
Asplenium lanceolatum, Hymenophyllum tunbridgense, IL Wilsoni 
Bartsia viscosa, Viola Curtisii, Sitnethis bicolor. 

The most interesting species occurring on the borders of our 
district is the rare little orchid, Neotinea intacta, which was dis- 
covered by myself and my sister, Miss F. M. More, nearly thirty 
years ago, at Castle Taylor, in the county of Galway, and has 
since beep ascertained to grow, in some plenty, throughout the 
Burren district of Northern Clare, on the same upper carboniferous 
limestone. It has also been found on the shores of Lough Corrib, 



and 



/' 



It is very remarkable that at Castle Taylor, as in Burren, we 
find this Mediterranean orchid, a species as eminently southern as 




302 A SKETCH OP THE BOTANY OP IRELAND. 

with it, Rubia peregrina, Ophrys muscifera, and 0. apifera grow 
together, at little above sea-level, and associate with the corn crops 
of Watson's "agricultural zone." So that it becomes difficult to 
say whether we are dealing with alpines descending into the agri- 
cultural zone, or with plants of the lowest agricultural zone in a 
very abnormal association. At any rate, we have here a commixture 
of zones, nowhere else to be found in the British Isles, and which, 
we think, may be fairly attributed to the exceptional humidity of the 
Irish climate, as well as to past geological changes and migrations. 
All the West Irish plants may be considered as species which 
are common to the West of France, the Pyrenees, and the Spanish 
Peninsula, and four of them occur also on the shores of the Medi- 
terranean. This is sufficient to show the presence of a well-defined 
group of West European species on the western shores of Ireland. 
And in the same way, the general British and Irish Flora is almost 
altogether related to the European, in such a manner that we may 
suppose it has immigrated from the adjoining Continent, and is, in 
character, such as we might expect if the British Islands were not 
separated by the German Ocean, the Bristol Channel, and the 
Irish Sea. It would appear that Alphonse DeCandolle was right 
in accepting the theory that the immigration of our flora (and fauna) 
was effected through the former continuity of land, and that our 
islands were not colonised by water and air transport, across the 
narrow straits which now separate them from their former home. 
It is different with the spores of cryptogamic plants, which are easily 
carried by the wind, and whose unexpected presence in our islands 
may in this way be accounted for ; the dust-like seeds having been 
wafted, perchance, for many hundred miles across the Atlantic 

All three groups of European -Irish species must be assumed to 
have immigrated from the adjacent Continent after the glacial 
period had passed away, and when plants and animals were 
advancing northwards, under an ameliorated climate. This dis- 
poses of the question as to whether some of them mav not have 
originated m Ireland. The presence of Baboecia in the Azores™ 
harder to explain, but being, as Mr. Watson considers it, a distinct 
variety, it is likely to have reached these islands at a time when the 
species was young and thus we have still remaining in the Azores 
a form more closely allied to the original race of the species 

^/n^iTl^ ^ ° f C ° rk and Kerr y i3 comparatively poor, 
and nearly all the rare species occur in Kerry onlylsaxifraya hirta 

^ S.affinxs Sammrea alpina, Aim alpina, Saxifraga aizoides, 



Draba 



and Tha- 



hP W tT' P °S ^T' Po Jy f Jonum viviparum, Alchemilla alpina 

TiutllT ° n Brandon 7 °nly. A remarkably dwarf form of the 
adder s_tongue occurs on Brandon Head. It was found by Mr. 
xi. Kj. nart several years ago. 



LOWLAN 



Q*\v,^7.*\> i - i i. .7 *-- v*v^, c i/ainuuiar mention : — 

vZll n ' ° n ^u f the ™ rest British P lant9 ' occurs plenti- 



estuary. 



Derryn 



o 



A SKETCH OF THE BOTANY OF IRELAND. 303 

i 

Bartsia viscosa is frequent in Kerry and South Cork, especially 

near the sea-coast. 

Lepidium latifolium (Dittander), perhaps a relic of ancient culti- 
vation, grows in Cork, at Corkbeg, and near Youghal Harbour ; 
and is recorded also from near the head of Kenmare Eiver, and near 

Kinsale. 

Subularia aquatica, and with it Isoetes ecfmwspora, is found in 

Killarney Lakes. 

Helianthemum guttatum is plentiful near the old ruins on Three- 
Castle Head, Cork. 

Lathynis maritimus grows, or grew, on the sandy shores of 

Castlemaine Harbour. 

Galium boreale is plentiful on the shores and islands of Killarney 

Lakes. 

Pyrola media is found near Ballyvaughan, and other places in 

Burren. 

Wahlenbergia hederacea occurs along the Flesk, near Killarney, 

and near Lispole Station, towards Connor Hill; also along the 
Eivers Lee and Bandon. 

Cicendia Jiliformis is found on the shores of Lough Guitane, and 
at Lough Currane; at Waterville and Glenmore Lake, in Kerry; 
at Berehaven, Glengarriff, Dursey Island, &c, in Cork. 

Orobanche Rederm. Muckross, on the Abbey walls, and on 
islands in the Lakes of Killarney, and at Derrynane, Kerry ; fre- 
quent in Cork. 

Lathraa Squamaria. Killarney. 

Monotropa Hypopitys. In Muckross demesne, Killarney; also 

in Galway and Sligo. 

Cuscuta Epithymum. On the sandhills near Ardfert (R. W. 

Scully). 

Linaria repens is frequent about Bandon, with its hybrid progeny, 

Linaria sepium of Allman. 

Sibthorpia europaa is plentiful on the northern slope of Connor 
Hill, at 1700 ft., and thence descends to sea-level at Fermoyle. It 

occurs also at Annascaul. 

Calamintha Clinopodium. Killarney; very rare. Near Muckross. 

Piiigiiicula grandijlora and Euphorbia hybenia are widely distri- 
buted in the west of Cork and Kerry. 

Utricularia neglecta. Killarney and Tralee (E. W. S.). 

Euphorbia amygdaloides finds its only Irish localities in the valley 
of the Bandon Eiver — at Castle Bernard Park, and in Dunderrow 

Wood. 

Epipactis ovalis grows in the Burren district of North Clare. A 



variety only. 



if 



also in a wood at Glengarriff, and at Adrigoole. Wood at head of 
Lough Carah. Wood by the Kenmare Eoad, near Derrycunnihy 
Cascade. Near Brickeen Bridge, and at Muckross, Killarney. 

Allium Scorodoprasum. At Kenmare, and in the woods at 
Muckross ; Foaty Island, and profusely in the woods near Bantry, 
where it was recently discovered by Mr, E. A. Phillips. 



804 



FLOWERING 



Simethis bicolor, as before stated, at Derrynane, and along the 
Kenmare estuary. 

Jancas acutus. Plentiful on the warren at Rosscarbery. 
Eriocaulon septanguktre. In Lough Carah ; in the Cloonee Lakes, 
south side of the Kenmare River ; and in a mountain lake near 



Adrigoole. 



Crlengarnff, Ardgroom, and Berehaven, in Cork. 

Scirpus parvidus Along a stream near the sea at Ballybunion, 
Aerry (tf w, £.). It has become scarce at Arklow, the original 
Irish station. ° 

h yj" Bdnnin 9 hail seniana. Near Killarney (fl. TF. 5.). A rare 

a ^ C ' a 2Z tUi l' i Near SOUth ^ d ° f Carah Lake ' in several Places, 

^Harney ^ V ^) g * ^ ^^ near the Up * er Lake <* 

C. jHtnctota is abundant along the shores of Kenmare River, and 

K?&c n6ar y ' Berehaven ' Ardgroom, Waterville, Kerry 

Pilularia globulifera. By the Upper Lake of Killarney. 

Ihe Clare Plants, which, indeed, scarcely belong to our district 
include, as already stated, one of our greatest Irish rarities, S 
£**>, and many sub-alpme species, of which the most noteworthy 

to ir ^T d f*>Hf™^>num canum, and Potendllafruticosa, 

4<«e»*u* C«gi»H w . Vmem occurs very sparingly if not now 
gr ws C plettlllv 6 SO f f h T sl f 0r % of A «» ShaVon, n^rVoynes; and 
fhe nor h a Ch " T^ ° f AlTaU ; and ia man ? local1 ^ * 

*££ Idt ^ ^ t0 — ~ i -ritX^lne 

plants oMhf^ t e ab ? ve / 1 r r 1 t 8Ummar y of the characteristic 
vd vble and rnni 5 WG if ° f Irdand ' l S la % acknowledge the 
my friend^M TnJ' "* ^ assista » ce which I have received from 
my mends Mi. Nathaniel Colgan and Mr. Reginald W. Scullv the 
latter is now engaged in the preparation of a Flora of Kerry. * ' 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 



COMPILED BY 



Phyteuma 



William A. Clarke, F.I 

(Continued from p. 279.) 



1633. " Mr. 



Goodvei- f™ TT • ai , • uu I 1 '53). 1633. " Mr. 

chTlk e hilly ^ronrX l l \f °™g ^ enimi y wildi in the inclosed 
eh.W^Si??r45 ^ Mapl6 - DurhaM neere Petersfield in Hamp- 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 305 

P. spicatum L. Sp. PI. 171 (1753). 1640, 1829. « Wilde 
in divers places of this land" (Park. Theatr. 648); rediscovered in 
1825 by Rev. Ralph Price, "near Hadlow Down, in Mayfield, 
Sussex."— Borrer in E. B. S. 2598. 

Campanula glomerata L. Sp. PI. 166 (1753). 1570. 

"Natales . . . montium pratorum . . . Angliae Occiduae sunt." 
Lob. Adv. 139. "Upon the chalkie hils about Greenehyth in 
Kent," &c— Ger. 365 (1597). 

C. Traehelium L. Sp. PL 166 (1753). 1597. " In the low 
woods and hedgerows of Kent about Canterburie," &c— Ger. 365. 

C. latifolia L. Sp. PI. 165 (1753). 1633. "In the yeere 
1626 I found it in great plenty, growing wilde upon the bankes of 
the River Ouse in Yorkeshire, as I went from Yorke to visit Selby, 
the place whereas I was borne." — Johnson, Ger. em. 450. 

C. rapunculoides L. Sp. PI. 165 (1753). 1800. " At Blair 

in Scotland. Fenwick Skrimshire, M.D."— Sm. PI. Brit. i. 238. 

But there is a specimen in Herb. Buddie (c. 1708) labelled 

"Brought into Danby's garden at Hogsdon [Hoxton] out of some 

woods in Oxfordshire, among yew trees." See also Druce, Fl. Oxf. 
188. 

C. rotundifolia L. Sp. PI. 163 (1753). 1597. "Wilde in 
most places of England." — Ger. 368. 

C. Rapunculus L. Sp. PI. 164 (1753). 1597. " Groweth in 
woods." — Ger. 369. " Prope Croydon in agro Surriensi." — Huds. 
i. 81 (1762). 

C. patula L. Sp. PI. 163 (1753). 1665. "Rapuntium fl. 
purp. At Effaton, a mile from Wigmore, Herefordshire." — Merr. 
103. " Merretus Rapuntium suum flore purpureo prope Effaton 
(lege Adforton) milliari a Wigmore HerefordiaB vico nasci tradit, 
quo in loco Campanulam hanc nostram provenire mihi retulit 
Littleton Brown, A.M., ut non videatur aubium, quin eandem 
nobiscum Merretus intelligat plantam." — Dillenius, Hort. Eltham. 
69 (1732). See also Townsend, Fl. Hants. 205. 

Specularia hybrida DC. Prod. vii. 490 (1839). 1633. 
" Among the corn in Chelsey field." — Johnson, Ger. em. 440. 

Oxycoccus palustris Pers. Syn. i. 419(1805). 1597. "Upon 
bogs and such like waterish and fennie places, especially in Cheshire 
and Staffordshire, where I have found it in great plentie." — Ger. 
1367. 

Vaccinium Vitis-Idsea L. Sp. PI. 351 (1758). 1597. " In 

Westmerland at a place called Crosby Ravenswaith." — Ger. 1230. 

V. uliginosum L. Sp. PL 350 (1753). 1670. " At Osten in 
Cumberland, . . . between Hexham and Pereth [Penrith] , in the 
moorish pastures. Th. Willisel." — Ray, Cat. 309. 

V. Myrtillus L. Sp. PL 849 (1753). 1570. " In Anglia . . . 
fructum esitavimus." — Lob. Adv. 417. "In certayne woods of 
. . . Englande."— Lyte 670 (1578). 

Arbutus Unedo L. Sp. PL 395 (1753). 1640. "Hathbeene 
of late dayes found in the West part of Ireland." — Park. Theatr. 
1490. 

Arctostaphylos alpina Spreng. Syst. Veg. ii. 287 (1825). 

Journal of Botany.— Vol. 31. [Oct. 1893.] x 



1597. " In 



806 FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. 

1777. " Upon many of the highland mountains . . . particularly 
on those to the south of Little Loch Broom, in Koss-shire," &c. 
Lightf. Fl. Scot. i. 215. 

A. Uva-ursi Spreng. Syst. Veg. ii. 287 (1825). 1666. " Four 
miles from Heptenstall, near Widdop, on a great Stone by the 
River Gorlpe, in Lancashire."— Merrett, 123. 

Andromeda Polifolia L. Sp. PI. 393 (1753). 

Lancashire .... especially neere unto a small village called 
Maudsley ; there found by a learned Gentleman often remembered 
in our History (and that woorthily), Master Thomas Hesketh." 
Ger. 1110. 

Calluna Erica DO. Fl. Fr. hi. 680 (1805). 1551. "The 
hyest hethe that ever I saw, groweth in Northumberland, which is 
so hyghe that a man may hyde hymself in."— Turn. i. P ij (210). 

Erica ciliaris L. Sp. PL 354 (1753). 1829. « Sent from a 
bog near Truro by the Rev. I. [J.] S. Tozer to Dr. Greville, 1828." 
— Lindl. byn. 174. Previously known to Sir Charles Lemon : see 
E. B. Supp. 2618. 

• E. Tetralix L. Sp. PI. 353 (1753). 1570. " Saxosis monti- 
dus Angh® occidute ad Bristoiam exilior fruticat."— Lob. Adv. 447. 

tv f C f ai A r S 0ok ' iu Com P- Bot - Ma S- J - 158 (1835). 1835. 

Discovered by William MacCalla near Koundstone, Connemara. 

Hooker. I.e. . 

HJtiffi^*-*""W* 1597 « "Hampstead 

onWw^w' ^ "V 280 (1771 )' 167 °- " By the way-side 
lay Ma? I?i! Lezard-point in Cornwal, plentifully."- 



mediterrane 



1831. Discovered 



hv T T Monlrn • innn v"™L "* «*V \1 I K> 1 . 1831. UlSCOVei 



procumbens 



1777 I .TLk DenS r SV ' Journ - Bot « «*. ^5 (1813). 

mountains P ?n ™7 f ° gF0Und n6ar the sumraifcs of &* highlimi 

140 Bu t'Z K P l a T ' aS - ™ Ben " mor ' &c.-Lightf. Fl Scot. 
iw. i>ut see Pennant, Voy. ii. 245 (1774) 

'^Sjet^!? 01 ^?; Parad " *' 36 ( 180 «)- 1812. 
of Shiant " V nZTa' m £ trafclls i>ey, and in the western isles 

ffi^% pf h ' 22°2 tiCed "" ^^ by Mr ' 

(183^ b T704 POl ^ ia B '<R°V n Edinb " N ' PhiI - 3 ^m. xvii. 160 

In montib^ivl; "r^/ Dabe0ci Hibernis *>• Lhwyd 

totuTSr Pn? y ° ^^ & fPongioao solo frequens est! ut & per 
FoZd SEEK** l" Gal °Ji dia '1-Kay. H?st. hi., Dendr. §8. 



xxvii. 524. 



TL,^^ • , » — «• a»oij, -LJL1SU. in., J^fcJlKir. vo. 

Lhwyd in or before 1700. See his letter in Phil. Trans. 



YorlwSj ^ tUn 1 if0lia ¥ Sp ' P1 - 896 ("SB). 1640. » In 
to JNoitimmoerland and Durham, ii. 19. E. B. 1948. 



FIRST RECORDS OF BRITISH FLOWERINO PLANTS. 807 

P. minor L. Sp. PI. 396 (1753). 1696. " In Stoken-Church- 
Woods, on the right hand going towards London, as I am informed 
by Mr. Bobart." — Ray, Syn. ii. 243, where it is confused with P. 
rotundifolia. 

P. seounda L. Sp. PI. 896 (1753). 1690. " Shewn me b 
- Mr. Witham in Haselwood Woods, near Sir Walter Vavasors Par 

in Yorkshire." — Eay, Syn. i. 176. 

Moneses grandiflora S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. ii. 403 (1821). 
1793. Found in 1792 near Brodie House, Scotland, by James 
Brodie and Mr. James Hoy, near Gordon Castle, in Moray. "Both 
these gentlemen we believe are equally entitled to the honour of 

its first discovery." — E. B. 146. 

Hypopitys Monotropa Crantz, Inst. ii. 467 (1766). H. 
multifora Scop. (1772). 1677. Stokenchurch, Oxon.— Plot. 
N. H. Oxon. 146 (" Orobanche Verbasculi odore"). 

Statice Limonium L. Sp. PI. 274 (1753). 1597. "Upon 
the walles of the fort against Gravesend ... in the salt marshes 
by Lee in Essex," &c— Ger. 333. 

S. rariflora Drej. Fl. Excur. Haffn. 121 (1838). 8. bahnsiensis 
Fries. 1704. " Waltonse vico in Essexia non procul ab Harvico 
portu prope Molendinum copiosum invenit D. Dale nobisque com- 
municavit."— Kay, Hist. iii. 247. Dale found it in this locality in 
1700 ; a specimen from his herbarium is in Herb. Mus. Brit. 

S. auriculsefolia Vahl, Symb. 25 (1820). S. binervosa G. E. 
Smith in E. B. S. 2663. 1597. " Upon the clialkie cliffe going 
from the towne of Margate downe to the sea side." — Ger. 333. 

See G. E. Smith, I.e. 

S. reticulata Sm. E. B. 328 (1795). 1746. - Found on the 
coast of Norfolk by Mr. Henry Scott."— Blackst. Spec. 47. 

Armeria maritima Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. i. 833 (1809). 
1570. "Arearum margines ornant Belgae et Angli, apud quos in 
maritimis frequens oritur."— Lob. Adv. 189. 

Hottonia palustris L. Sp. PL 145 (1753). 1597. » I have 
not founde such plentie of it in any one place as in the water 
ditches adioning to Saint George his fielde neere London.*'— Ger. 



1538. "Arthritica 



679. 

Primula vulgaris Huds. i. 70 (1762). 
ab Anglis dicitur a prymerose."— Turn. Libellus. " Our 
primrose, which I never saw grow in any place, saving in England 
& East Freseland."— Turn. iii. 80 (1568). 

P. veris L. Sp. PI. 142 (1753). 1568. " Coweslippe . . . . 
there' are two kindes of them . . . one is called in the West contre 
of some a Cowislip & the other an Oxislip and they are both call in 
Cambridge shyre Pagles."— Turn. iii. 80. 

P. elatior Jacq. Misc. i. 158 (1778). 1841. Edinburgh Cat. 
of British PI. ed. 2. Specimens sent by H. Doubleday to H. C. 
Watson from Bardfield, Essex, reported as such.— Phytol. i. 232 
(June, 1842). Turner's Oxlip (see under P. veris) may have been 

this. 

P. farinosa L. Sp. PI. 143 (1753). 1597. "In Harwood 
neere to Blackburne in Lancashire," &c. — Ger. 639. 

x 2 



ii. 1023. 



308 .'-. SHORT NOTES. 

P. seotica Hook, in Curtis Fl. Lond. 1. 133 (1819) (ed. Hooker). 
1819. Found by Mr. Gibb, of Inverness, on Holborn Head, near 
Thurso in Caithness.— Hooker, I. c. 

Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. Sp. PI. 147 (1753). 1688. 
« Nuperriine peritissimus Botanicus D. Dodsworth, in Angiia, 
Comitatus Eboracensis orientali parte banc invenit."— Ray, Hist. 

L. vulgaris L. Sp. PL 146 (1753). 1548. " It groweth by 

the Temes syde beside Shene."— Turn. Names, E. rj, back. . 

L. Nummularia L. Sp. PL 148 (1753). 1548. " Herbe ij. 
pence or two penigrasse . . . groweth in moyste groundes, &c. 
Turn. Names, H ij, back. 

L. nemorum L. Sp. PL 148 (1753). 1570. "In Anghre 
nemoribus, locisque opacis ... in quadam densa et amoena sylva 
Coventrise proxima." — Lob. Adv. 194. 

Trientalis europ3ea L. Sp. PL 344 (1753). 1620. "In 
betuletis Scotise natans, D. Cargillus, ex Scotia misit."— C. Bauhm, 
Prod. Th. Bot. p. 100. k f . 

Glaux maritima L. Sp. PL 207 (1753). 1570. "Anglus 

plerisque mari coterminis."— Lob. Adv. 178. "Between Whitstable 
and the yle of Thanet in Kent," &c— Ger. 448 (1597). 

(To be continued.) 



SHORT NOTES. 

Cyperus fuscus in Hants. — On August 25th, in company with 
the Eevs. K. P. Murray and E. F. Linton, I discovered on a wet 
piece of ground near Bingwood, Hants, a fair quantity of Cyperus 
fuscus. Probably in ordinary seasons the ground where it grew is 
less approachable, which would account for its not having been 
previously detected. — W. B. Linton. 

[It must not be forgotten that the New Forest is one of the 
places in which the mischievous practice of plant-introduction has 
been lately carried out. There is no particular reason why the 
Cyperus should not be native at Bingwood, but it is necessary to 
bear in mind the possibility indicated above. See Joum. Bot. 1892, 
224, 247.— Ed. Journ. Bot.] 

Elatine hexandra in Warwickshire. — An interesting result of 
the long -continued drought was the rediscovery of this minute 
water-plant on August 26th, at Coleshill Pool, Warwickshire, 
where I found it growing in some abundance on the dry, black 
bed of the pool, which is usually covered with a considerable 
quantity of water. This plant was first found at Coleshill Pool 
in 1835 by the late Dr. George Lloyd, who sent specimens to 
Mr. Watson, but it had not been seen there for many years. — 
H. Stuart Thompson. 

Cambridgeshire Aliens. — Krucastrum Pollichii has appeared on 
Newmarket Heath ; there are about a dozen plants. In every 
respect they are like specimens from Weedon in Prof. Babington's 



SHORT NOTES. 809 



herbarium. Centaurea solstitialis has appeared in a lucerne field at 
Grantchester. This is the second record since 1848. Symphytum 



Cambridge, and Campanula rapunculoides has sprung up in con- 
siderable quantity on the site of a Eoman villa near Beach, 
unearthed during last winter.— J. Henry Burkill. 

Eleocharis acicularis Sm. — A peculiar form of EUocharis 
acicuLaris grows in considerable quantity in some of the lakes and 
canals in Ireland, aud is apparently of by no means rare occurrence 
in that country. The form in question nourishes in from two to 
four feet of water, covering the bottom with a thick growth like 
short grass. The stems are of about normal length,— two to lour 
inches,— not drawn out, as mentioned in Babington's Mamud and 
Svme's English Botany as occurring when this species grows sub- 
merged; and they are apparently invariably destitute of mtiorescence , 
all the specimens I examined being uniformly barren. The stems 
are translucent and very slender, collapsing into a pencil when the 
plant is taken from the water. I first noticed this plant in the 
canal near Caledon, in Co. Armagh last summer; since then I have 
observed it in the Grand Canal in Queen's County and Kddaie, and 
in Lough Neagh, near Toome; and have dredged it in abundance m 
about four feet of water in the centre of Lough Beg, between Antrim 
and Derry, at a spot where the lake is about half a mile wide. A 
c Sous feet is, that in no instance was the normal form observed 
growing on the damp margins of any of the waters where the sub- 
merged form occurred, or elsewhere in the vicinity. The species is 
oTsomewhat rare occurrence in Ireland, and I did not feel sure as 
to the identity of the lacustrine form till Mr. A. G. More verified 
my determination.— B. Lloyd Praeger. 

Duration of Cocblearia groenlanbica L. — -I find that this 
soecies is not necessardy annual or biennial. Specimens in my 
Sen brought from E. Boss in 1891, have flowered two summers 
ni tSeSu? and are still thriving. The plant thoroughly main- 
tains its distinctive characters.-EnwARD S. Marshai*. 

Limoseela aquatica in IRELAND.-Early in July last, Mr. C K y, 
«f il 1 1 wa n "han sent me some specimens of Limosella aquatica, 
liKirad gathered on the margin of Lough Inchiqum near 
Corofin in the Co. Clare. This plant had not, it is believed, 
bee Tpr'evfously found in Ireland, though it is mentioned by Wade 
£ hi * Plant* Eanores as - frequently occurring where water 
has stood during the winter-County Galway, near Ballynahinch, 
Connemara"; but this locality has not since been confirmed by 
anv other botanist. About one month after the discovery of the 
St by Mr. O'Kelly, being in the neighbourhood of Corofin 
I visited the lake, which, owing to heavy ram, had m the interval 
risen about three feet, and submerged the Limosella to a depth of 
™arly two feet. I was able, however, with the help of a boat and 
my dra-, to procure some plants, which then presented a totally 
different appearance to that of the specimens sent me by Mr. Kelly, 
having apparently, after submergence cast oft most oi the old leaves 
with Oie ripened fruits, and developed a fresh crop of bright green 



310 INDEX KEWENSIS. 

young leaves, the stems of which were in some instances elongated 
to as much as four or five inches. This stage of the plant's growth 
does not appear to have been previously noticed, and may be due to 
the abnormal season. Mr. O'Kelly has, since my visit, discovered 
the Limosella in two other localities in the neighbourhood of Gorst, 
in the Co. Galway, and no doubt the very dry season and consequent 
low state of the water in the lakes and "turloughs"* has brought 
to light this plant, which, in ordinary years, is probably nearly 
always under water, and has thus escaped the notice of botanists. 
The discovery now is a welcome and valuable addition to the Flora 
of Ireland. — H. 0. Levinge. 

Papaver Rhceas var. strigosum Boenn. — In a note which appeared 
in this Journal last year [Journ. Bot. p. 309), I described some ex- 
periments which appeared to show that the above-named variety 
was really little more than a sporadic and unstable form. Further 
experiments this year have confirmed this conclusion. From a 
single plant of undoubted strigosum obtained last year, I have this 
summer raised 49 plants in three different lots grown under con- 
siderably varying conditions. The results were as follows : — The 
first lot (of 8) contained 3 of the var. and 5 typical Iihceas; the 
second (of 20) produced 6 of the var. and 14 typical ; the third (of 
21) produced 10 of the var. and 10 typical (one plant had the 
peduncles verv sparingly setose, with bristles somewhat appressed, 
but not very decidedly so, and may be considered an intermediate 
form. Totals, 19 var. strigosum; 29 typical Rhceas.—R. N. Dixon. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Index Kewensis Plantarum Phanerof/amarnm Nomina et Synonyma 

omnium Generum, et Specierum a Linnaeo usque ad annum 
mdccclxxxv complectens nomine recepto auctore patria unicuiqne 
plantce subjectis. Sumptibus beati Caroli Eoberti Darwin 
ductu et consilio Josephi D. Hooker confecit B. Daydon 
Jackson. Fasciculus I. [4to, pp. xvi, 728. A— Dendrobium] . 
Oxonii e prelo Clarendoniano [Sept.] mdccccxiii. £2 2s. net. 

44 Shortly before his death, Mr. Darwin informed me of his 
intention to devote a considerable sum in aid or furtherance of 
some work of utility to biological science ; and to provide for its 
completion, should this not be accomplished during his lifetime. 
He further informed me that the difficulties he had experienced in 
accurately designating the many plants which he had studied, and 
ascertaining their native countries, had suggested to him the com- 
pilation of an Index to the names and authorities of all known 
Flowering Plants and their countries, as a work of supreme im- 
portance to students of systematic and geographical Botany, and 

to horticulturists, and as a fitting object of the fulfilment of his 
intentions. 



* Low-lying lands, in the limestone districts, usually flooded in winter. 



INDEX KEWENSIS. 311 

" I have only to add that, at his request, I undertook to direct 
and supervise such a work ; and that it is being carried out at the 
Herbarium of the Royal Gardens, Kew, with the aid of the staff of 
that establishment. — Jos. D. Hooker." 

With this brief prefatory note is launched into the botanical 
world one of the most important works of reference which has ever 
appeared. What Dr. Murray's vast Dictionary, which is issuing at 
too long intervals from the same press, will do for the English 
language, Mr. B. D. Jackson has done for the systematic botanist : 
and his work will at once take its position as an indispensable 
factor in every botanical library. 

The readers of this Journal have been kept au courant with the 
progress of the work, and Mr. Jackson has explained at some length 1 *' 
the lines on which it was to be carried out. It is therefore 
unnecessary to dwell upon the plan of the book. The aim is to 
record every genus and species of phanerogams published before 
the end of 1885— a date which, fortunately for the compiler, 
precedes the eruption of neo-American nomenclature, which is still 
raging, almost unchecked. The list is constructed upon Bentham and 
Hooker's Genera Plantantm, which has been taken as the authority 

for the limitation of genera. 

The last edition of PritzePs Novwiclator appeared in 1841, and 
a new issue of this, brought up to date by the inclusion of the 
plants described during the following quarter of a century, would 
in itself have been a boon to workers. But Mr. Jackson has done 
far more than this. He has added to each name, whether retained 
or synonymic, a full reference to its place of publication, and 
(though this, from the exigencies of space, is somewhat per- 
functorily performed) an indication of its geographical distribution. 
We have thus in the smallest possible compass a record of the first 
publication of every name cited. 

This statement makes manifest, without any further demon- 
stration, the magnitude of the task which Mr. Jackson has under- 
taken. It is to be regretted that Sir Joseph Hooker, in the preface 
which has been quoted at length, has not made it more clear that 
the work is in the main Mr. Jackson's own, and that it has been 
carried out by him, doubtless "with the aid of the staff" of the Kew 
Herbarium, but, as was stated in the article in this Journal already 
referred to, chiefly by assistants employed for this spec'al purpose. 
There can be no possible doubt as to the value of the help which 
Sir Joseph has given ; but, as has been shown on more than one 
occasion in these pages and elsewhere, the Kew traditioi as to 
nomenclature has always been lax, and Sir Joseph, although he 
has distinguished himself in every branch of botanical science, 
has never departed from that tradition. Doubtless, with the con- 
cluding part of the work, Mr. Jackson will give an account of its 
history, and will acknowledge the considerable help which he has 
received from the Botanical Department of the British Museum, 
and elsewhere. 



* Jourtu BoU 1887, G7, 150. 






812 INDEX KEWENSIS. 



r 



Before commenting on the Index, it is essential to recognise the 

great obligation under which Mr. Jackson has laid the systematic 

botanists of the world. It is hardly too much to say that there is 

no one to whom the work could have been more fittingly committed* 

For such a t9.sk, a thorough knowledge of bibliography is required, 

and Mr. Jackson has already proved his competence, not only by 

his Guide to the Literature of Botany, but by numerous other papers, 

many of them printed in this Journal, showing that careful regard 

for details and due appreciation of their importance which is 

essential to thorough work in this direction. It had come to be 

bupposed that only Germans were sufficiently persevering to face 

the drudgery which such an undertaking involves — a drudgery of 

which no one who has not been engaged in dictionary or index 

work can form any idea : but Mr. Jackson has shown that where 

plodding industry is needed, England can hold her own. His 

modesty is not less praiseworthy. His care throughout has been 

to avoid the necessity of causing himself to be cited as the 

authority for any combination of names ; and in this he contrasts 

favourably with too many modern writers, especially in America, 

whose often ill-considered resuscitation of disused names seems to 

have been actuated by a desire to u obtain a cheap notoriety by 

making new combinations." Changes of nomenclature on a large 

scale should be left to the monographers of genera, and Mr. 

Jackson has acted with judgment as well as with modesty in not 

attempting them. He would retain as the correct name of each 

species that under which it was first placed in its recognised genus. 

This of course will not satisfy those who attach a peculiar sanctity 

to the earliest specific name ; but it is at least a definite course, and, 

as I have said more than once in these pages, is the one which 

appears to me the most satisfactory. 

This brings me to the only serious omission — that of the date 
of publication after each specific name. Such an addition, made at 
the time of extracting, would not have added materially to the labour, 
nor would it have increased the bulk of the book ; while it would 
have greatly added to its value. The plan adopted by Eichter in 
his Plantce Europem of assigning the date to each synonym at once 
settled the question of priority. Mr. Jackson, by omitting it, 
leaves the question unsettled — a serious matter to those who have 
not access to a large library, especially as Mr. Jackson's decision is 
not invariably to be accepted without question. 

As an illustration of my meaning, I will take the synonyms of 
the plant for which Mr. Jackson retains the name Cypripedium 
spectabile. These he cites thus : 

"spectabile, Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. i. (1791) 78.— Am. Bor. 
album, Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. I. iii. 303 = spectabile. 
canadense, Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. ii. 261.= spectabile* 
hirsutum, Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. VIII. no. 3.^ spectabile* 
Befiina*, Walt. Fl. Carol. 222 m spectabile. 1 ' 

Now the simple addition of the dates to these names shows 
clearly that three of the four adduced as synonyms take precedence 
of the one retained : thus ; — 



1 

INDEX KEWENSIS. 8l3 

* 

album Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. I. iii. 303 (1789). 
canadense Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. ii. 261 (1803). 
hirsutum Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. VIII. no. 3 (1760). 
Regime Walt. Fl. Carol. 222 (1788). 

Salisbury, as everyone knows, had odd views .on nomenclature, 
and thought it no blame to supersede a name by one which he 
considered more apt : and he cites C. album Ait. as a synonym of the 
plant which he preferred to style spectabile. Miller's name is the 
oldest, but that disappears from the synonymy of this species, being 
referred by Mr. Jackson in his "Addenda et emendanda^ to C. 
jmbescens. Against the next oldest name, C. Begin® Walt. , no objection 
can be urged : Lindley identified Walter's plant with G. spectabile, and 
the description in Flora Caroliniana is sufficiently satisfactory ; any 
possible doubt, however, is set at rest by reference to Walter's 
Herbarium, now in the British Museum, where there is a good 
specimen labelled " Cypripcdium Regit!*." This is the name which 
must stand. Mr. Jackson also allows Salisbury's G. humile (1793) 
to supersede G. acaule Ait. (1791), which he certainly would not have 
done had the respective dates been before him. 

Yet another Gypripedium must change its name. Mr. Jackson 



cites 



flavescens [DC. i: 
nnbescens Willd 



pubescens. 



Willdenow 



Berolinensis (1816), but in Sp. PI. iv. 143 (1805). Even so, 
however, flavescens antedates it, for the first volume of Kedoute's 
Liliacees came out in 1802: both must yield to hirsutum Mill. 
(1760). In connection with Cypripedium I may note that Prof. 
Ascberson's " emendation,"— Cypripedilum,— published in 1864, 

finds no place in the Index. 

Another advantage gained by adding the date would be the 
immediate determination, ceteris paribus, which of two retained 
species bearing the same name—a more frequent occurrence than 
mi^ht be supposed, and one which the Index will do much to avert 
in the future— is entitled to priority. When we find (under Calce- 

"hypoleuca, Berth, in DC. Prod. x. 222. 
hypoleuca, Meyen, Eeise, i. 224." 

the addition of the date to each would at once settle which plant 

had prior claim to the name. 

I think I have said enough to justify my contention as to adding 
to each species the date at which it was published ; and, having 
mainly confined my criticisms to Cypripedium, I will cite from that 
genus one or two other points for comment. It is to be regretted 
that there is no mode of indicating names which cannot be identi- 
fied, such, for instance, as many of those published by Rafiuesque 
and'Vellozo. As it is, one finds side by side, in precisely similar 
type and mode of citation — 

"Drurii, Bedd. Ie. PL Ind. Or. i. 23.— Ind. Or. 

epidendricum Veil. FL Flum. h. t. 64.— Bras.:" 



314 INDEX KEWENSIS. 

the first a well-known plant, the second hitherto unidentified, but 
certainly not a Cypripediwn. Two other species of Vellozo's — 
cothurnum and socco — are in the same position ; a fourth, vittatum, has 
been identified. Mr. Jackson cites only the plates of these obscure 
plants, but it might have been well to refer to the descriptions, pub- 
lished in the complete text of the work issued at Rio in 1881. The 
appearance of such names without any warning as to their character 
is calculated to mislead the statistician who attempts to estimate 
the number of plants in a genus. In some cases a "quid?" or a 
"nomen" warns the reader that the names are doubtful, and such 
cautionary indications might well have been more frequently 
employed. The use of square brackets would have met the case. 

Another class of entry which is likely to mislead is exemplified 
under Cerbera by — 

"fruticosa, Ker-Gawl. in Bot. Eeg. t. 391 = Kopsia fruticosa. 
fruticosa, Ro.rb. Hort. Beny. 19 ; Fl. Intl. \. G91 — Barma." 

From this it would seem that Roxburgh's fruticosa is a different 
plant from that of Gawler, and is to be retained as a species ; but 
Gawler described his plant from Roxburgh's MSS., and cites for it 
the Hortus Bengaleyms as cited above. There should therefore be 
only one entry for this plant : 

"fruticosa Roxb. Hort. Beng. 19 = Kopsia fruticosa. " 

In the case of nomina nuda, some such indication is even more 
necessary, and there is a want of uniformity in the mode of their 
citation which is puzzling. 'At the end of Mr. C. B. Clarke's 
monograph of JEschynanthus* are five names, "mihi nomine 
tantum notas." Eliminating one which Mr. Jackson has suc- 
ceeded in reducing, these stand thus : 

"M. atrosanguinea, Van Houtte Cat., 1851. 
M. Candida, E. G. Henderson Cat., 1851. 
M. repens, Van Houtte Cat., 1851. 
M. Roxburghii, Paxton Bot. Diet." 

These four names seem to me of exactly similar value ; yet Mr. 
Jackson prints the first in italics, the second and fourth in Roman 
(as if duly accepted and accredited by botanists), and omits the 
third altogether ! 

I do not understand on what principle hybrids are occasionally 
admitted. For example, Mr. Jackson includes — 

11 Cypripediwn Harrisianwn x , Reichb.f. in Gard. Chron. (1869) 108 " : 

a cross between C. barbatum and C. villosum. But there are dozens 
of precisely similar hybrids which find no place: e.g., C. Aim- 
icorthii x, Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. (1879) xi. 748. Why is one 
taken, while all the rest are left ? In other genera these garden 
creations are more prominent, notably in Bouvardia, where we have 
among others — 

* DC. Hon. Phan. V. i. t. 2. 

t Ctjpridium Itarrisianun X is printed in italics, DouVardia Oriana X in 
roman ; I cannot find any reason for this difference. 



Index kewensis. 315 

I am at a loss to understand why this finds a place in the Index, 
which is one of genera and species, not of hybrids and garden 
varieties; nor do I see why, if Oriana has claims to insertion, her 
sisters with equally charming names are excluded. M. Van Houtte 
says : — "Le Bouvardia Oriana et ses soeurs les B. Laura, Hogarth, 
et Rosalinda sont nes dans la belle petite ville de Brighton (Sussex), 
celebre par ses bains et ses peckers," ker birtb being due to tke 
exertions of "M. Parsons, korticulteur au dit Brighton,"* wkosenot 
too familiar name Mr. Jackson abbreviates into "Pars." 

It is, I tkink, to be regretted tkat Mr. Jackson kas not issued 
witk this first part some short statement of the lines on which he 
has acted with regard to names, — "why some be abolished and 
some retained.*' The paper in this Journal already mentioned 
supplies much of this information ; but the botanist who is not 
fortunate enough to possess it will often be somewhat puzzled, 
and even with its aid he will not be able to solve all the problems 
which present themselves. He knows, for example, that Asa Gray 
restored the genus Acerates, and made other changes in allied 
genera which have been generally accepted, yet Mr. Jackson tells 
us that Acerates = Gom pilocarpus. So, on the faith of the Genera 
Plantarum, which Mr. Jackson follows, it does; but so equally does 
Anantherix Nutt., which Gray restores in the same paper. t Yet 
Mr. Jackson does not say of this, " = Gomphocarpus" : no, he says, 
" e= Asclepiodora A. Gray." But Acerates and Anantherix are restored 
by Gray on one and the same page ; and are equally sunk^ under 
Gomphocarpus by Hooker and Bentham I The reason for this I do 
not perceive, for it does not appear that the following of the Genera 
explains it. But I suppose it is such following that explains why a 
generic name is in many cases adopted which is manifestly not the 
oldest, for Mr. Jackson sinks that as a synonym, and adds, "nomen 
priiis." The well-known laxity of the Genera with regard to matters 
of nomenclature causes some regret that so excellent an opportunity 
of putting things right should have been let slip. 

It is, however, certainly to be regretted that where the authority 
of the Genera does not stand in the way, Mr. Jackson should not 
have restored the correct name. He keeps up Asclepiodora A. Gray 
(1876), citing as synonyms Anantherix Nutt. (1818) and " Anthan- 
otis Bafin. Fl. Ludov. 52, 149 (1817) nomen prius." It is true that 
Gray regarded his Asclepiodora as distinct from Anantherix, but Mr. 
Jackson unites them, and yet maintains a name published in 1876 
for a genus which has two earlier specific names ! 



* I cannot resist the temptation to cite M. Van Houtte's amusing note on 

Oriana: " Si Ton nous demandait l'etymologie de ce mot, nous lepourrionaque 

supposer qu'il s'agit ici de quelque prenom anglais {Christian name) dont nous 
n'avons pas plus la clef que de la signification d'autrea noma familiars en usage 
chez eux, tela que Bab, Beck, Bess, Cis, Dij, Dolly, Harriot, lb, Kate, etc. On eut 
bien pu nous 6 viter des recherehes i cet 6gard ; on aime a savoir ce qu'un nom 
represente et nous devons ces renseignements a ceux d'entre nos abonnes qui y 



tiennent." 



f Proc. Amer. Acad. xii. 66. 



>» 



316 INDEX KEWENSIS. 

Again, Mr. Jackson appears to alter the termination of his names 
when it seems to him desirable, and, pending his explanation, I am 
inclined to demur to this. He gives the species of Anantherix a 
feminine termination, but their authors preferred the masculine ; 
and, from a bibliographer's point of view, 1 think each name should 
appear exactly as published. Among the twelve species are illus- 
trations of the almost impossibility of avoiding mistakes, for we have 
" Nuttalianiis G. Don," instead of N uttallianiis , and "pumilis Nutt./~ 
in place of pumila — or, as Mr. Jackson would have written it, 

jmmilus. The right name for this plant, by the way, is Podostigma 
pubescens. 

It is, of course, only by using the Index that its value can be 
estimated ; but, having had somewhat exceptional opportunities for 
testing it, I am able to bear testimony to its completeness. I have 
found very few omissions, the most important is the Scrophulari- 
aceous genus A ragoa ; Cat obuxus Panch. ex Brongn. & Gris. in Nouv. 
Arch. iv. 13 (1868) ( = Tristania calobuxus) is another, and the much 
used form, Amerinnum (for Amerimnon), finds no place : few misprints 
Aerides shibatianum is one (for Shibatitiana , itself a misprint for 
A iiibautianum) ; Bassia Mottleyana (for Motley ana) is another; and 
Cardamine Heyneana should be Hayneana: and very few failing 
cross-references, such as " Decaneurum frutescens = Centratherum 
frutescens," a name not to be found under Centrathemm. 



utescens, a name not to be found under Centrathemm. Some- 
times, in the absence of explanation, I find citations which I do 
not understand, such as " Bursa-pastoris, [Tourn.] Bupp. Fl. Jen. 
77 (1745) " — for, so far as I can read, Rupp's genus was Bursa; he 
certainly nowhere places a hyphen between that word and pastoris ; 
and no more makes Bursa pastoris into a genus than Plantago 
latifolia on the next page. This comes perilously near making an 
author say what he has not said, a practice "to be abhorred of all 
faithful" botanists, and more than once denounced by Mr. Jackson. 
Nor am I convinced that "Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. Plant.," as an 
authority for species, is correct in most of the cases in which Mr. 
Jackson (following Kew use) employs it. Occasionally non-existent 
names are quoted, such as Anguria Warmingii. Mr. Jackson prints 

"Warmingiana Cogn. in Mem. Com. Acad. Belg. 8vo. xxvii. 
(1827) 21— Bras. 
Warmingia Cogn. 1. c." 

Even the most advanced neo-American nomenclaturist would shrink 
from naming two species thus similarly on the same page ; and the 
latter, as I have said, does not exist in M. Cogniaux's paper. 

Mr. Jackson observes the general botanical practice in spelling 
specific names derived from persons with a capital initial, whether 
employed as nouns or adjectives. This has been followed at Kew 
by the Hookers, Prof. Oliver, Mr. Baker, and most others. Mr. 
Hemsley, in the Botany of the Biologia Centndi- Americana, adopted 
the zoological practice of spelling all such names with a small 
initial; the Ivew Bulletin takes a middle course, spelling nouns 
with a capital and adjectives with a small imti&l—Carsoni and 
atkinsonianum. Except when alterations of this kind ensure con- 
formity with general practice, thev are tidcroUv *mH nopWa . fchu 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 817 

charm of novelty, which seems to be the only reason for their 
adoption, hardly compensates for the setting aside of a recognised 
custom. 

The abbreviated titles of books are, as might be expected from 
Mr. Jackson, sufficient for ready identification; "Wall. List" 
would have been more accurate than "Wall. Cat.," and "Ker- 
Gawl." for John Bellenden Ker (who was afterwards Gawler, but 
never combined the two names, hyphens not having then come 
into fashion) is inaccurate, though convenient. 

I could linger longer over this delightful book, every column of 
which suggests interesting investigations. Mr. Newbould once said 
of Pfeiffer's Nomenclator that each entry afforded material for a 
paper ; and this is far more true of the Index Kewensis. But the 
exigencies of space forbid a longer investigation of its merits, which, 
indeed, are sufficiently apparent. 

The Clarendon Press have, it is needless to say, done their work 
admirably; but a word of remonstrance may be uttered with regard 
to their allowing the Index to be announced as "now ready," at 
least two months before its actual publication. One consequence of 
their misleading prospectus was that at least one London newspaper 
spoke of it as a, fait accompli, and announced that part ii. was nearly 
ready; and an American journal for August referred to it as having 
"just been issued in London." It is to be hoped that the promise 
held out that the work will be completed in 1894 will be realised; 
it will assuredly not be Mr. Jackson's fault if his magnum opus has 
not by that time arrived at its conclusion. James Britten 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 

Bot. Centralblatt. (No. 37). — J. J. Kieffer, ■ Beitrag zur Flora 
Lothringens.' — (No. 38). H. Heiden, 'Anatomische Charakteristik 
der Combretaceen ' (1 plate). 

Bot. Magazine (Tokio). — B. Yatabe, Mallotopus japonicus Fr. & 
Sav. (1 plate). 

Bot. Notiser (Haft. 4).— H. W. Arnell, ■ S. F. Gray's lefvermoss- 
slakten.' — B. Boldb, ■ Nagra scitvattens-alger fran Gronland.' 
F. E. Ahlfvengren, Malva borealis x vulgaris, Scleranthus annum x 

perennu. 

Bot. Zeitung (Sept. 16). — B. Frank, 'Die Assimilation des 
freien Stickstoffs durch die Pflanzenwelt.' 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France (xl. : Comptes rendus 3 : Sept. 1). — 
H. J. de Cordemoy, 'Du role du pericycle dans la racine du 
Vracama marginata. 9 — G. Gautier & E. Baichere, 4 Le Pic d'Our- 
thizet et la Valine du Rebenty.' . Hue, * Lichens des environs 

de Paris/ — G. Bouy, ' Poronicum scorpioides' (Z), Toimiefortii, 
sp. n.). — A. Battandier, ' Zollikoferia anomala, sp. n.' — D. Clos, 
4 Herniaria hirsuta & glabra ; Scutellaria galericulata & minor.' — X. 



818 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC, 



Gillot, ' Le genre Onothem.' — E. Prillieux, « Une Maladie de la 
Barbe de Capucin.' — L. Legue, < Sur un hybride probable des 

btachysgermanica et alpina: — P. Duchartre, ' Eloge d'Alphonse de 
Candolle.'— P. Brunand, ' Spheropsidees nouvelles ou rares.' 

Bull. Torrey Club (Aug.).— A. W. Evans, Lepidozia sphagnicola & 

Jiinr/ormannia Nava-Cmareas, spp.nn. (2 plates).— W. D. Matthew, 

bcale-characters of North-eastern American Species of Cuscnta ' 
y plates). — P. L. Scribner, « Southern Botanists.' — A. Hollick. 
Serenopm Kempii (1 plate). - E. L. Britton, 'The Ja3ger Moss 
Herbarium. ° 

Erythea (Sept.)-E. L. Greene, 'Distribution of some Western 
plants — W. L. Jepson, « Early Scientific Expeditions to Cali- 
?T^W^£S3S?™' -C-Jifo™^ Herb-lore,-J. Burtt Davy, 

— 



sp. n 



/ 



Jfwfcmd jTffcMHtf lSept.).-J. E. Bagnall, « Notes on the Flora 

tfof«r«! Science (Sept.).— P. Groom, « On Epiphytes.' 
O^m- Bofc Sjtocftnjft (Sept.). - L. Linsbauer, - Ueber die 
Nebenblatter von Emnymm (1 plate). _ R. v . Wettstein, 'Die 

thnehis, sp n. - L. Celakovsky, ' Ueber den Nabel der Frucht- 
schuppen-Apophyse von Pinus ' (1 plate). 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 



EWAR 



lately by the Lmnean Society, contains no reference to Mr. Spencer 
Moore's observations published in this Journal for 1879 (ppl 6? 
S«p a S ?f C1 . m ^ n corresponding in many particulars with one of 

think Z! t^?' a f bibli0 ^ ra P h y <* the subject should, we 
think, always be attached to papers of this kind. There is in the 

Botanical Department of the British Museum a large collection of 

aSSf c°niZ nS - tr0 H itie ? ° f *^ ****** executed" by Mr. George 
S fly i? *£? h0Uses of Mr - F - SaQ der, the well-known 

StoSvS^&J^' ^T'r ^ SinCe become Superintendenr f 
f £ 1 t° n ° f , the C ° llege 0f ^noultnve of the University 

and de cHW ""^ m ° nStr ° US G ™^»™ ■" here figured 



iet another Jiew publication !— this time a series of volumes to 
be compiled from the Km Bulletin. " The trouble J fSlowin- 

oermg six] of annual volumes would defeat the [unspecified] object 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC 319 

in view: a volume now in course of preparation, to be followed 
from time to time by similar collections, deals with the subject of 
Vegetable Fibres." The exertion of looking through six volumes is 
too much for those who read the Bulletin, and the Government, out 
of consideration for these sybarites, is apparently about to produce 
a series of 4 'collections' 1 which will enable them to avoid this 
trouble. The art of bookmaking is not one which in these days 
stands in need of official encouragement. If the Kew authorities 
wish to produce a useful work, they may be reminded that another 
summer has been allowed to pass without the production of the 
long and often promised, and greatly needed, Guide to the Gardens. 

The disconnection of the articles in the Bulletin is "in accordance 
with the principle laid down by the Government that information 
of public interest should be published as speedily as possible." But 
surely the Garden Guide is of far greater "public interest" than 
the very "miscellaneous information" purveyed by the Bulletin! 
Moreover, as a note in Natural Science for September points out, 
rapidity of publication is scarcely its most prominent feature. 
" The Kew Bulletin for July of this year supplies ' some recent 
information about this little-known group ' [the Aldabra Islands] , 
in great part consisting of a letter from the Administrator of the 



un 



facts noticed by us [Natural Science] a year ago." 

Mr. G. F. Scott Elliot has started for Mombassa, whence he 
will proceed direct to Lake Victoria Nyanza, for the purpose of 
exploring Uganda. He is assisted by a grant from the Royal 
Society, and the results of his previous journeys warrant the sup- 
position that he will bring back with him large collections of general 
as well as botanical interest. 

The non-appearance of the September number of Hardwicke's 
Science- Gossip points to the cessation of the oldest established of 
our popular natural history journals. It was established by .Robert 
Hardwicke in 1865, under the editorship of Mr. M. C. Cooke, who 
was succeeded in 1872 by Dr. J. E. Taylor, its editor up to the last. 
Although it has for some time hardly occupied the position which it 
held during the earlier years of its existence, it has been a source 
of information to many, and we trust that its cessation is but 
temporary. 

Pastor Kneipp, the Bavarian parish priest whose name is 
familiar in connection with his "water-cure," has issued a Plant- 
Atlas, containing 69 pictorial representations of the medicinal 
plants he employs. The English version is brought out by Messrs. 
H. Grevel & Co., of King Street, Covent Garden. The figures, 
though small, are very good; they are taken from photographs, and 
carefully coloured. Although not sufficiently complete in detail to 
satisfy the botanist, the little book is likely to be useful to those for 
whom it is intended. A statement of the uses of each plant is given, 
with a short description, as well as a glossary of terms employed. 
Some of the English names have gone astray, as when "Dewberry" 
is applied to Vaccinium Myrtillus. 



°™ BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

The Orchid Eevieiv seems to be making progress: the September 
number contains descriptions of three new species- Mallevallia 
mirbulgeana, Laha Lucasiana, and Maxillaria striata— by Mr E A 
iVnS: ^h' We ,.; earn ,fr° m the Jo ^nal of the Horticultural Society, 

s one of the editors of the magazine. No editor's name appears on 
the cover or title,-an omission which is becoming frequent -and 

J£\£? n u nUe ff- . Wlth *5 e *!** has bee " eontrXted. We 
are glad to learn that it is under the management of one who from 

SEE* tZr lth th6 B T\ G ? de ™ at Kew > is in a » a ^abk 
position for editing a journal of this kind. 



Blomefiel 



1t i , Q , v r ,y Vr* J,w / 1 W111U1J wok piace at .bath on the 



impressed him that he copied" the' wS of ft^Xihe ex'Ltion „°f 
*E=.*T!£Sft?- "•* h \° ."» »»»i The friend anTfeC! 



student at Cambridge <rf tab^,^,^^ j= 
(by which name he is best known to many) was tastrnmenhMn 

■& %TsZrT ? at " raliSt , h " 4oiZent o™ botd'the 
^l¥.f;^^ or som ? .%'rty. years Jenyna was incumbent „f „ 



Jenyns was incumbent of a 



on sSeedin ff to Cj? f ■?" 1871 to ° k the name of Bbmefield, 

hi £Swot , ^Ta^ S a t out tSe S3 tt 

»ZaTtt Bliti8U feP H; 6 lT4ut7y%r 3 entll e 
as weU as a valL H» ^ ? d ^^ '^tion his' herbarium, 
knoTa « ?h„ T * r f t,on of "Pwards of two thousand volumes 
mown ?3 the Jenyns Library. The last few years of Mr Blome 

was emthbl PaSSed n c ? mpara ' ive seclusi ° n Hi * mental vfgmir 

ver*. short tried Sm.&'m f kem ? ° U ^ «4 «P * within a 
versatior JS *t J • j a ' h he would c!m 7 on a " animated con- 

an old ufe member "Sttf ^ f ¥" faTOnrite sab i Mta - He was 

the - Chanted k m t ifc ■? # AwociaKon, and a F.G.S. In 

1889 rtl?? i ' P-M'shed f or private oironlation ; 

WiMSItoSftSSH,^' inhis early days he resolred ^ 

A someiha?«tZS^^f to - lK,p « li hlS res ° M ou to the end 

the same SFS^J^^X'Sffil r 'T" " 
a generous sunnm-tor of «„.,w« , g n In hls llfe - He was 

entourage the StVl. 5 , 1" i^L^^. ™ d "id his utmost to 



natural 



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Some Br 
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321 



* 

■ 



NOTES ON PAPUAN PLANTS. 

■ 

By Baeon Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph.D., F.K.S. 

* 

(Continued from Journ. Bot. 1892, p. 17.) 

El^ocarpus Ganitrus Eoxb. — South-eastern New Guinea ; 
H. O. Forbes (676). These specimens are unaccompanied by fruits, 
but otherwise accord with the plant from insular and continental 
India. The leaves turn beautifully reddish in age. The stamens 
may become reduced to 25, or be increased to 60, or even more. 
Sir William Macgregor has sent separate fruits from Milne Bay, 
apparently referable to this species. E. persicifolius (Brongn. & 
Gris. in Ami. Sc. Nat. 1864, p. 356), from New Caledonia, may also 
prove conspecific. The East Australian E. grandis is another closely 
allied plant. Specimens of the genuine E. Ganitrus have also been 
received from the New Hebrides, where, however, the Eev. D. 
Macdonald detected another Elceocarpus of the Ganitrus series, 
which has probably the largest leaves of any species in this genus, 
unless E. undulatus and E. Milnei. They measure to fully 1 ft. in 
length, and to 5 in. in breadth, with petioles about 1£ in long; they 
are therefore larger than those of E. ParUnsonii (Warburg in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. xiii. 377), from which this species already differs in 
leaves rounded at the base, broadest rather below the middle, 
slightly undular at the margin, although not distinctly serrulated, 
and without any lustre, but contrarily of equal dull green on both 
sides, and the secondary venulation more prominent, further in only 
slightly laciniated petals ; but it agrees with the plant from Balun, 
in contrast to E. Ganitrus 9 as regards the vestiture of the sepals, 
the much elongated setule of the anthers, and the length of the 
filaments. Fruits have not been obtained. This singularly con- 
spicuous plant received the name Elaocarpns Macdonaldi. The 
autochthones call it " Ai-Kolop." It cannot be identical with the 
imperfectly known E. Milnei, to which Seemann attributes leaves 
gradually narrowed at the base, and flowers with only about twenty 
stamens. This new plant impairs still more the strength of the 
genus Antholoma f because (so far as can be judged from the material 
before me) the petals, which are of rather thickish texture, seem 
to cohere almost permanently, upwards particularly, forming the 
nearly conical corolla of that genus. Antholoma Billardierii 
(Vieillard, PL de la Nouv. Caled. 5, anno 1865) is also a large- 
leaved species. 

Eueocarpus edulis Teijsm. & Binn. Nat. Tijdschr. Ltd. xxvii. 
25. — Leaves nearly opposite, on very short petioles, of rather thin 
texture, mostly lanceolar-ovate, somewhat acuminate, mucronular- 
denticulated, above scantily, beneath more copiously, beset with 
hairlets ; flowers axillary, few or occasionally only two together ; 
sepals five, narrow-lanceolar, outside brown-velvety, hardly or 
tardily spreading ; petals usually slightly longer, elongate-cuneate, 
at the upper end irregularly tabulated, outside except the margin 
glabrous, inside except the upper part silky-velvety; stamens 20-30, 

Journal of Botany, — Vol. 81. [Nov. 1893.] y 



322 



NOTES ON PAPUAN PLANTS, 



their filaments capillary, flexuous, glabrous, their anthers linear- 
cyhndric, subtle-puberulous, at the summit barbellate and there 
minutely bivalved ; style, except the terminal portion, as well as 
the ovulary, villous-tomentose ; fruit ovate-conical, tomentellous. 

Sogere, 1500-5000 ft. ; H. 0. Forbes (295, 705, 896). 

Branchlets much beset with short brown hairlets. Leaves to 
6 in. long and 1\ in. broad, prominently costulated, the venules 
very conspicuous beneath ; inflorescence when well developed 
cymous-corymbose. Peduncles from very short to H in. long. 
Flower-bearing pedicels variously shorter than the calyx*; but nev?r 
very short, and lengthening to nearly 1 in. when fruit-bearing, 
bepals J-t m. long. Petals when dry dark-coloured, in bud to 
beyond the middle flat and slightly distant, upward membranous. 
Anthers considerably shorter than the filaments. Torus very short. 
Style subulate, finally lengthening to } inch. Fruit seen only in a 
W ?rS re r 80 ™^ Jeformed state, then less than 1 in. 
seed.' L S neOTS - h Mfl. only one cell, so far as seen, forming a 

An authentic specimen of E. eduli, from the original place of 
discovery has a lesser indument, and smaller, more £C- 

aerVe" w thTa "n \tV e t StiCS ? SkuetareMr - TelmTn's p S 
agrees with that of Mr. Forbes, unless the ripe fruits, seen here of 

tt^K^TJ WhiCh & Wver ' 4Xble The 
exposition _ot the leaves and flowers offer an approach to the eenus 

STKttS^S^^^ 06 t 1 he Plani ^ -mLVs^rthat of 
reTder it now Snlt t eMe P^ characteristics of E. epulis 

The total of the species 8 of m^^^^^H^ 
Guinea is ten, namelv, E edvlh V n^i • ^T „ . trom INew 

E. unJulatus, ' E . Galitrt ^ four o£ oi wb^T' ^ **"""- 

have hitherto only flowering ^oLal.rvl- Whlch ,' however ' we 
yet much be anoLntS I £ 8 * specimens - Tm s number will likely 

Dr. G!^ | a ZS1^aXl^ ,l ^'■ ,18 Bri ^-Surgeon 
recorded tweitv 2 3? 1 i i ayan Penms «^ has recently 

Aus^^LwTd^T^ COn ^ neVS ' From Continental 
now au<* we unow up to date eleven, the eWanfV. (i? j / u\ 

having been discovered re^fl. I« m °m l e ^ Venth , ( E : J "}nsonn) 



vestiture almost IiiPtwTfnT ^ "ern Queensland. It has a 

well-staked and nSlfcostiS^f * T^f*"' ratber lar S e ' 
not verv firm texhlS ™T • VGS ° f near1 ^ ovate form > » nd 

Antholojia Tieghemi F v M i« r- * »r seeas. 

reticmarly venulZl ^^nll ff^mently costulated as well as 
large, o ten so Kta « Elf SldeS i fl ° Wers comparatively 



NOTES ON PAPUAN PLANTS. 823 

with very minute hairlets ; anthers much longer than the filaments, 
their setule not much shorter than the cells; fruit almost ovate- 
ellipsoid, three- valved, outside slightly rough. 

On Mount Yule, near its summit. Leaves 2-3 in. long, some- 
what elastic. Sepals measuring about \ in. in length, finally 
separating. Fringes of the corolla broadish. Stamens hardly \ in. 
long. Style long, persistent, puberulous at its lower portion, finally 
lengthening to nearly f in. Fruit 1-1 i in. long, much pointed, its 
dehiscence tardy, but complete. Seeds about \ in. long, their 
testule brownish black. 

This description is from very fragmentary material. The form 
of the leaves and their denticulation, the longer setule of the 
anthers, and the three-celled ovulary, already separate this Papuan 
species from A. montamm. 

This remarkable plant, which demonstrates now the occurrence 
of the genus Antholoma outside of New Caledonia, is dedicated to 
Professor Ph. Van Tieghem, the celebrated representative of vege- 
table anatomy and morphology in the Paris University. 

# Sloanea Forbesii. — Branchlets tomentellous ; leaves con- 
spicuously petiolate, almost ovate or verging into a roundish form, 
slightly undular at the margin, particularly blunt at the base, soon 
almost glabrous on the surface, puberulous beneath ; flowers few or 
several, or occasionally only two together ; involucellar bracts very 
narrow, 3 or less, or absent ; sepals 4 or 5, lanceolar on both sides 
as well as the peduncles, and pedicels velvety; petals somewhat 
longer than the sepals, crenate-incised at the summit, subtle- 
velutinous, particularly outside; stamens 25-30, beset with minute 
hairlets throughout; anther-cells scarcely longer than the filaments, 
the terminal setule hardly shorter ; style rather long, downward, as 
well as the ovulary velutinellous. 

Sogere, at 1500-5000 ft. elevation; H. 0. Forbes (273). 
Leaves to 6 in. long and to 4 in. broad, brittle. Pedicels to 
nearly 1 in. long, or variously shorter. Length of sepals hardly i i u# 
Petals sometimes partially connate. Stamens to |- in. long. Fruit 
unknown, so that as yet it remains uncertain whether this species 
should be placed systematically nearer to S. sterculiacea or to S. 
tomentosa. Mr. Forbes's collection contains two more Sloaneas, 
which seem closely related to that just described ; one of these 
(542) has the petals more velvety and almost entire, while the 
filaments and anther-setule are much shorter ; the other (565) has 
the sepals narrower, but is devoid of good flowers ; as of both the 
fruits are wanting, it seems best to leave them for the present 
specifically undefined. The indesirability of retaining the genus 
Echinocarpus has been shown also by Hance when describing E. 
sinensis in Journ. Bot. 1884, 108. ° 

On specimens of Sloanea Schumanni, or of some allied species, 
occur stipules renate- cordate in form, 1~J in. broad, bent down- 
ward, early deciduous, and perhaps not always developed. Similar 
organs appear also on the base of some of the peduncles ; they bear 
comparison to amply developed stipules of Elmocarpus stipularis. 
The inflorescence is that of a typical Elmocarpus. Gmffea cahjcidata 

y2 



824 



NOTES ON PAPUAN PLANTS. 



- 

exhibits also large stipules and paired bracts, but they are connate. 
The requirement of abolishing Phamicospermum by reduction to 
Sloanea was surmised already (1872) by Baillon (Hist, des Plantes, 
p. 200), a suggestion acted on by Szyszylowics in his monograph 
of Tiliacece ; but Durand still upholds that genus. The quaternary 
or quinary division of the calyx and corolla in the genus Sloanea is 
not a constant mark of distinction, as shown also for S. australis by 



Woolls 



Colona sereatifolia Cav. Icon. iv. 47, t. 370.— Fly River ; Sir 



W. MacGregor, accompanied by Combretopsis pentaptera and „ 
Schmirmansia, to 60 ft. high. The Papuan plant agrees so well 
with the definition and delineation given already (1797) by 
Cavanilles, that his species and ours seem unseverable. The 
Petals, however, are broader in proportion to their length, and the 
fruit enlarges variously into 3-5 primary expansions. In referring 
the New Guinea congener to the typical species, it should be 
remembered that several rather unfrequent woody plants range 
likewise from the Philippine Islands as far or still further south 
than JSew Guinea ; for instance, Fitzgeraldia mitrostigma , Lunasia 

amam, Deenngia cehsioides, Muehlenbeckia platyclada, Ganop/wllum 
falcatum Garuga flonbunda, Psoralea badocana (Blanco), Alpltitonia 
excelsa, Lagerstrapiia regina, lodes ovalis, Exocarpos latifolia, Tectona 

SZSk 'J^ 0nginal ^T 6 is readi1 ^ rest ^able for the genus also, 
H;" • lthe V ase + of f k fPiBg to it or to that of Columbia the 

th ™ t V 8 qmte ° ut , ° f P lace ' when Pkytologically the memory of 
the great discoverer of Central America is to be honoured. 

cons&^ ia n5T greg ° r Jf ' ~ Mmost S labrous ! lea ves on very 

recurved a C ™ ' . mostl y CUneat t elli P tica1 ' entire > somewhat 
minutely ££? ^ gm ' f ub le "^stulated, beneath fuscescent and 

nearW as tn t h ^T^ lmmersed '> ™emes simple ; pedicels 

almost delS J5* ^F °l T 6 "?* sh ° rter ; lobes of tbe cal ? x 
almost deltoid, ex remely short, tube nearly hemiellipsoid onlv 

tnt^l!t, d L Vni l r ally ? Ve " Celled ' **« ^^X t equal 
(ffSnnn* S Ca A x4ub f '' seeds narrow lanceolar, pale brownish. 

West to S F ng 'i ^ 5 -f °?° J' b ei ^ ht i Sir W MacGregor. 

longer Talked L ^ i l °? Y6B ™ larger and mnch 

•Xto^^J?™*!! an ^ lar ^ ie «** mnoh shorter, 



When 



known, 



further distinctions may become obvious. 

I his is the sixth species of the genus now on record ntirl it ia 

he most northern; furthermore, it ^011^^ oo^eUb le 

» the various pervasion of the Australian element i^ Z " 

BllSSffiKrt^ffiS **■ ^-Summit of the Owen 



W. MacG 



this sSrwril 1 ; 8 -^' Clearly rec °gnisable as belonging to 
h g ^^iland plants of ZlV*™ ^^ branched tufts ^ ofoer 
some nlSv oLnL? "^ V* 8 ** 1 " with <*»**•»• «P«« or 



SOME BRITISH POTENTILLA-HYBRIDS. 325 

Biophytum albiflorum. — Generally unbranched ; leaflets 
forming 4 to 12 pairs, the two supreme elliptic cuneate, the others 
trapezoid-elliptical, all minutely apiculate and almost glabrous, 
their upper half at the base truncate, and anteriorly much pro- 
tracted ; peduncles almost capillary, as well as the raches of the 
leaves beset with very short hairlets ; flowers quite small, usually 
on long pedicels; petals white or slightly reddish, hardly longer 
than the sepals ; fruit about as long as the calyx, nearly globular ; 
seeds brown, shining, slightly rugular. 

Along Margaret Creek from Bourawarri up to 7000 ft. on Mount 
Obree, chiefly on stones ; W. Sayer. 

Stem to 6 in. long, bare, but puberulous, exceptionally divided 
into 2 or 3 branches. Lateral leaflets to \ in. long, and to \ in. 
broad. Flowers in the umbels few, or two, or reduced to one. 
Pedicels sometimes nearly 1 in. long. Sepals only about \ in. long, 
streaked by several venules. Fruit pale brownish, almost glabrous. 
This species is more delicate hi all its parts than the ordinary state 
of B. sensitivum, from which and its allies, moreover, the smallness 
of the flowers, the white petals, and the shape of the fruit dis- 
tinguish it. Its place will be next to B. Reinwardtii, from which, 
according to Hasskarl's elaborate description of that congener, the 
Papuan plant can be kept apart already by leaflets more inequi- 
lateral, and more equally green on both sides ; further by longer 
pedicels, colour of petals, and fruits nearly as broad as long. 

(To be continued.) 



SOME BRITISH POTENTILLA-HYBRIDS. 
By the Rev. E. S. Marshall, M.A., F.L.S. 

Some time ago Mr. W. H. Beeby (Joimu Bot. 1888, pp. 78, 79) 
gave the results of Herr Svante Mur beck's examination of various 
British Cinquefoils. He has since been good enough to forward for 
me a considerable series from the Rev. W. H. Purchase herbarium, 
together with a few specimens of my own about which there was 

Some doubt, rpi ^ ^-±~ :»~±: .VJ.-.A- xu^j. n vi • -i 



occur 



not unfrequently in the South and Midlands ; and one which had 
not been detected at the time when the above-named paper was 



our 



Herr Murbeck replaces the name P. Tormentilla Neck, by that 
of P. erecta (L.) de la Torre. Dr. Focke, however, in the new 
German Flora now publishing (p. 820), says that "the plant 
known from old time as Tormentilla must retain this name 
specifically, after the absorption of the genus," and probably 
most people will agree with him. Indeed, the constant shuffling 
of names has become an intolerable nuisance. 

P. procumbens x reptans (P. mixta Nolte). Staffordshire :— Road- 
side bank on Ham Moor, near Alstonefield, Purchas; Dovedale, 
Ley, W. R. Linton & Purchas. Herefordshire ; — Between Broadmoor 



326 



SOME BRITISH POTENTILLA-HYBKIDS. 



Common and Sharpnage Well, Ley & Purckas ; near Penteloe Brook, 
Woolhope, Ley d Purchas. Pembrokeshire :— St. Issel's, near 
Tenby, Purckas. W. Kent :— Hedgebank between Cranbrook and 
Bedgebury, Marshall. E. Kent :— Dry clayey bank in a meadow 
outside Chiddenden Woods, towards Tenterden, Marshall. Surrey : 
Clayey bank, between Witley and Grayswood, Marshall (this is the 
plant mentioned in B. E. C. Report for 1892). 

, P. procumbens x Tormentilla (P. suberecta Zimmeter). Stafford- 

s . bire J-7 0n a walled bank at the Railway Station, Rocester ; between 
the Railway Station and the Hotel, Rudyard; between Reap's 
Moor and Longuor; between Alstonefield and Longuor; all Purchas. 
Derbyshire :— Bradley, W. R. Linton. Herefordshire :— Near Gar- 
way Hill, 1850, Purchas & Linywood. Brecknockshire :— Llanwrtyd, 
Purchas S. Devon :-Hedgebank by Cann Plantation, between 
Colebrook and Shaugh, Archer Briygs (this closely approaches 
P. procumbens for which it was gathered). Ireland, Co. Down :- 
Dry hedgebanks, Newtonbutler, 1849, Dr. Matheiv. 

7iJm Te T*Z X »° r T til l a {P A italica Lehm - 1849 > P - Gremlu 
Zimm. 1884, P. adscendens Gremli). Surrey :— Roadside near 

S^ood, Witley, 1887, Marshall. > E. Jknfr-^yridTS 
in S cnl n W °l° dS ' Mar f mlL The S P GcimeES are -oSSt £Sn£ 

thJ, IZ / f\l J Z CUmbenS ? reptms is a P° ssible alternative ; bS 
they seem to be better named as above. The hybrid has not pre- 

iwa" y ta? T:rf a *r B , ritish on good ***** s"i p am 

awaie , but it can hardly be very scarce, having regard to the 
apparent frequency and wide distribution of pLSns x re 2 l 

remit kX Vst* n° tam ^ te *' Focke ' s descriptions and 

£ « sJ'Si^ ^ff ' hawra ' tLat ( as he indeed 

SleTrmT^ L^f 6 mU8t be allowed in deal W with such 

Snn^ a « Specimen-matching 

"1. P. procumbens x Tormentilla. . . . Stem hardlv mutino 

large as mV £ ££ polK^^^ 

roiW^Thpl.^ -"f; J"™™***" is usually associated with P. 

P ! Z Sm?^ 1 ni° "? may bG ? lm ° St ™ iver * a % found where 
r. pwcumoens grows, often far more frequent than it. 

ito^SSiw^ • • •• 0fte » very like P. F - ^^ 
leaflets rn^S, d f°Z r °f ng; leaves talked, 3-5 -nate ; 
stales ^cl fat / and oiten lar g<* than in P. J«*«*6«„ 

grains : it W s L, vTh i P I confcal ^g but few well- developed 
P Si«S i ? - y htt1 -?' , A *********** form is like a strong 

rather strong y i nc S ' t^ OC , casionall y ^divided, generally 
not rare. S firm i « P ° lle * Wlth ma »y normal grains; fruit 

Torment n a and P , Vei ' y llke t^cumbms X Tormentilla. P. 

W "" a &nd P ' "**"" as a rule grow in different situations; 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF BERKSHIRE. 327 

but where they occur in company, particularly in light wooded 
spots on loamy soil, the hybrid forms are also apt to be plentiful. 

"8- P. procicmbens x reptans. . . . Basal leaves quinate ; stem 
creeping, rooting ; flowers solitary, showy, to some extent 4-partite, 
but principally 5-partite; stem-leaves stalked, stipules undivided. 1 " 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF BERKSHIRE. 

By G. Claridge Druce, M.A., F.L.S. 

During my residence in Oxford, dating from 1879, I have been 
working at the Flora of the above county — until 1885, however, only 
in a secondary degree to that of Oxfordshire. On the completion of 
my Oxfordshire Flora, and hearing from Mr. Britten that he did not 
contemplate the continuance of the work inaugurated in his useful 
"Contributions towards a Flora of Berkshire, " which was printed in 
the Transactions of the Newbury Field Club for 1871, 1 decided to under- 
take the task of completing a Flora of Berkshire. Unfortunately 
I have had but few coadjutors, and as some parts of the county are 
rather difficult of access to one living in the extreme corner, the 
distribution of all the plants is by no means exhaustively investi- 
gated ; yet the salient features, at any rate, of its Flora have been 
made out during my explorations of the last eight years. 

I have also examined all the records which are scattered through 
the works of Turner, Lobel, Gerard, Parkinson, How, Merrett, 
Morison, Ray, Dillenius, and the more recent authors. The 
herbaria of Dubois, Bobart, Sherard, Dillenius at Oxford ; that of 
Sir Joseph Banks, as well as the British herbarium of the British 
Museum, and that of Sir James E. Smith in the possession of the 
Linnean Society, have also been examined. Many valuable MSS. 
of Goody er, Lightfoot, Wm, Browne, Dillenius, Sheffield, Baxter, and 
others have been placed under requisition, so that the forthcoming 
Flora will contain as far as possible all that is now known of the 
plants of the district. 

Perhaps it may be well to state that while many of the old 
authors are cited in Britten's " Contributions, H a rather important 



>/ 



>f 



of the County Flora, consisting as it does of about 500 species, 
many of which are localised ; it contains, however, many errors. 

The various species given in Britten's "Contributions" have 
now, with comparatively few exceptions, been verified by me. The 
following, up till the present time, I have not been able to find. 
These may be divided into four categories : 

1st. Plants of casual occurrence, or which were not indigenous, 
but were probably correctly recorded : — Anemone apennina L. In 
a copse at Shilhngford, Baxter. — Ptconia officinalis L. This, 
which, according to How, in the Phytoloyia Britannica, occurred in 

a close at Sunningwell, has long ago disappeared. —Isatis tinctoria 



• 



328 NOTES ON THE FLORA OF BERKSHIRE. 

L. Near Wantage, Dr. Trimen. — Silene nutans L. One plant in 
Wellington Grounds, Rev. G. W. Penny. — Silene Armeria L. Near 
Sonning. — S. conica L. One plant near Newbury, H. Boswell. — 
Linum angustifolium L. Farm at Crowthorn, Rev. G. W. Penny. 
This may belong to a higher grade of citizenship. — Geranium 
phaum L. A garden straggler. — Mespilus germanica L., given in 
the Newbury list as occurring in orchards and v^^vnwa -ia * 
denizen in Oxon. — Smyrnium Olusatrum L. Aboul 
Blackstone. — Anthriscus Cerefoliiwi L. Hedge near Windsor. — 
Lonicera Caprifolium L. Bagley Wood, Rev. A. Bloxam. This 
may belong to the denizens. — Filago gallica L. Has occurred in 
Berkshire. It may be a colonist ; I have been unable to find any 
other record than the above vague note. — Polemonium cceruleum L. 
Two localities are on record ; both of garden origin ? — Veronica 

™ - " brickfield at Wellington 

Chenopodium Botrys L. Bray, 1861. 



Wind 



spicata L. 



W, 



iflorus Curtis. Grange Farm. 



2nd. The following perhaps have more claims to be included as 
Berkshire plants -.—Adonis autumnalis L. Three localities are given 
in the Newbury list. — Lythrum Hyssopifolia L. Only recorded 
from Cholsey by Henslow, who was vicar there, and from near 
Windsor. — Tordylium maximum L. The record in the Botanist's 
Guide for Eaton Wick intends not the place of that name near 
Oxford, but the Eaton Wick near Eton, Bucks, and may be really 
in that county. I have seen a specimen from the neighbourhood 
of lubney, gathered some twenty years since.— Inula Helenium L. 
has apparently disappeared from the locality given in Walker's 
* l ° >«• — Campanula Ranunculus L. also has disappeared from 

. 3rd. The plants which have become very rare, or possibly ex- 
tinct :—Dmnthusprolifer L. From near Windsor.— Caucalis daucoides 
Jj. About Heading. Is now a very rare plant in Central Britain. 
— Ornaphalium dwicum L. The records in the Newbury list are 
possibly erroneous, but it may yet be found on the north escarp- 
ment of the chalk. - Gentiana Pneumonanthe L. I am afraid lost 

from Sulehampstead. It occurs in Surrey and Hants, just outside 
tne county, and has been recorded from Wild Moor Bottom, near 
Wokingham, a place not known in the locality. Should it have 
been Lungmoor or Broadmoor ? - Scrophularia vernalis L. About 
JBucklebury There is no very recent record. — Orobanche Eapum 
lnui 1. A decreasing plant in all its Midland stations. — Teucrium 
bcordium L . I have been unable to find it in the marshy meadows 
oi Abingdon and Eynsham, which formerly yielded it. They are 
still damp enough. The Godstow locality was in Oxon. - Orchis 
bimia Lam. Almost or quite extinct. — Damasonium Alisma Mill. 
J nave carefully searched the Bracknell and Southcote localities 
pSkt r2 CeSS ' ~ L T' m Theh JPterU L. Formerly in Windsor 
/ ^J$£ bu f nm S wel i Bog- Is there a more recent record ?- 

will ZtCv tm \ h Althou S h not recently found, surely it 
if b £, dlscovered about Bagshot Heath. 
4th. 1 lants recorded in error, or of which there is only a slight 









NOTES ON TflE FLORA OF BERKSHIRE* 32$ 

probability of being correct. Mr. Lousley contributed many 
records to the Newbury list, but they are so full of gross in- 
accuracies as to throw doubt on all his statements. His records 

of Lathy rus jmlustris L., lllecebrum verticillatum L., Poly carport tetra- 
phyllum L., Salvia pratensis L., Euphorbia platyphylla L., Habenaria 
albida Br., and Allium Scorodoprasum L. are all erroneous. The 
list of plants found about Pangbourne by Mr. Pamplin also contains 
several misnomers : — Viola Curtisii Forst. is a form of V. tri- 
color L. — Trifolium sabterraneum L. requires verification. — Sedum 
Forsterianum Sm. is probably a mistake for S. reflexum L. ; his 
Myosotis sylvatica is M. arvensis var. umbrosa; his Cardamine im- 
patiens L. is C. sylvatica. — Cephalanthera ensifolia is not correct ; 
his Aceras anthropophora is probably Habenaria viridis; the Lamium 
incisum is a variety of L. purpureum ; and there are doubts as to 
the correctness of Car duns tenuiflorus, Artemisia Absinthium, and 

Habenaria bifolia. 

Other records which are errors are — Geranium sylvaticum in 
Bot. Guide for G. pratense L. — Drosera anglica Huds. To this 
is referred Bobart's record in Morison's Hist. iii. 620 ; but Bobart 
did not discriminate between D. anglica and D. intermedia; both 
species are on the same sheet in his herbarium. — Lepidium lati- 
folinm, recorded by Mr. Bicheno from the peat-pits near Newbury, 
is probably a lapsus calami; he was a fairly competent botanist. — 
Probably Aceras anthropophora and Thlaspi perfoliatum from Flower's 
list are both errors, the last certainly so. — Blackstone's record of 
Lathyrus palustris, although never verified, is not altogether im- 
probable ; so far, it has eluded me. — Pyrus scandica, which Prof. 
Babington mentions from Pangbourne, but which Dr. Syme was 
unable to find, may be rediscovered. — Chrysosplenium alter nifolium 9 
given as a Berks plant on faith of the Cliefden Wood locality, but 
this belongs to Bucks. — Bagley Wood, given in my Flora of Oxon 
on faith of Bev. E. Fox, is an error for C. oppositifolium. — Cicuta 
virosa L. in Wellington list is an error, as is the record in my Flora 
of Oxon by Rev. E. Fox. — Rubia peregrina L. In the neighbour- 
hood of Kintbury or Inkpen, Reeks. A very improbable record. 
Hieracium murorum, from the downs above W. Woodhay and from 
walls at Elcot, by Mr. Beeks, is a probable misnomer for R. 
vulgatum. — Scrophularia Ehrhartii Stev. Near Cumnor. A mis- 
nomer ; the plant from there is S. nodosa L. var. Bobartii Pryor. 
Limosella aquatica L. The Binsey locality is in Oxon. — Orobanche 
ccerulea Vill. Near Cookham, but the purple-flowered form of 
O. minor was mistaken for it. — Stachys germanica L. According to 
Bromfield, in Phyt> iii, 685, is plentiful in Berks, but never verified* 
It is also recorded from Ducklington, but that parish is in Oxon 4 
The plant should be found on the north side of the coralline oolite 
plateau. — The station for Asarum europmtm L., between Henley and 
Maidenhead, is most likely in Bucks. — Potamogeton heterophyllus 
Schreb. The locality for North Berks in the '* Contributions " 
I am inclined to think incorrect, as is Mr* Tufnail's Burghtield 
record in Flora Oxf. } which more likely belongs to P. rufescens. 
P. heterophyllus is a plant which should occur. 



330 GOSSYPIUM LANCEjEFORME MIEES MS. 



In Mavor's list of plants, which, he says, "he owes in great 
measure to Dr. Noehdeu, of Windsor, and Mr. Bicheno, of New- 
bury," he remarks of Dr. Noehden's records, "that he has only to 
regret that the Doctor, having kept no written memoranda, and 
having made his excursions some years ago, was unable to name 
the exact habitats of the plants he discovered. The district which 
he examined, however, includes the vicinity of Windsor, and 
extends on one side as far as Bagshot Heath, and on the other to 
Bisham Woods." The following plants in the list I have not been 
able to verify : — Allium Schcenojyrasum L. Meadows and pastures, 
Noehchn, who also gives A. vineale L., which is frequent; can the 
former be a var. of the latter ? — Callitriche autumnalis is of course 
C. hamulata. — Carex armaria L. is an error. — C. ccesjritosa is G. 
Goodenowia; and C. axillaris, C. distans, and C. stricta are most 
probably names rather than plants.— Drosera am/lica and Geranium 
vwschatum are D. intermedia and Erodium cicutar'ium respectively.— 
Lycopodium Selago L., Dr. Beeke records from a bog on Ufton 
Common, a locality more suited for L. inuvdatum.—Medicarjo arabica 
Dr. Mavor says is by no means rare throughout the upper part of 
the county, partially cultivated. "Native." I have never met with 
it. Can he have meant M. lupulina ? — Melampymm arvense L. 
irequent." Probably Bartsia Odontites, which he does not give. 
—M . enstatum L. and M. sylvaticum are undoubted errors.— 
Dumthus deltoides L. On old walls, Mr. Bicheno, is either a 
misnomer or a casual. — Peucedanum officinale L. Dr. Noehden. 
An error.- Primus Padus L. A misnomer for P. avium L.—Salix 
Ventandra L. An error. — Stella ria nemorum is a mistake for 
terastmm aquaticum — Veronica hybrida is also a misnomer. — 
hanunculus hirsutus.Jrom moist clayey places, is doubtless an error. 

hi i \Z: m T-T^ hl<ih Mr - Bicheno records from near Frilsham, 
is a plant which I have vainly searched for in the district. 

from Tu g t err ° ne ° us r n ecords may be mentioned lhaba inflata, 

IZhi^f ° P ?°S t ? E ? admg Castle > see Ph & 1850, p." 334, 
which is a form of D. brachycarpa that occurs in Oxon and Warwick. 

wonlH ^ U !° m .i n , UP T ^/oregoing, or upon any Berks records, 
would be greatly valued. They may be sent to 118, High Street, 



GOSSYPIUM LANCEiEFORME Mieks MS. 



lias hrrm rri, f „„j o«"«" "j j^l. vvati oi tne genus (jossi//num 

he Lnuf L M Gr °t U £ m t Ce an a PP ar <*% unpublished paper on 

UeJcZ J/J u 0l l n , ¥ lers ' containing the description of a 

th" plant P hn e . C ° lle K Gd b 7 PaVOn ' So far as ™ ~n discover, 
rev e P L )bt T , \ I 6 " ^f d^Hbed, but it was referred to in a 

in be BrifcTSn™ nteU f ° r July 28 ' 1806 (P- 71 °) :-" There is 
a ^nf?Ji U !l Um a SpeCimc ' n of Avon's from Mexico, which 



known 



tails to the leaf loW 3*9?*?"™ ™ us m tue peculiarly long 

ro m leat-iobes, and in the segments of the involucre, which 



A NEW SPANISH CERASTIUM-. 331 

are exactly like the leaf-lobes in miniature." The Specimen came 
from Herb. Lambert, and is labelled in Pavon's hand, "Gossypiurn 
N.E."— Ed. Journ. Bot.] 

" Gossypiurn lanceseforme nob. — Annuum? ramosum ramu- 
lis subteneribus, obtuse 4-gonis glabris epunctatis ; foliis parum 
cordatis auriculis minimis supra petiolum imbricatis profundissime 
inciso 3-lobatis, lobis lanceolatis apice longe attenuatis valde 
divaricatis, terminali lateralibus 2-plo longiore, integris, e basi 
3-5 nerviis, nervis eglandulosis, utrinque opacis et obsolete puber- 
ulis in nervis tomentosis, petiolo subpatente, debili striato, sub- 
tomentoso limbo dimidio breviore ; stipulis sub parvis, lineari- 
acutis, puberulis ; pedicello 1-floro oppositifolio petiolo breviore, 
tereti cinereo-tomentoso ; involucro subparvo 3-secto, lobissimo 
connatis, lanceolato-oblongis, acuminatis, integris, erectiusculis, 
parallele nervoso glabro ; petalis 5 cuneato-rotundatis contortim 
imbricatis, patentissimis, glabris, flavidis, minute glanduloso- 
punctatis, infra medium macula elongata rubello signatis ; tubo 
staminea petalis multo breviore, undique filamentis brevissimis 
numerosissimis instructo, antheris subpeltatis, ceteris ignotis. 

"In Mexico, v. s. in lib. Mus. Brit. (Pavon)." 



A NEW SPANISH CEKASTIUM. 

By A. E. Lomax. 

During a botanical expedition in the Sierra de Guadarrama, last 
June, I discovered a species of Cerastium which does not agree with 
any description in Willkomm & Lange's Flora Illspanica; it seems 
to me to be intermediate between Cerastium Gayanum Boiss. and 
C. Riai Desm., and I propose to name it C. carpetanum. . 

Cerastium carpetanum mihi. Annua, dense glanduloso- 
pubescens, viscosissima ; caule a basi divaricato- et dichotomo- 
ramoso, 3-6" 1. ; foliis sessilibus, oblongo-ovatis vel oblongo- 
lanceolatis, obtusis ; cymis dichotomis laxi-interdum densifloris ; 
bracteis omnino herbaceis ; pedicellis sub anthesin plus minus 
curvatis, post anthesin rectis, reflexis, fructiferis demum iterum 
erectis ; calycibus basi subumbilicatis ; sepalis altero oblongo ovato 
vel ovato-lanceolato, obtuso, late scarioso, altero lanceolato, acuti- 
usculo, vix scarioso vel omnino herbaceo, 2^'" 1. ; petalis calyci 
subaequantibus, vel paulo superantibus, breviter bifidis ; staminibus 
10; capsula calyce subduplo longiore, 5-6|" 7 1., basi subinflata, 
apice curvata, attenuata; seminibus reniformis, dorso canaliculars, 
bicarinatis, acute striato-tuberculatis, pallide ferrugineis. 

In silya in summo jugo supra Puerto de Navacerrada, montibus 
Carpetanis, Castella, Hispana. Junio. 

Between C. Gayanum Boiss. and C. Rimi Desm. Differs from 
C. Gayanum in the shortly bifid petals, obtuse leaves, and reniform, 
acutely tubercled seeds ; and from C. Jluci in the petals equalling 
or exceeding the calyx, and the broadly scarious-margined, obtuse 
sepals. 



332 



II 



PYROLA KOTUNDIFOLIA AND ITS EUROPEAN FORMS. 

By Arthur Bennett, F.L.S. 

This summer, Mr. Marquand was kind enough to send me 
some fresh specimens of Pyrola rotundifolia L. from Guernsey. The 
examination of these in the light of one observation made by Dr. 
Boswell (Syme) [Bot. Ex. Club Report for 1881, p. 53) on specimens 
sent by Mr. Sunderland from "The Grande Mare" as "/ arenaria " 

(armaria I think, J. T. Boswell,"— led me to look up the refer- 
ences to the Lancashire, Scottish, and other plants tbat have passed 
under various names in our Floras. So far as I can find, no other 
botanist seems to have considered the Grande Mare plant other than 

rotundifolia. 

The Lancashire plant seems always to have been considered a 
variety since 1846, as on the 12th November in that year Mr. 
Kenyon exhibited specimens of that plant at the Edinburgh 
Botanical Society, and then proposed to call it « P. maritime, 
giving the differences for rotundifolia. In the 2nd ed. of his 

v Tu 'J; 5 ab ! ugton noti ces the plant. In the 6th ed. of the 
British Mora Hooker and Arnott gave it the name of B. bracteata. 
In the Phytologist for 1853, p. 1119, Mr. (now Prof.) Oliver called 
attention to a paper by Planchon in the Annates des Sciences 
^relies (Ser 3 xvm. 379), where Planchon identifies the plant 

BnSX^l? 1 ^ ? G Var ' are T ia ° f Koch ' In «¥** botany, Dr. 

^nd Sir 1 n % B \ aren ?™ Ko <*' and both Prof. Babington (ed. 8) 
name iw N °° ker {StUd T Flom > «*• 3 ) cal1 * ^ the same 

under fW „ ^^ T^ t0 C ° nsider there were two P lants 

anfjivP, . p •; aS £ haS ",?' serotina Mlc 4- = v- «w*to "; 
rfr/l £j?^ ^°S (**. Belg.),"\nd localises the 

I have seen 



n 



re nana 



pZZ wher iJt , 88 ' ^ A1 l feld gives an account of the 

m herb H Z ^ ^ ^ ?? has seen ei S ht specimens 

under -l mw J£„5r t/° ^ wMch he makes int ° a «¥«*» 

Id plant Z S Z ] ' hda f ™ te r nedia Alefeld - and V^s ™ der 

seem to hlvp VZJZZ"* Koch ' • After this was ™ tten ' he 
atT 88 he 22™ > aCr °f SOme mention of Ke ^on's maritima, as 

P f h n ™ o T5 , ' aDd SUpP ° SeS h ma y be ** intermedia. 

m , * j?T? a PP hed t0 several Scottish botanists for specimens of 

ao^/othe °bT " ?S "?» but * Can hea ' * *™ s P uch nei her 
Ano?Lr !,w al G !" des s Wst such stations. 
Another plant was sent to Sir W J Hnnlrni. it>i * i • , i ., \ 

fathered n the Yorkshire oc^^^S^^sh^ 

?h£n^^JSTft" i ™ S WaS a m -take, as the IcalTty 
the sea as X H S n ? m ^ m f 0ast ' in a dene ™™™S down to 
inks 'these ;iH^ ^f haS kmdly informed me - Mr. Baker 
SS«L»' w^? 6118 ! approximftte a little 

near lorden Hilf" ?"■ ? enti ° n T S anotber station "on the coast 
h?s un aifn U> and W18he8 ' as * do ' that someone would look 



towards the var 



this up again* 



PYKOLA ROTUNDIFOLIA AND ITS EUROPEAN FORMS, 888 



This is conflicting and unsatisfactory. We want to know 
whether these British plants are all the same thing; are they 
different from one another ? are they really distinct from rotundi- 
folia ? or are they (with others elsewhere) merely a chain of 
intermediates ? Anyone who has examined a large series of 
rotundifolia from all parts of the world will he prepared for great 
variation in the height of the plant, size of the leaves (6'" in 
diameter! to 36'" !), their shape at the base (tapering to cordate), 
and the size of the flowers. Of course specimens from the shores 
of the arctic seas and specimens from damp woods will show great 
differences ; the size of the flower in the former (var. grandi flora) 
being much larger, at the expense of the leaves, &c. — a usual state 
in arctic plants. 

Dried specimens are not good material to deal with here ; given 
fairly flowered examples of P. rotundifolia, media, and minor, they 

are easy to separate, but to separate forms of one species is not easy. 
So I carefully examined five specimens of the Grande Mare plant, 
and append the result, marking out those characters which are 
lost in drying : — Style rosy-purplish, shading into purple just 
below the stigma ; stigma deep purple. Anthers yellow to orange- 
yellow ; filaments white. Sepals subparallel for half their length ; 
in many they are fringed at the apex, or slightly jagged; others are 
subentire, yellowish white (contrasting in this with the much purer 
white of the petals), paler than as figured in Eng. Botany. Pedicels 
a little longer than the calyx, when fully expanded. Bracts on the 
scapes in four specimens, four ; in one specimen, three ; those on 
the raceme, eleven, not confined to under the flowers. In bud the 
apex of the calyx-segments are contracted and recurved, and look 
nearly entire and subobtuse. The filaments, stamens, and styles 
are what is called "drusy" in mineralogy; i.e., in white crystal- 
like papillae, which extend to the inner surface of the petals. 

Now this, so far as one can contrast it with dried specimens, is 
pretty fairly intermediate between rotundifolia and the var. arenaria, 
perhaps on the whole bearing towards the first. I have not seen a 
specimen named by Dr. Alefeld, but, looking to his drawing of his 
intermedia, it seems to me that it is not exactly this Guernsey 
plant ; and he notes under rotundifolia that he has seen three from 
Guernsey. And I think I am right in saying there is only the one 
station known in Guernsey ; anyhow, Mr. Marquand (Flora of 
Guernsey, 1891) gives no other. 

Yet it would appear that Sir W. J. Hooker did see something in 
these Scotch specimens that looked different from typical rotundi- 
folia, as Dr. Alefeld records that these plants appeared in herb. 
Hooker as "P. rotundifolia var. squamosa Hook. MS." Although 
I have looked through all the rotundifolia at Kew, I did not 
examine these particularly, as I want to see similar ones in the 
fresh state. I have seen or possess specimens of the arenaria from 
all the recorded stations, but here again I want to see fresh 
Lancashire specimens. 

I trust that any botanist who has the opportunity of gathering 
WJ of the British plants I have named will carefully examine 



834 SYNOPSIS OF GENEBA AND SPECIES OF MALVE.E. 

(and record) them fresh, and I should be very glad to see them 
myself. J ° 

Mi l h 't V6 . ^\7^ 1 be 1 en able t0 see a s P eci ^en of the P. serotina 
ivncq., out it that belongs to armaria, we may put the following 
names more or less to these rotundifolia forms :— 

Pyrola rotundifolia Linn. Sp. PL ed. 1, vol. i. p. 396 (1753) 
{3. armaria Koch, Syn. FL Genu, et Heir. ed. 1, p. 478 (1837) 
(3. bracteata Hook. & Arnott, Brit. FL ed 6, p. 276 (1850). 
P. mantima Kenyon, Phyt. vol. ii. p. 727 (1846). 

P. arenaria Dum. Bong. Lit. Belg. p. 41 (1869) 

TTWaia intermedia Alefeld in to^a, vol. xxviii. p. 65 (1856). 

And according to Dr. Alefeld— 

" P. rotundifolia var. squamosa Hook. MS. 
P. rotundifolia var. aZ6t/?ora Karel. & Kir. MS 

P. intermedia Schleich. Catalog:' 

N" 158?Feb: (1854) ^^ 5 ft-L & Maile ' H ^' ** * *-* 
France a rM Se sv e t ^"STJ?^ *° the Botani ™l Society of 

the pedicel natp^Te teM^ "* "^ « 
Eurtpea™ tXeT^ ° 08m fa ' P ' !"*»• ™ *• W. 

wraw occurs in sand n», 7i,!' P ' ( 3 849 •' J understand that P. 
I have not seen specimens "" ° D ' be West C0Mt of Gotland, but 



SYNOPSIS OF GENEBA AND SPECIES OP MALVEM 

By Edmund G. Bakes, F.L.S. 

(Concluded from p. 273.) 

** Folia suprema lobata. 

1Q7 A "" Mexicanum. 

n ■ i A ' tbilob atum Hemsl. Diag. PI Nov n 04 

Hab. Central Mexico, Parry fbaLfr^.' SI i 

iq« a vr "*" "" Austr °-Americana. 

Hah. Br^r P^rcatf Kke i , K ' Sd '"»- '• * P- * 23 - 

189. 4. «„ ££&££«"-* N °- 4 ° 7 - 

Hab. South Rm 7.1 /•/ • \?' . ' 

• utu maz "» Olaziou, No. 12438 ! 



SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OP MALVE.E, 335 

140. A. Pedrje Branch K. Schum. I. c. p. 425. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. Minas Geraes. 

141. A. elegans St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Mer. i. p. 207. Sida elegans 
Dietr. Synop. iv. p. 852. S. bella Steud. Norn. ii. p. 576. 

Hab. Brazil. 

142. A. Sellowianum Eegel in Ann. So. Nat. ser. 4, xii. p. 379. 
Sida Selloidana Kl. in Otto & Dietr. Allg. Gartenzeit. 1836 p. 9. 

Hab. South Brazil, Glaziou, No. 1457. 

143. A. striatum Dicks, in Lindl. Bot. Eeg. 1839, Misc. p. 39. 
A. pictum Walp. Kep. i. p. 324. Sida picta Gill, in Hook. & Arn. 

Bot. Misc. iii. p. 155. S. striata Dietr. Syn. iv. p. 852 ; Bot. Mag. 
t. 3840. 

Hab. Brazil. Organ Mts. ! Uruguay, Tweedie ! &c. 
A. Thompsoni Hort. is closely allied to the above. 

144. A. niveum Gris. PL Lorentz. p. 44. 

Hab. Argentine Eepublic, Lorentz, No. 175; Hieronymus £ 
Lorentz, No. 922. 

145. A. Eegnellii Miq. in Linn&a, xxii. p. 554. A. septem- 

lobum Miq. I. c. 

Hab. Brazil. Prov. Minas Geraes. St. Paulo. Rio de Janeiro, 
Glaziou, No. 18891 ! 

146. A. Darwinh Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 5917. A. Hildebrandtii 
Fenzl in hort. 

Hab. Brazil. Prov. St. Catherina ! 

Var. typioa Kegel in Gartenflora, xxv. p. 317. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. St. Catherina. 

Var. trinerve Eegel, I. c. xxiii. p. 130, t. 794. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. St. Catherina. 

Var. expansum Eegel, I. c. xxv. p. 317. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. St. Catherina. 

147. A. venosum Walp. Ann. ii. p. 158 ; K. Sebum. /. c. p. 431, 
t. 76. Sida venosa Hort. in Bot. Mag. t. 4463. 

Hab. South Brazil. 

Var. f3. brevicalyx K. Sebum. I. c, p. 431. 
Hab. Brazil. Prov. St. Paulo. St. Catherina. 

Var. y. lanatum K. Schum. 1. c. p. 431. 
Hab. South Brazil, Mendonca, No. 1050. 

Sect. II. Corynabutilon K. Schum. I. c. p. 369. Stigmata decur- 

rente papillosa. 

* Folia parva. 

148. A. bicolor Phil, in Anal. Univ. lxxxii. p. 322.; K. Schum. 
I.e. p. 433. 

Hab. Chili ; nr. Santiago, Philippi ! 

** Folia majora. 

149. A. ceratocarpum Gay, Fl. Cbil. i. p. 381. Sida cerato- 
carpum Hook. & Arn. Bot. Misc. iii. p. 151. S. steUiaera PoepD 
Coll. PI. Chil. iii. No. 172. 1P 

Hab. Cbili. Santiago ! Campana di Quillota ! 



836 SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF MALVE^. 

Var. parviflora K. Schum. I. c. 

Hab. Venezuela ; nr. Topo, Otto, No, 906. 

150. A. viride Philippi, I. c. p. 323. 

Hab. Chili. Talcaregue, E. C. Reed ! Sta. Maria, E. C. Reedl 

■ 

151. A. yitifolium Presl, Keliq. Haenk. ii. p. 116; Lindl. in 
Bot. Reg. 1841, t. 57 ; Bot. Mag. t. 4227. Sida vitifolia Cav. ; DO. 
Prod. i. p. 471. 

Hab. Chili. Prov. Valdivia ! Chiloe ! Conception ! 

152. A. Ochsenii Phil. Cat. PI. Vase. p. 27. Anoda Ochsenii 
Phil, in Linnaea, xxviii. p. 613. 

Hab. Chili. Prov. Valdivia ! 

A. discission Schlecht. in Linnaea, xxv. p. 218, is evidently 
related to this plant. 

153. A. Garckei, n. sp. Sida acerifolia Garcke in PL Lechler. 
No. 376. 

Hab. Chili. Prov. Valdivia ! 

I have named this plant in honour of Dr. A. Garcke, and also 



v> 



if< 



p. 21. Dr. Garcke lias pointed it out as being a distinct species on 
several occasions (see Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 1893, p. 491, &c). Its 
nearest ally is the preceding plant, A. Ochsenii Phil. I append a 
short description : — 

Caule fruticoso, foliis viridibus acute S-5-palmati-lobatis lobo 
medio majore acuminate cordatis serratis vel crenato-serratis 
utrinque pilosis petiolatis, alabastris ovatis externe pilosis, floribus 
axiUaribus sohtariis vel binis pedunculis gracilibus petiolis longi- 

Sd;ff a r S ,7 at18 X el triangulares subacuminatis externe 
pi o is, petahs late ovatis (in sicco purpureis) calyce multo longi- 

rPnSr P \ JUU10nbuS Calyce bre vioribus dorso stellato pubes- 
centibus, semimbus nigrescentibus. 

Leaves l|-2 in. long and about the same broad ; petioles li-lf 

' S'i PedUU f Cl f if* in - lon « ; P efcals i ™- long * 

thoselnirZ. -^ wT Phil - are rather l0 ^ er a »* fc^ker than 
cence J of ft ' *"? ^ pnnCipal difference lie3 in the pubes- 

nedunl ^ t? ^ f^\ The n ™ ev ? art of the stem, the 
SS^* of , A - 0chen ^ Phil- are covered with short 

S IttTlhZ MTA ^"^ the P^escence is pilose, together 
with some short stellate hairs, giving it a very different appearance. 

Non satis not®. 
* Gerontogea. 

„7„» 154 '- A -/ e ? l ^ t h errense Munro in Wight 111. p. GO. Sida neel- 
gherrenm Steud. Norn. ed. 2, p. 578. 



Hab. India. 



Munro 



155 A. velutinum Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 504. 
±Iab. Guinea. 



** 



Neogea. 



156. A. acerifolium Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 504. 



ifolia 



SYNOPSIS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF MALVE4B. 337 

Lag. Nov. Gen. p. 21. 5. spinifex et forsan S. palmata FL Mex. Ic. 
ined. ex DO. 

Hab. Mexico. 

i 

157. A. blandum Fenzl, Delect. Sem. Hort. Vindob. 1830. 
Hab. Mexico. Los Banos, Heller. 

158. A. malachroides St. Hil. & Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, 
xviii. p. 49. * 

Hab. Brazil. Rio Grande do Sul. 



Probably the same as A. Fluckigerianiwi K. Schum. 

159. A. anodoides St. Hil. & Naud. I.e. 
Hab. Brazil ; nr. Eio de Janeiro. 
Compare A. Neovidense K. Schum. 









160. A. hiesutum K. Schum. I. c. p. 437. Sida hirsute Veil. Fl. 
Flum. vii. t. 20. 

Hab. Brazil. Prov. Bio de Janeiro. 

161. A. lineatum K. Schum. I.e. Sida lineata Veil. Fl. Flum. 
vii. t. 25. 

Hab. Brazil ; nr. Paraty. 

162. A. pilosum K. Schum. I.e. Sida pilosa Veil. Fl. Flum. 
vii. t. 26. 



Hab. Brazil, Prov. Bio de Janeiro. 



- 



163. A. cornutum Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 504. Sida comuta 
Willd. Enum. n. 724. 



Hab. South America. 



PULCHRUM 



Sida piilchra 



Coll. Hort. Kip. p. 129, t. 34. 
Hab. Ins. St. Martha. 

165. A. elegans Coll. Mem. Tor. xxxv. p. 155. Sida Collai 
Dietr. Syn. ii. p. 853. S. elegans Coll. in Mem. di Torino, xxxv 
p. 155. 

Hab. Ins. St. Martha. > 

166. A. truncatum Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 503. 
Hab. St. Domingo. 



167. A. circinnatum Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 502. Sida circinnata 
Willd. ex Spr. Syst. iii. p. 119. 

Hab. South America ; nr. Amazon. 

- 

*** Patri Ign. 

TT7-,, 1 ? 8, A. mollicomum Sweet, Hort. Brit. i. p. 54. Sida mollicoma 
Willd. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 471. S. sericea. Cav. ex descr. 

I have seen a plant in Herb. Eoemer with the above name from 
the Berlin Garden, which answers fairly well to the description. 
If this be correct, A. moUicomum Sweet must be placed anions the 
Triovulatse. ° 

169. A. microspermum Don, Gen. Syst. i. p. 501. Sida micro- 
sperma Cav. ; DC. Prod. i. p. 469. 

Journal of Botany.— Vol. 31. [Nov. 1893.] z 



** 



388 



SHORT NOTES, 



Addenda. 



170. A. attenuatum Robins. & Sea. in PL Pringl. Distr. 1893. 
Hab. Mexico. State of Jalisco. Slopes of mountains near 
Lake Chapala, C. S. Pringle, No. 4354 ! 



Benense = Sida Benensis N. L. Britton in Bull. Torr. 
Club, 1889, p. 153. 

Bolivia. Junction of Bivers Beni and Madre de Dios, 



Hab. 



Rusby, 1455 t 

Since enumerating this plant among the Sidas, I have had an 
opportunity of seeing a specimen, and find it to be an Abutilon. 

172. A. Bridgesii, n. sp. Caule erecto tereto patenti-piloso, 

foliis cordatis ovatis acuminatis grosse irregulariter serratis petio- 

latis utrinque pilosis junioribus fere velutinis, stipulis anguste 

lanceolatis, floribus paniculatis paniculis foliosis, pedunculis tereti- 

bus juxta florem articulatis, sepalis lanceolatis acuminatis pilosis, 

petalis obovatis (in sicco albo-flavis) calyce longioribus, carpellis 

(circiter 6) biaristatis aristis scabridis 2-3 spermis, seminibus reni- 
formibus. 



Hab. Bolivia, Bridges I Herb. Mus. Brit. 



H-lf in. 



broad; petioles 1-1 f in. ; petals £ in. long; awns of carpels A- 



long, possibly lengthening when older. 

The leaves of this plant are deeply serrated ; the panicle is leafy, 
and not at all compound. It is closely related to A. Grevilleanum 
Walp. ; the calyx of A. Bridgesii is not, however, rufescently pilose. 

Ad hoc gmm pertinentes extant species insequentes ad Sida olim 

relegatcB. 

Sida abyssinica Dietr. Syn. iv. p. 859. 
& Chiilleminiana Steud. Norn. 

S. integri/olia Monti, Mem. Acad. Lyon. 1860, p. 182 
S. olygantha Dietr. Syn. iv. p. 854. 
S. patens Andr. Bep. p. 571. 

(To be continued.) 



SHORT NOTES. 



of 2?1 TZl ITTu 14 15ie - D - ®' * 6 ^' — Tnis autumn the growth 



- 

This autumn the growth 



rnrrppt nM r\ — * Ti. *TS. DC " Meu in ™ tne above name is tne 
SSlT ^- ° f the / lfficul ties formerly urged was that the 

laSnlL i n F tl0 ?i 3 .f a i e the se ^ ment3 & the radical leaves 
The fact 1; Tb. 1 th r *FF* h b °° ks called them linear-acute, 
and the se^f T fT\ leaV6S are ver ? sma11 . and autumnal ; 
of ffi L«?AW T trUly lanceolat e, ^re like the radical leaves 
those 'of ^«t ?; W - n , m l t Ef * m Botan V fi g ur e, t. 347, than 
correcfas far^Tf ° ^ The ****&<* of Syme therefore is 
^re ahke'Wthli ; 8 ' . se f? nents of the lower and upper leaves 
more alike (than m pimpmelloides) , but quite incorrect if by lower 

V 



AMERICAN NOMENCLATURE AGAIN. 339 

is meant radical leaves. There is another point in the constitution 
of this plant, its extreme fragility; as it grows up in the spring, 
unless it can find something to support it, the first high wind lays 
it flat; not so with (E. Lachenalii and pimpinelhides. And hoth 
the radical and the lowest spring leaves are very thin and delicate. 
I have dried as many of these autumnal leaves as my plant would 
afford, for the Exchange Club. — Arthur Bennett. 



Pap 



Mr. H. N. Dixon's two 



interesting notes (Journ. Bot. 1892, 809; 1893, 310) upon the 
seeming inconstancy of this variety suggest a query which it might 
be worth trying to answer. Are these results obtained from seeds 
produced by flowers of var. strigosum that have been fertilized by 
others of the same variety? I have always seen this variety 
accompanied by, and in smaller quantity than, typical Rhceas, and 
it is natural to suppose that under such circumstances it might be 
crossed, and so produce the variable results shown by Mr. Dixon's 
experiment. I would suggest that protected plants of strigosim 
should be fertilized with pollen of the same variety, and the seeds 
produced from these used for a further trial. The same course 
might also be taken to prove the constancy or otherwise of the var. 

Pryorii. — Eichard F. Towndrow. 

Rubus speotabilis Pursh in Kent (p. 183). — I was pleased to 
see a note by Dr. Masters upon the abundance of this Rubus at 
and near Sandling Park, Hythe. In Journ. Bot. 1881, p. 251, will 
be found a note by myself suggesting the possibility of the plant 
having originally escaped from the well-known Rhododendron 
Gardens attached to the Rectory at Saltwood, which were made 
some fifty years ago by a former rector of that place. Since 
writing this my suspicions have been confirmed, for I have traced 
the Rubus the whole way to the Gardens, where, however, strange 
to say, it did not occur so abundantly as at the Sandling Woods 
below. It bears the local name of the »■ Woodman's Rose."— J. 
Cosmo Melvill. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

American Nomenclature again. 

The Metasperma of the Minnesota Valley : a List of the Higher Seed- 
producing Plants indigenous to the Drainage-basin of the Minnesota 

River. By Conway Macmillan, State Botanist. Reports of 
the Survey, Botanical Series. I. Dec. 29, 1892. Minne- 
apolis. 8vo, pp. ix, 825. 

The Metaspermae are "otherwise called Angiospermse," and 
are on the whole better known under that name. The volume 
devoted to their enumeration is a handsome book, beautifully 
printed on good paper, and evinces a vast amount of industry, 
much of it— as in the elaborate synonymy of the genera— quite out 
of place in ajocal flora. The orders are arranged in the sequence 

z 2 



840 AMERICAN NOMENCLATURE AGAIN. 

of Engler and Prantl: there are elaborate and careful statistics; 

and the nomenclature is of the newest kind. It is to this last that 

I propose to devote a little space. 

Mr. Conway Macmillan is one of the most active of the reformers 

of botanical nomenclature, who, like some other reformers, find a 

difficulty in agreeing with each other. He was one of the first 

advocates of "duplicate binomials," and to him we are indebted for 

the enrichment of nomenclature by Taraxacum Taraxacum, Oxy coccus 

Oxycoccus, and similar names. This plan he considers "so excellent 

that it will scarcely fail of universal adoption, after a season of 

recalcitrant objection."* . Dis alitervisum; the "Botanical Club of 
"" Am ' k ...-...- ... . 



— „ ^ .^-.^.i^u,!.! xioouvxa.iij.uii mi Kilts ilUVUiUUmilciib (Jl DUltSUUG littiES 

decided otherwise ; to such an authority even Mr. Macmillan, albeit 
reluctantly, must needs bow ; and Taraxacum Taraxacum with its 
numerous analogues passes into that limbo which is largely peopled 
by the unhallowed creations of American reformers. With these go 
a large number of galvanised corpses, such as " Stellularia Linn. 
(1748) = Stellaria Linn . (1753)," " Stellaria Ludw. (1737) = Stellaria 

Linn. (1753)": for the Botanical Club, which shows distinct signs 
of sanity m its mode of dealing with these questions, accepts 1753 
as the date for genera. Unfortunately, its salutary ruling only 
came in time to be mentioned in the preface ; so that the body of 



the book is adorned 



suppressed almost before they have seen the light of day. 

Mr. Macmillan lays down in his introduction various more or 
less contradictory propositions. Prof. Greenef has dealt with some 
of these in the spirit of the candid friend. He shows that Mr. 
Macmillan has -obscured" the subject "with an ingenious 
™£™L I ^atK" takes up names of families without the least 
lnZnll° ^ f™ cl P le , wil ich he admits to be 'fundamental' in 
thThi* !>, - ; ? at ^Jr " paved the ™y t0 ™ny laxities"; 
T a tn nlvo v. iatl °; S ° f t,tleS are ^ry unsatisfactory ; and that his 
end ni •• ?« \? xeheQn "constructed in cold indifference to case- 
rthtfn " ™™« T" n - da „ are ™y freel y P"* forward as the 
nomenil«3 J s P ecies / 5 and " on the whole the errors in 
7 t rllT"! S* ar V° *!™> that we should 



the line 



nnf Aava f« +„W „ n - ;-"""> " ic »« numerous, Iliac w 

5 ? lho l-uv i? J hmg f0r granted ' as here Printed, in 

of the bibliographical." The question naturally arises how far the 

new sumpstrnus is preferable to the old mumpZls 

accuraS JS^KT** t0 , ^ Prof ' Greene ' 8 animadversions as 
to noticP m? m Served, and by so doing to resist the temptation 
exam ne i?J!Tft? production at length : but I propose to 
Soil ™?f d / tai i hlS ir ™ iment of one or two names, i£ order 
reformer LT fo * t^ 8 * 1 ™ 8 **» qualifications for the post of 
un,Xl * a8 the firsfc name which attracted my eye by its 

' if sZ?^ nC % WaS <*****«**> I will take that L my text. 
iu K ener m lt ar .' 0r TTt™»™ that priority should govern 



With this unimpeachable statement Mr. 



* BU11 T ° rre y Club > ^92, 15. + Erythea, 1893, p. 118 



AMERICAN NOMENCLATURE AGAIN. 34 1 

i 

Macmillan begins his remarks on the " Citation of Genera." 
"In general," he says later, "the nomenclature adopted is believed 
to be thoroughly abreast of the times." I do not find that Mr. 
Macmillan anywhere justifies the alteration, on grammatical or 
orthographical grounds, of generic names, while there is evidence 
to show that he carries his conservatism to extremes. Scoria, for 
example, a name "which an inadvertent printer gave,"* is retained 
by him, nor am I inclined to quarrel with his doing so, although 
Prof. Greene is severe upon it, and Mr. Hollick views it "with some 
amusement." f But how is it possible to reconcile with his "rigid 
conscientiousness," as Mr. Hollick terms it, the use of Cypripedilum 
for Cypripedium ? The name stands thus : — 

"Cypripedilum Linn. Gen. 687 (1737) em. Pfitz. (1888)." 

Of course no such name is to be found in Linn. Gen., and, 
according to Mr. Macmillan, it dates from Pfitzer's contribution 
to Engler & Prantl's Nat. Pjianzenfamilien, vol. ii. pt. 6, p. 82. 
But it may be traced back much further ; it appears in two previous 
papers by Pfitzer, dated 1887 and 1886, and was originated by 
Ascherson (FL Brandenburg, p. 700: 1864). J Uropedium Lindl. 
is similarly altered by Pfitzer to Uropedilum, and he defines a new 
genus, Papkiopedilum, which will have to stand, although the other 
two will of course revert to Cypripedium and Uropedium. 

After this, will it be believed that Mr. Macmillan in his preface 
writes: "In the spelling of generic names the following are the 
preferable forms : Cypripedium" &c. No reason is given for this 
change, and in this the author shows his wisdom : but what 
becomes of his principles ? Is the choice of a name a matter of 
preference after all ? If so, why has this coil been raised ? Why 
should not each man claim the privilege, so freely exercised by Mr. 
Macmillan, of doing that which is right in his own eyes ? 

Coming now to the specific names, — there are six under Cypri- 
pedilum, and none of the old safeguards against misapprehension, 
such as the placing of the author's name in brackets, or adding a 
second authority after the first are allowed to clothe the naked 
falsehood of "Cypripedilum acaule Ait. Hort. Kew. iii. 161 [he 
means 363] (1789), " and the like. I will let Mr. Macmillan define 
his position. " In order to obtain stability of nomenclature it is 
necessary to provide that the name of a plant, the specific name, 
can not be changed through caprice or whim." Mr. Macmillan 
knows as well as I do that "the name of a plant" is not 
"the specific name, 1 ' — the italics are his, — but the union of the 
genus and species : but let that pass. Having promulgated 
this statement ex cathedra, Mr. Macmillan proceeds to show the 
manifold causes of confusion in nomenclature: "The refusal to 



* Enjthea, 1803, 121. 

t Bull. Torrey Club, 1893, 178. 

\ I take this reference from Pfitzer, Enticarf einer Nat. anordnung der 
Orchideen, 1887, p. 11 : in the 1886 ed. of the Flora, " Cypripedilum L." appears 
on p. 120, without any indication that the name has been emended. 



342 AMERICAN NOMENCLATURE AGAIN. 

correct mistakes"; "the disinclination to do thorough biblio- 
graphical work " ; " inaccuracies " ; " hastiness " ; u unthinking 
and unbotanical criticism''; and a general unwillingness to be 
reformed — these are the "little rifts within the lute' ' which have 
made the "music mute, 9 ' and produced discord where harmony 
should reign. In this book, however, "the specific name chosen 
is in every case, so far as the writer knows, the one sanctioned 
by priority regardless of variance with * custom* or i authority.' If 
Mr. Macmillan shall be judged out of his own mouth : and we 
will first call as witness one of his species of Cypripedilum : 

" Cypripedilum spectabile Sw. Act. Holm. (1800)? 

C. calceolus var. g. Linn. Spec. 1346 (1762). 
C. hirsutum Mill. Diet. ed. 8 (1760). 
C. regituB Walt. Fl. Car. 222 (1788). 
C. album Ait. Hort. Kew. hi. 303 (1789). 
0. canadense Michx. Fl. N. Am. ii. 161 (1863)." 

This is how Mr. Macmillan states the case. Of the five synonyms, 
one is manifestly later than that retained ; another is a " variety" : 
omitting these, we have three names, each of which, on his own 
showing, antedates the one retained. Why are they ignored ? He 
expresses no doubt as to the accuracy of the synonymy, although 
one synonym is inaccurate : * the names were not previously occu- 
pied, and any one of them takes precedence of C. spectabile. 

Why does Mr. Macmillan cite Swartz as the authority for 0. 
spectabile? If he had looked up the reference, he would have seen 
that Swartz not only says explicitly "C. spectabile Salisbury," but 

11 G. album Hort. Kew." As I showed last 



synonym 



Walt 



Begi 



writes 



instead of 



"Cypripedilum spectabile Sw. Act. Holm. (1800) ?" 



"Cypripedium spectabile Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc.i. 78(1798)": 
the real name of the plant being 

Cypripedium Eeginee Walt. Fl. Carol. 222 (1788^. 



not m -Hort. Berol i. 13 (1816)," but in Sp. PL iv. 143 (1805) : 
and this is not the oldest name of the plant, as I showed at p. 313. 
Looking through the book one is struck by such names as 



these : 



"Hibiscus militaris Cav. Diss. i. 352 (1791). 

H. lavis Scop. Del. Fl. iii. 35 (1778)." 



an 



7T T y T ' iT ^andolle's Prodromus to Mr. Jackson's 
Indw has reduced to a synonym, but which, as Mr. Macmillan 
plainly shows, is "the one sanctioned by priority." Lavis is "the 



* See Journ. Bot. 1893, p. 313. 



AMERICAN NOMENCLATURE AGAIN. 843 

specific name, which can not be changed through caprice or whim " : 
why then does Mr. Macmillan reduce it, in favour of a later one ? 

"Jacksonia dodecandra (Michx.)" is another illustration of Mr. 
Macmillan' s indiscreet zeal in reformation. Jacksonia of Eafinesque 
is one of Prof. Greene's numerous restorations, and with his usual 
promptness in enriching nomenclature, he at once ran out four 
species.* But Jacksonia has since received its coup de grace from 
Dr. Britton, with whom I am glad to find myself in accord. Here 
is what he says about it : — ' * Jacksonia (trifoliata) = Cleome dode- 
candra L. Now Cleome dodecandra L. Sp. PL 672, is a well-known 
Indian species, Eafinesque evidently followed Michaux in sup- 
posing that it was North American, and Cleome dodecandra Michx. 
Fl. Bor. Amer. ii. 32 (1803) is indubitably the same as Polanisia 
graveolens Eaf. Amer. Journ. Sci. i. 379 (1819), and not at all the 
plant of Linnaeus. In matters of nomenclature we must be exact, 
and so it seems to me that Jacksonia Eaf. can only apply to the 
Asiatic, Linnaean, Cleome dodecandra. I do not find any allusion to 
Jacksonia in subsequent writings of Eafinesque, and presume that 
he discovered his error."! But even Prof. Greene shrunk from 
allowing Eafinesque's Jacksonia to claim the Linnean specific name: 
whereas Mr. Macmillan employs it, thus adding a new synonym. 
We may be thankful that Dr. Britton's exposure came in time, as 
I believe it has done, to prevent the substitution of a new name for 
the well-known Jacksonia of Brown — an invention indicated by 
Prof. Kuntze — "Jacksonia E. Br. 1811 eventuell einen anderen 
Namen erhalten miisste.'^ 

I am loth to credit Mr. Macmillan with any of the failings 
which he so freely attributes to others ; but I cannot see how he 
can reconcile his action with the principles he has laid down. It 
would be easy to select other instances, but enough has been said 
to justify the conclusion that he is ill fitted for the post of reformer. 
It seems to me that we have a right to protest against the publi- 
cation of schemes which are withdrawn by their authors almost as 
soon as they have been formulated, and it is not unreasonable to 
suggest that the neo-American school of nomenclaturists should 
agree among themselves before they attempt to impose their views 



Pittonia, ii. 174. 

t Bull. Torrey Club, 1893, 277. From the same paper I cite an illustration 
of Dr. Kuntze's method of working: — "Peeva Eaf. In his review of the 
botanical writings of Pursh, Elliott, Nuttall and others, published in the 
Journal de Physique, lxxxix. 256 — 262 (1819), Eafinesque states that Chiniaphila 
Pursh (1814) is antedated by Pseva Eaf. Med. Eep. 1809. This is alluded to by 
Pfeiffer in the Nomenclator, and the name has been taken up, and Ghimaphila 
displaced by Dr. Kuntze (Eev. Gen. PL 390), although neither of these authors 
appear to have seen Eafinesque's papers in the Medical Repository. There were 
several of these published from 1805 to 1810. I wish to record here that I have 
recently gone over these papers line by line, and can find no allusion to Pseva 
in any of them ; nor have I met with the name in any of Eafinesque's writings, 
except at the place where he claims it as noted above. It would thus appear; 
to date from 1819 only, and not to interfere with Chimaphila." 



J Revis. Gen. 38 



* 



344 ILLUSTEATEB GUIDE TO BEITISH MOSSES* 

on others. That they have not yet arrived at any common basis of 
action has been sufficiently shown above, and I have dealt with this 
more fully in a paper in Natural Science for October, 1892 (pp. 610- 
623) — a paper which I mention here because, not having received 
any separate copies for distribution, I was unable to call the atten- 
tion of botanists to it, and it has thus been overlooked by those who 
study nomenclature : notably by Dr. Kuntze, in the third part of 
his Revisio, of which a notice will soon appear in these pages. 
"While deprecating a false conservatism, or the adoption of con- 
venience as a principle of action, I am convinced that the chief 
results of the action of the younger American botanists will be the 
addition to our already overburdened synonymy of a vast number of 
absolutely useless names, many of them shown to be 
those who are responsible for their invention. 

I had intended to notice two or three other matters connected 
with nomenclature, but these must be deferred for the present. 

James Britten. 



untenable 



"ated Guide to British Mosses; with Keys to the Genera and 
Species. By the Kev. H. G. Jameson, M.A. 1893. East- 
bourne : published by the Author at 6, College Boad. Price 
7s. 6d., post-free. Pp. 80 ; 59 plates. Cloth. 



<< 



What 



^^ ^^ ■■ ^^ 44 LB w \_J ill u\ g ii i 

question put to us, and as often have found it impossible to answer 
oft hand. So much depends upon the requirements of the person 
who asks it. Usually he is thinking of taking up the study of 

u fj Mosse *' and makea ** an essential condition that the book 
should be well illustrated and cheap—two things hitherto incom- 
patible. In such a case we make a point of advising the would-be 
bryologist to increase the initial outlay, and buy some three or four 
books the relative merits and demerits of which we then proceed to 



One of the books which we have most strenuously recommended 

is Mr. Jameson s Key to the Genera and Species of British Mosses, 

which was originally published in this Journal in the year 1891, 
and afterwards issued as a separate publication. It was an original 
and ingenious scheme for simplifying the discrimination of our 
Mosses, and as such was a great advance upon the work of his pre- 
decessors For they attached all importance to the anatomy of the 
fruit, and so failed to be of any assistance to the beginner " with 
regard to such common and easily distinguished Mosses as Thuidium 
tamaiscmum, the Hylocomiums, Mnium iindulatum, &c, which," 

Sthi; f ° n P oi ? ted ^ "*H1 P^bably be among the first he 
on H?I X l° n l °l Whl 1 ch are llkel ? t0 be in fruit -" Mr. Jameson, 

cW«^ a*" d ' \J Se . lecting for his Ke y a9 far as Possible such 
1 ■ tes as cai \ be observed even in barren specimens," made it 

fts it^ 6 8tU l ent t0 Speedil y re£er «**»* a *y British moss to 
its pi oper genus and species. 

Having launched the Key, the enterprising author set to work 



ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO BRITISH MOSSES. 345 

■ 

to improve upon it, and now has put before the world the result of 
his labours — an Illustrated Guide to British Mosses, in which the 
Key has "been thoroughly revised, and in great part rewritten' 1 
and amplified in various ways. For instance, each genus has an 
introductory heading touching on the distinguishing characters of 
the British species, and conveying valuable hints as to how the 
student may avoid such pitfalls as beset him. 

The introduction forms a new feature. Chapters i.-vi. deal with 
the general structure of the moss plant, and are illustrated by the 
first seven plates, containing 135 figures. Chapter vii., entitled 
"Practical Examination of Specimens, " mentions what apparatus 
is required, and the method of using it. But the greatest improve- 
ment is the liberal employment of plates — 59 in number, and 
containing over 2400 figures, to illustrate all the species. In them 
we find a practical illustration of the author's industry and thorough- 
going carefulness. For he has not only made his drawings direct 
from nature by means of the camera lucida, but has himself litho- 
graphed them to prevent their losing correctness in course of being 
transferred to the stone by some unbryological hand. He has very 
wisely adopted a uniform scale of magnification throughout : thus 
leaves are enlarged 15 times, leaf-apices 60 times, and leaf-cells 
180 times, "so that the figures show at a glance not merely their 
shape, but their comparative size." The nomenclature of Schim- 
per's Synopsis is used ; and the number of British species appears 
to be 576, which happens to be the number given in Hobkirk's 
Synopsis. On the one hand, some species are added to the Flora 
e. g., Hypniim revolutum Lindb. (which is synonymous with Stereodon 
revolntus Mitten, Musci Indiae Orientalis, Journ. Linn. Soc. Supp. 1859, 
p. 97, and with Hypnum Heuflcri Juratzka) was discovered on Ben 
Lawers in 1890 by Mr. Jameson. As for Fissidens rivularis Spruce, 
Rhabdoweissia crenulata Jameson ( = Didymodon crenulatus Mitten, 
I.e. p. 23, = Oncophorus crenulatus Braithw.), and certain Bryums, 
they have already gained recognition in Braithwaite's British Moss- 
Flora. On the other hand, some forms of Bryum, Orthotrichum, 
Ulota, Campylopus, &c, which stand as species in Hobkirk's Synopsis, 
are lowered to the position of varieties. 

In conclusion, we feel it our duty to point out that the printing 
is not as good as could be desired. The small type of the key is 
clear enough, but the larger type of the generic headings is 
in places distressing to the eyes, suggesting that it was not 
properly cleaned or inked ; and the capitals composing the generic 
names on pp. 65-69 undulate to a painful degree. But, excepting 
this and a few misprints (e.g., Rhynchosteginm shorn of its second 
"h" some eight or nine times), we regard the book as entirely 
satisfactory, and cordially recommend it as a specimen of ingenious 
and industrious workmanship, and as affording most serviceable 
and valuable aid to all who are interested in our British Moss-Flora. 

A. Gepp. 



346 ICONES ORCHIDEARUM AUSTRO-AFRICANUM. 



Icones Orchidearum Axistro- Africanum extra-tropicarum ; or, figures, 

with descrijitions , of extra-tropical South African Orchids. By 

Harry Bolus, F.L.S Vol. i. Part i. London : W. Wesley 
& Son. Price £1 Is. Od. 

These fifty excellent plates and descriptions illustrating the 
Cape Flora are indeed welcome. The species selected range through 
the whole order from Li par is to Disa and Pterygodium, and we pre- 
sume the same arrangement will obtain in subsequent parts. Why 
does not Mr. Bolus monograph the order in order, a task for which 
he is eminently qualified, and by which he would confer a still 
greater boon on botanists throughout the world, as well as on 
those field-botanists, students, and lovers of nature in South 
Africa to whom he trusts his book will be of service. Scattered 
Jones'' are of course all very well where nothing better is to be 
had, but Mr. Bolus must have ready to hand, or could at any rate 
procure with comparative ease, the materials for this part of a 
much-needed "Mora." There is a tradition which the younger 
botanists have received from their fathers of a continuation of the 
flora Capeims, of which, so the story runs, portions have been 
elaborated by various workers ; but, alas ! like other great works, it 
remains, and seems likely to remain, incomplete. 

The chief value of the present work consists in the fact that 
nearly all the drawings are from living specimens. One envies the 
fortunate workers who can get fresh plants for their dissections ; 
certainly, as the author remarks in the first lines of his Preface, few 
orders stand more in need of such illustration than Orchids. It is 
tTLM edlous ' ° ften a hi 8% unsatisfactory or almost hopeless, 

Tl p intW l fl °T S 2? C ° mplex in detail from a soppy mess, 
in 1^ ° ' ° - 1S &h °, the artist ' has done his ™rk admirably ; 
whole whn S pM S g fT n ' wh f e P° ssibl e- a ^etch of the plant as a 
few biit rl , fl T r , aDd ltS Parts are ver y fu % illustrated. In 

^^waryat dl - ction * are ^ so " as to somewhat 



xz r s of t of r ^wwc uitfeSgh 

Til ZZ htX th V°l™ r ^ stem, leaf, flower, lip, or column. 

wise Referable Per & 0Ured plate ' &nd is ' we think ' other " 

Several new species are described ; two small Angracums a 

Seenus P°JT h °l S u tyriUm and ^<while thaSSng 
h So ™ V ' Wh - Ch ^^ the chara °ters of the two last , 
sneci^nf^ C ' rec r eS A n addition in P « B °Mni„ a solitary 
(W pin- i ° h T - 0Und ^ Prof ' Bodkin on the Muizenberg, 
^cePdfnT 9 a ' e ^ ly m 1890 ' Further sear <* iu the same and 
ZS& »7m h R S i Pr ° Ved / ruitleSS : a somewhat remarkable 

fe'nd o e nly on S^^fS"}' *" *"*« ^^ 
found th* loll specime i u ot tbe fi «fBt species, P. appressa. Kraus 

as known ufZ * g T? *"enty.U> w years after Burchell, but, so far 
Mr ffloh^^r* bGen d T V ? red smce m ^ recenti;, when 

^S^^^^ n ^^^ C0llect - who is miing an 

v.u* mrougn ooutn Atrica, came across a couple of plants. 



LES ORCHIDEES, MANUEL DE i/AMATEUR. 847 

Apropos of the plate of Pachites Bodkini (Tab, 26), we note that the 
indicating figures 3 and 4 have become transposed, so that the lip 
is described as "one of the petals," and vice versa. This is the only 
mistake of the kind we have noticed in looking through the book. 
BrowTileea, another genus of the Disa affinity, but differing in the 
adhesion of the lateral petals to the odd sepal, and the form of the 
insignificant lip, is enriched by the description of a new species and 
its variety, major. Disa itself supplies a larger proportion of Icones 
than any other genus, tabs. 27-39 being devoted to it, while the 
subtribe Disece is very predominant. 

We can enlighten Mr. Bolus on one point. He says of Pogonia 
purpurata (t. 12), "the original description was based upon a plant 
in Bonder's herbarium supposed to have been found in the Maga- 
liesbergen, whence we may infer that it was most probably collected 
by Zeyher." It has since been found by Mr. Culver, and though 
Mr. Bolus has not seen any authenticated specimen, he has little 
doubt of their identity, as Mr. Culver's specimens agree very well 
with Reichenbach's brief description, and no other Pogonia is known 
from South Africa. We have in the British Museum Herbarium a 
Pogonia collected by Zeyher (No. 1584), evidently identical with 
that figured in the Icones. a. B. Rendle. 



Les Orchidees, manuel de V Amateur. D. Bois. Paris : Bailliere & 

fils. 1893. 12 mo, pp. viii, 323. Price 4 francs. 

Messrs. Bailli£re's " Biblioth&que des Connaissances utiles" 
contains some useful handbooks, and the one now before us is an 
addition to their number. Orchids which for many years were to 
be found only in few collections, have become, in the author's 
words, " les fleurs a la mode." Orchid amateurs are now legion, 
and it is on their behalf that M. Bois has interested himself. 
His book is divided into two parts, the first, Orchids from a 
botanical point of view, comprising 282 pages ; and the second, 
Orchids from a horticultural point of view, occupying about a 
score ; while at the end is a glossary of technical terms. 

In a few short chapters the author gives a brief but clear, and 
for his purpose sufficiently full, account of the systematic position, 
morphology, and geographical distribution of the family. Then 
follows a synoptic table for running down the genera, in which a 
number of rough explanatory woodcuts will no doubt be a help. 
After a list, defining the abbreviations of names of botanists and 
orchidophilists, with one lieutenant-colonel, come two pages of 
" principal works treating of Orchids," in which we notice some 
serious omissions. We look in vain for mention of Lindley's 
works, which, though only to be purchased with difficulty, are 
generally accessible, and certainly valuable. Reichenbach's Xenia 
Orchidacea is quoted, but not the Otia Botanica; and "Manual of 
Orchidaceous Plants (Veitch & Sons), London, 1887" is not an 
accurate citation of the excellent series of manuals for which 
Messrs. Veitch are responsible. We fear M. Bois is not up to date 
in literature : has he not heard of the Orchid Review ? and does he 



348 D. JOSEPH GOTTLIEB KOLREUTER'S VORLAUFIGE NACHRICHT?. 

not subscribe to Miss Woolward's illustrated monograph of Mas- 
devalUa, several parts of which have appeared during the last two 
years? Chapter vi., "Ornamental Orchids," takes up nearly the 
whole of the book. It is a list of the most ornamental orchids, 
with such descriptions of the genera and species, and other in- 
formation, as would interest or help those for whom the book is 
intended. Hints on cultivation are supplied, and references to 
figures of the different species. Illustrations are occasionally given, 
many of which are good, but some not. "Useful Orchids" neces- 
sarily forms but a short chapter, there being, besides a few drugs, 
only three worthy of mention, Vanilla, Salep, and Angracwn fra- 
grans, the leaves of which, when dried, "have a very pleasant smell. " 
Part ii. begins with a chapter on the monetary value of orchids, 
from which we learn little, save that in certain years certain 
orchids have fetched shockingly high prices. We know nothing of 
orchid cultivation, but should like to have seen more than about 
sixteen pages devoted to its consideration in a handbook like the 
present, and fear that some purchasers will feel similarly dis- 
appointed. On the whole, however, M. Bois has produced a useful 
little book, which the publishers have sent out in a handy form. 

A. B. Bendle. 



Pjianzen betrefft 



liiujige 



vebst Forsetzungen 1, 2, & 3. (1761-1766.) Herausg. v. 

W.rFEFFER. Leipzig : W. Engelmann. 1893. 8vo,pp.266. 
Price 4 Marks. 

This neat little volume appears as No. 41 of a series entitled 

oir ^ as f k ^ d ^.^ a ^ Wissenscllaftea . ,, edited by W. Ostwald, 
and published by Wilhehn Engelmann. Important and epoch-making 
works of men like Galileo, Kant, Helmholtz, Berzelius, Lavoisie* 
and our fellow-countryman, Dalton, form the subject of previous 
volumes ; but among the forty-two that have already been issued 
™ChZ fr I *T? others ° f botanical interest, de Saussure's 

UtiemiCai InvesfclOTli.irma nn Pln«+ Kf. >» -• a , t. it 



Investigations 



h*ZC™„ Z* .. 1Mil ' me > m two Parts. It would 

fZJ!v ™l th J , r \T tl0n 0f its ~ntenaiy to have reproduced 
iZfitl \ 0n i erM bot *' a work of more general interest and 
more easily to be comprehended than, for instance, a treatise on 

benzo^aTd ^ ol ^ hedron ' or investigations on the radicals of 



whprP w^f aS b ° m *i 17BS > in the SwaDiaQ ^wn of Sulz, 
THM7?f? 7 " SeVen f arS i^ ter he P roduc ed bis first plant-hybrids. 
I? u ? f ari J ed on bis researches partly at Sulz, partly at 

t-,alw, in Wurtembflw in Ti* a „u «*,•„„ r^..,..' , -.' * -rJ 



"Wurtemberg 



1 7fid ttii v • i ,r?^' *" f f • Acnatius Partner's garden. From 

Natura B fJtf* 5 18 ° 6 , he resided at Carlsruhe as ^ofessor of 
S f ™J' He made many careful experiments and obser- 

de IcSL ?l^- SeXUallt ? ^ b y bridi ^tion of plants, which he 

the firtt t «Ll ^ SCU T ^ l he3e f0Ur tract3 * P ' effer ™y* be was 

an hnl P i I P lant ; h y brids from a scientific point of view, 
an nonour claimed hv t.im o„^ n .„ ~e xr._ ™- £. : - t . ' 



FairphiM <i7im — i J rtl ^rs oi tne biographical Index for 

Hairchdd (1719); at any rate, Kolreuter's work on hybridisation 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 



849 



supplied Nageli with many arguments for his general conclusions, 
and still forms the basis of the whole question. He was thoroughly 
convinced of the importance of hybrids in relation to the sexuality 
of plants, and put beyond doubt the fact of their sexual repro- 
duction, explaining it as clearly as was possible with the methods 
then at hand. With microscopy still in its infancy, we cannot 
wonder if some of his observations on the structure and behaviour 
in fertilisation of the pollen grain led him to adopt incorrect views. 
He anticipated Sprengel's researches when he emphasised the fact 
that in many flowers honey-collecting insects disturb the stamens, 
and are necessary for pollination ; and exemplified the principle of 
reversion when by continued pollination of successive hybrids with 
pollen from one parent only, he practically reproduced that parent. 
There is, however, no need to review Kolre liter's work, for which, 
with its many points of interest, we would refer the student to the 
present handy edition. A. B. Kendle. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 






Annals of Botany (dated Sept. : issued Oct.). — G. J. Peirce, 
1 Structure of Haustoria of Phanerogamic Parasites ' (3 pi.).— F. 0. 
Bower, ' Structure of Axis of Lepidostrobus Brownii Schimp.' 
(2 plates). — R. J. Harvey Gibson, « Siliceous deposit in Cortex of 
Selaginella' (1 plate). — M. T. Masters, ' Synanthy in Bellis.' — 
E. H. Acton, « Changes in Reserve Materials of Wheat on keeping.' 
P. Groom, « Aleurone-layer of Seed of Grasses.' — J. B. Fanner, 
• Nuclear Division in Pollen-mother-cells of Lilium Martagon.' — 
0. Stapf, « The genus Trematocarpus .' — A. H. Church, ' A Marine 



Fungus.' 



?/ 



A. Bennett, 'Flora of 



East Sutherland.'— J. Roy, ' Scottish Desmidiea.' 

Bot. Centralblatt. (Nos. 39-44). — H. Heiden, ' Anatoinische 
Charakteristik der Combretaceen.' 

Botanical Gazette (Sept. 15). — C. G. Bessey, ' Evolution and 
Classification.'— ■ Botany at the World's Fair.' 

Bulletin de VHerb. Boissier (No. 9). — G. Schweinfurth & P. 
Ascherson, ' Prioritise Floras Marmaricae.' — A. Rodrigue, ' Sur la 
structure du tegument seminal des Polygalacees.' — L. Radlkofer, 

Serjania aluligera, S. lateritia, S. didijmadenia, spp.nn. — A. Sertorius, 
1 Zur Kenntniss der Anatomie der Comacece.' 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club (Sept.). — T. A. Williams, ■ Lichens of 
the Black Hills. 1 — G. F. Atkinson, ' Symbiosis in roots of Ophio- 
glossacece.' — L. H. Pammel, ' Crossing of Cucurbits.' 

Erythea (Oct.). — J. B. Ellis & B. M. Everhart, < New W. 
American Fungi. 1 — E. L. Greene, ' Nomenclature.' 

Gardeners' Chronicle (Sept. 30). — Casimiroa edulis (fig. 63). 
(Oct. 7). C. T. Druery, 'Lastrea montana.' — (Oct. 14). Gladiolus 
platyphyllus Baker, sp. n. 



850 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

Irish Naturalist (Oct.). — G. Pirn & R. J. M'Weeney, ■ Fungi of 
Dublin District, ' 

Jour